Presentation on theme: "Digitale medier: formidling og design 12. april Spil."— Presentation transcript:
Digitale medier: formidling og design 12. april Spil
Oversigt Spilteori og –analyse Kage v. underviserne Fremlæggelse af spilanalyse v. Axel, Emma- Catrine og Eva Marie
Hvad er computerspil for en størrelse? De må pr. definition være medier af tredje grad Her er et eksempelet eksempel Er de en form for kommunikation (altså udveksling af meddelelser)?
Transmissionsmodellen Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1963). The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Original Publication: 1949, ISBN: P. 7.
Eller? A ritual view of communication is directed not towards the extension of messages in space but toward the maintenance of society in time; not the act of imparting information but the representation of shared beliefs (Carey p. 18)
Er de en form for kommunikation som ritual? One must examine communication […] as the primary phenomena of experience and not as something ”softer” and derivative from a ”realer” existent nature (Carey p. 26). Hvordan opleves World of Warcraft af spillerne? Som en primær virkelighed eller som en udvandet udgave af en udenforliggende virkelighed?
Er WoW en repræsentation for eller repræsentation af virkeligheden? A blueprint of a house in one mode is a representation ”for” reality: under its guidance and control a reality, a house, is produced that expresses the relations contained in reduced and simplified form in the blueprint. There is a second use of a blueprint, however. If someone asks for a description of a particular house, one can simply point to a blueprint and say, ”That’s the house.” (P. 29)
Eller er de noget tredje? Simulation of face-to-face communication serves several interrelated purposes in mediated communication… (Hjarvard p. 230) Er computerspil simulationer? Reeves, B., & Nass, C. (1996). The media equation how people treat computers, television, and new media like real people and places. Stanford, Calif.; Cambridge: CSLI Publications/Cambridge University Press.
Purposes of simulation of f2f communication Comprehensibility (we understand what’s going on) Ontological security (we feel secure) Transparent immediacy (we forget there is a medium) Enhances sense of embodied presence (we are there in the ’instance’ with Leroy) Invites social and natural responses (Goddammit, Leroy!) Integrates in the habitual practices of everyday life (playing in a serious guild takes a lot of time from other activities, though) Adds an element of sociability (Leroy, you moron!) (Hjarvard p ) Thompson, J. B. (1997). The ¤media and modernity a social theory of the media (Reprint.). Cambridge: Polity Press.
The potential of games or ludologists vs. narratologists the potential of games is not to tell a story but to simulate: to create an environment for experimentation environment for experimentation Narrauthors have executive power: they deal with particular issues. On the other hand, simauthors behavore more like legislators: they are the ones who craft laws. They do take more authorial risks than narrauthors because they give away part of their control over their work (Frasca)
Er spil fortælling? Tænk på eksemplet med Leroy Jenkins… Er der en fortælling med begyndelse, midte og slutning? Er der tabere og vindere?
The complete theory of video games Games have goals. Goals provide challenge to players. It is the mental challenge of a game that provides the fun. If the challenge is right, the player is in a state of flow. (If the challenge is too easy, the player is bored, if the challenge is too hard, the player is frustrated.) (Juul) Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience (1st). New York: Harper & Row. ISBN:
Caillois’ opdeling af spil Caillois, R. (2001). Man, play and games (M. Barash, Trans.). Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Original Publication: 1961
New options in video games Games without enforced goals will not replace the classic goal- oriented game, but they open for a wide range of new player experiences as seen in the two quite similar games of Sims 2 and Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. This is the new style in video games, and an illustration of how contemporary video games are severing the ties to their historical roots in the arcade game, becoming something new and unique, open and expressive (Juul)