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Psi-Blast Morten Nielsen, CBS, BioCentrum, DTU. Objectives Understand why BLAST often fails for low sequence similarity See the beauty of sequence profiles.

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Presentation on theme: "Psi-Blast Morten Nielsen, CBS, BioCentrum, DTU. Objectives Understand why BLAST often fails for low sequence similarity See the beauty of sequence profiles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psi-Blast Morten Nielsen, CBS, BioCentrum, DTU

2 Objectives Understand why BLAST often fails for low sequence similarity See the beauty of sequence profiles –Position specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) Use BLAST to generate Sequence profiles Use profiles to identify amino acids essential for protein function and structure

3 What goes wrong when Blast fails? Conventional sequence alignment uses a (Blosum) scoring matrix to identify amino acids matches in the two protein sequences

4 Blosum scoring matrix A R N D C Q E G H I L K M F P S T W Y V A 4 -1 -2 -2 0 -1 -1 0 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -1 1 0 -3 -2 0 R -1 5 0 -2 -3 1 0 -2 0 -3 -2 2 -1 -3 -2 -1 -1 -3 -2 -3 N -2 0 6 1 -3 0 0 0 1 -3 -3 0 -2 -3 -2 1 0 -4 -2 -3 D -2 -2 1 6 -3 0 2 -1 -1 -3 -4 -1 -3 -3 -1 0 -1 -4 -3 -3 C 0 -3 -3 -3 9 -3 -4 -3 -3 -1 -1 -3 -1 -2 -3 -1 -1 -2 -2 -1 Q -1 1 0 0 -3 5 2 -2 0 -3 -2 1 0 -3 -1 0 -1 -2 -1 -2 E -1 0 0 2 -4 2 5 -2 0 -3 -3 1 -2 -3 -1 0 -1 -3 -2 -2 G 0 -2 0 -1 -3 -2 -2 6 -2 -4 -4 -2 -3 -3 -2 0 -2 -2 -3 -3 H -2 0 1 -1 -3 0 0 -2 8 -3 -3 -1 -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 -2 2 -3 I -1 -3 -3 -3 -1 -3 -3 -4 -3 4 2 -3 1 0 -3 -2 -1 -3 -1 3 L -1 -2 -3 -4 -1 -2 -3 -4 -3 2 4 -2 2 0 -3 -2 -1 -2 -1 1 K -1 2 0 -1 -3 1 1 -2 -1 -3 -2 5 -1 -3 -1 0 -1 -3 -2 -2 M -1 -1 -2 -3 -1 0 -2 -3 -2 1 2 -1 5 0 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 F -2 -3 -3 -3 -2 -3 -3 -3 -1 0 0 -3 0 6 -4 -2 -2 1 3 -1 P -1 -2 -2 -1 -3 -1 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 -1 -2 -4 7 -1 -1 -4 -3 -2 S 1 -1 1 0 -1 0 0 0 -1 -2 -2 0 -1 -2 -1 4 1 -3 -2 -2 T 0 -1 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -1 1 5 -2 -2 0 W -3 -3 -4 -4 -2 -2 -3 -2 -2 -3 -2 -3 -1 1 -4 -3 -2 11 2 -3 Y -2 -2 -2 -3 -2 -1 -2 -3 2 -1 -1 -2 -1 3 -3 -2 -2 2 7 -1 V 0 -3 -3 -3 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 3 1 -2 1 -1 -2 -2 0 -3 -1 4

5 Alignment scoring matrices Blosum62 score matrix. Fg=1. Ng=0? LAGDSD F I G D S L

6 Alignment scoring matrices Blosum62 score matrix. Fg=1. Ng=0? Score =2-1+6+6+4=17 LAGDSD F0-2-3 -2-3 I2-4-3-2-3 G-4060 D-4-2606 S-210040 L4-4 -2-4 LAGDS I-GDS

7 What goes wrong when Blast fails? Conventional sequence alignment uses a (Blosum) scoring matrix to identify amino acids matches in the two protein sequences This scoring matrix is identical at all positions in the protein sequence! EVVFIGDSLVQLMHQC X X AGDS.GGGDSAGDS.GGGDS

8 When Blast works! 1PLC._ 1PLB._

9 When Blast fails! 1PLC._ 1PMY._

10 When Blast fails

11 Sequence profiles In reality not all positions in a protein are equally likely to mutate Some amino acids (active cites) are highly conserved, and the score for mismatch must be very high Other amino acids can mutate almost for free, and the score for mismatch should be lower than the BLOSUM score Sequence profiles can capture these differences

12 What are sequence profiles?

13 Anchor positions Binding Motif. MHC class I with peptide

14 SLLPAIVEL YLLPAIVHI TLWVDPYEV GLVPFLVSV KLLEPVLLL LLDVPTAAV LLDVPTAAV LLDVPTAAV LLDVPTAAV VLFRGGPRG MVDGTLLLL YMNGTMSQV MLLSVPLLL SLLGLLVEV ALLPPINIL TLIKIQHTL HLIDYLVTS ILAPPVVKL ALFPQLVIL GILGFVFTL STNRQSGRQ GLDVLTAKV RILGAVAKV QVCERIPTI ILFGHENRV ILMEHIHKL ILDQKINEV SLAGGIIGV LLIENVASL FLLWATAEA SLPDFGISY KKREEAPSL LERPGGNEI ALSNLEVKL ALNELLQHV DLERKVESL FLGENISNF ALSDHHIYL GLSEFTEYL STAPPAHGV PLDGEYFTL GVLVGVALI RTLDKVLEV HLSTAFARV RLDSYVRSL YMNGTMSQV GILGFVFTL ILKEPVHGV ILGFVFTLT LLFGYPVYV GLSPTVWLS WLSLLVPFV FLPSDFFPS CLGGLLTMV FIAGNSAYE KLGEFYNQM KLVALGINA DLMGYIPLV RLVTLKDIV MLLAVLYCL AAGIGILTV YLEPGPVTA LLDGTATLR ITDQVPFSV KTWGQYWQV TITDQVPFS AFHHVAREL YLNKIQNSL MMRKLAILS AIMDKNIIL IMDKNIILK SMVGNWAKV SLLAPGAKQ KIFGSLAFL ELVSEFSRM KLTPLCVTL VLYRYGSFS YIGEVLVSV CINGVCWTV VMNILLQYV ILTVILGVL KVLEYVIKV FLWGPRALV GLSRYVARL FLLTRILTI HLGNVKYLV GIAGGLALL GLQDCTMLV TGAPVTYST VIYQYMDDL VLPDVFIRC VLPDVFIRC AVGIGIAVV LVVLGLLAV ALGLGLLPV GIGIGVLAA GAGIGVAVL IAGIGILAI LIVIGILIL LAGIGLIAA VDGIGILTI GAGIGVLTA AAGIGIIQI QAGIGILLA KARDPHSGH KACDPHSGH ACDPHSGHF SLYNTVATL RGPGRAFVT NLVPMVATV GLHCYEQLV PLKQHFQIV AVFDRKSDA LLDFVRFMG VLVKSPNHV GLAPPQHLI LLGRNSFEV PLTFGWCYK VLEWRFDSR TLNAWVKVV GLCTLVAML FIDSYICQV IISAVVGIL VMAGVGSPY LLWTLVVLL SVRDRLARL LLMDCSGSI CLTSTVQLV VLHDDLLEA LMWITQCFL SLLMWITQC QLSLLMWIT LLGATCMFV RLTRFLSRV YMDGTMSQV FLTPKKLQC ISNDVCAQV VKTDGNPPE SVYDFFVWL FLYGALLLA VLFSSDFRI LMWAKIGPV SLLLELEEV SLSRFSWGA YTAFTIPSI RLMKQDFSV RLPRIFCSC FLWGPRAYA RLLQETELV SLFEGIDFY SLDQSVVEL RLNMFTPYI NMFTPYIGV LMIIPLINV TLFIGSHVV SLVIVTTFV VLQWASLAV ILAKFLHWL STAPPHVNV LLLLTVLTV VVLGVVFGI ILHNGAYSL MIMVKCWMI MLGTHTMEV MLGTHTMEV SLADTNSLA LLWAARPRL GVALQTMKQ GLYDGMEHL KMVELVHFL YLQLVFGIE MLMAQEALA LMAQEALAF VYDGREHTV YLSGANLNL RMFPNAPYL EAAGIGILT TLDSQVMSL STPPPGTRV KVAELVHFL IMIGVLVGV ALCRWGLLL LLFAGVQCQ VLLCESTAV YLSTAFARV YLLEMLWRL SLDDYNHLV RTLDKVLEV GLPVEYLQV KLIANNTRV FIYAGSLSA KLVANNTRL FLDEFMEGV ALQPGTALL VLDGLDVLL SLYSFPEPE ALYVDSLFF SLLQHLIGL ELTLGEFLK MINAYLDKL AAGIGILTV FLPSDFFPS SVRDRLARL SLREWLLRI LLSAWILTA AAGIGILTV AVPDEIPPL FAYDGKDYI AAGIGILTV FLPSDFFPS AAGIGILTV FLPSDFFPS AAGIGILTV FLWGPRALV ETVSEQSNV ITLWQRPLV Sequence information

15 Sequence Information Say that a peptide must have L at P 2 in order to bind, and that A,F,W,and Y are found at P 1. Which position has most information? How many questions do I need to ask to tell if a peptide binds looking at only P 1 or P 2 ?

16 Sequence Information Say that a peptide must have L at P 2 in order to bind, and that A,F,W,and Y are found at P 1. Which position has most information? How many questions do I need to ask to tell if a peptide binds looking at only P 1 or P 2 ? P1: 4 questions (at most) P2: 1 question (L or not) P2 has the most information

17 Sequence Information Calculate p a at each position Entropy Information content Conserved positions –P V =1, P !v =0 => S=0, I=log(20) Mutable positions –P aa =1/20 => S=log(20), I=0 Say that a peptide must have L at P 2 in order to bind, and that A,F,W,and Y are found at P 1. Which position has most information? How many questions do I need to ask to tell if a peptide binds looking at only P 1 or P 2 ? P1: 4 questions (at most) P2: 1 question (L or not) P2 has the most information

18 Sequence information - I ALAKAAAAM ALAKAAAAN ALAKAAAAR ALAKAAAAT ALAKAAAAV GMNERPILT GILGFVFTM TLNAWVKVV KLNEPVLLL AVVPFIVSV P A = 6/10 = 0.6 P G = 2/10 = 0.2 P T = P K = 1/10 = 0.1 P C = P D = …P V = 0.0 Multiple Sequence alignment

19 Information content A R N D C Q E G H I L K M F P S T W Y V S I 1 0.10 0.06 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.09 0.01 0.07 0.11 0.06 0.04 0.08 0.01 0.11 0.03 0.01 0.05 0.08 3.96 0.37 2 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.08 0.59 0.01 0.07 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.06 0.00 0.01 0.08 2.16 2.16 3 0.08 0.03 0.05 0.10 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.12 0.02 0.03 0.12 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.07 4.06 0.26 4 0.07 0.04 0.02 0.11 0.01 0.04 0.08 0.15 0.01 0.10 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.09 0.07 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.05 3.87 0.45 5 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.01 0.04 0.05 0.16 0.04 0.02 0.08 0.04 0.01 0.06 0.10 0.02 0.06 0.02 0.05 0.09 4.04 0.28 6 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.14 0.13 0.02 0.03 0.07 0.03 0.05 0.08 0.01 0.03 0.15 3.92 0.40 7 0.14 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.15 0.01 0.03 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.08 3.98 0.34 8 0.05 0.09 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.14 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.08 0.10 0.01 0.04 0.03 4.04 0.28 9 0.07 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.08 0.26 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.38 2.78 1.55

20 Sequence logos Height of a column equal to I Relative height of a letter is p Highly useful tool to visualize sequence motifs High information positions HLA-A0201

21 Sequence logos Height of a column equal to I Relative height of a letter is p Letters upside-down if p a < q a High information positions

22 Protein world Protein fold Protein structure classification Protein superfamily Protein family

23 ADDGSLAFVPSEF--SISPGEKIVFKNNAGFPHNIVFDEDSIPSGVDASKISMSEEDLLN TVNGAI--PGPLIAERLKEGQNVRVTNTLDEDTSIHWHGLLVPFGMDGVPGVSFPG---I -TSMAPAFGVQEFYRTVKQGDEVTVTIT-----NIDQIED-VSHGFVVVNHGVSME---I IE--KMKYLTPEVFYTIKAGETVYWVNGEVMPHNVAFKKGIV--GEDAFRGEMMTKD--- -TSVAPSFSQPSF-LTVKEGDEVTVIVTNLDE------IDDLTHGFTMGNHGVAME---V ASAETMVFEPDFLVLEIGPGDRVRFVPTHK-SHNAATIDGMVPEGVEGFKSRINDE---- TVNGQ--FPGPRLAGVAREGDQVLVKVVNHVAENITIHWHGVQLGTGWADGPAYVTQCPI Sequence profiles Conserved Non-conserved Matching any thing but G => large negative score Any thing can match TKAVVLTFNTSVEICLVMQGTSIV----AAESHPLHLHGFNFPSNFNLVDPMERNTAGVP TVNGQ--FPGPRLAGVAREGDQVLVKVVNHVAENITIHWHGVQLGTGWADGPAYVTQCPI

24 How to make sequence profiles 1.Align (BLAST) sequence against large sequence database (Swiss-Prot) 2.Select significant alignments and make sequence profile 3.Use profile to align against sequence database to find new significant hits 4.Repeat 2 and 3 (normally 3 times!)

25 Sequence profiles (1J2J.B) >1J2J.B mol:aa PROTEIN TRANSPORT NVIFEDEEKSKMLARLLKSSHPEDLRAANKLIKEMVQEDQKRMEK

26 Sequence profiles (1J2J.B) >1J2J.B mol:aa PROTEIN TRANSPORT NVIFEDEEKSKMLARLLKSSHPEDLRAANKLIKEMVQEDQKRMEK A R N D C Q E G H I L K M F P S T W Y V 1 N -2 0 6 1 -3 0 0 0 1 -3 -3 0 -2 -3 -2 1 0 -4 -2 -3 2 V 0 -3 -3 -3 -1 -2 -2 -3 -3 3 1 -2 1 -1 -2 -2 0 -3 -1 4 3 I -1 -3 -3 -3 -1 -3 -3 -4 -3 4 2 -3 1 0 -3 -2 -1 -3 -1 3 4 F -2 -3 -3 -3 -2 -3 -3 -3 -1 0 0 -3 0 6 -4 -2 -2 1 3 -1 5 E -1 0 0 2 -4 2 5 -2 0 -3 -3 1 -2 -3 -1 0 -1 -3 -2 -2 6 D -2 -2 1 6 -3 0 2 -1 -1 -3 -4 -1 -3 -3 -1 0 -1 -4 -3 -3 7 E -1 0 0 2 -4 2 5 -2 0 -3 -3 1 -2 -3 -1 0 -1 -3 -2 -2 8 E -1 0 0 2 -4 2 5 -2 0 -3 -3 1 -2 -3 -1 0 -1 -3 -2 -2 9 K -1 2 0 -1 -3 1 1 -2 -1 -3 -2 5 -1 -3 -1 0 -1 -3 -2 -2 10 S 1 -1 1 0 -1 0 0 0 -1 -2 -2 0 -1 -2 -1 4 1 -3 -2 -2 11 K -1 2 0 -1 -3 1 1 -2 -1 -3 -2 5 -1 -3 -1 0 -1 -3 -2 -2 12 M -1 -1 -2 -3 -1 0 -2 -3 -2 1 2 -1 5 0 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 1

27 Sequence profiles (1J2J.B) Blosum62 Sequence Profile >1J2J.B mol:aa PROTEIN TRANSPORT NVIFEDEEKSKMLARLLKSSHPEDLRAANKLIKEMVQEDQKRMEK

28 Example. >1K7C.A TTVYLAGDSTMAKNGGGSGTNGWGEYLASYLSATVVNDAVAGRSARSYTREGRFENIADV VTAGDYVIVEFGHNDGGSLSTDNGRTDCSGTGAEVCYSVYDGVNETILTFPAYLENAAKL FTAKGAKVILSSQTPNNPWETGTFVNSPTRFVEYAELAAEVAGVEYVDHWSYVDSIYETL GNATVNSYFPIDHTHTSPAGAEVVAEAFLKAVVCTGTSLKSVLTTTSFEGTCL What is the function Where is the active site?

29 What would you do? Function Run Blast against PDB No significant hits Run Blast against NR (Sequence database) Function is Acetylesterase? Where is the active site?

30 Example. Where is the active site? 1WAB Acetylhydrolase 1G66 Acetylxylan esterase 1USW Hydrolase

31 When Blast fails! 1K7A.A 1WAB._

32 Example. (SGNH active site)

33 Example. Where is the active site? Sequence profiles might show you where to look! The active site could be around S9, G42, N74, and H195

34 Profile-profile scoring matrix 1K7C.A 1WAB._

35 Example. Where is the active site? Align using sequence profiles ALN 1K7C.A 1WAB._ RMSD = 5.29522. 14% ID 1K7C.A TVYLAGDSTMAKNGGGSGTNGWGEYLASYLSATVVNDAVAGRSARSYTREGRFENIADVVTAGDYVIVEFGHNDGGSLSTDN S G N 1WAB._ EVVFIGDSLVQLMHQCE---IWRELFS---PLHALNFGIGGDSTQHVLW--RLENGELEHIRPKIVVVWVGTNNHG------ 1K7C.A GRTDCSGTGAEVCYSVYDGVNETILTFPAYLENAAKLFTAK--GAKVILSSQTPNNPWETGTFVNSPTRFVEYAEL-AAEVA 1WAB._ ---------------------HTAEQVTGGIKAIVQLVNERQPQARVVVLGLLPRGQ-HPNPLREKNRRVNELVRAALAGHP 1K7C.A GVEYVDHWSYVDSIYETLGNATVNSYFPIDHTHTSPAGAEVVAEAFLKAVVCTGTSL H 1WAB._ RAHFLDADPG---FVHSDG--TISHHDMYDYLHLSRLGYTPVCRALHSLLLRL---L

36 Where is the active site? Rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase (1k7c)

37 How to do it? Example >QUERY1 MKDTDLSTLLSIIRLTELKESKRNALLSLIFQLSVAYFIALVIVSRFVRYVNYITYNNLV EFIIVLSLIMLIIVTDIFIKKYISKFSNILLETLNLKINSDNNFRREIINASKNHNDKNK LYDLINKTFEKDNIEIKQLGLFIISSVINNFAYIILLSIGFILLNEVYSNLFSSRYTTIS IFTLIVSYMLFIRNKIISSEEEEQIEYEKVATSYISSLINRILNTKFTENTTTIGQDKQL YDSFKTPKIQYGAKVPVKLEEIKEVAKNIEHIPSKAYFVLLAESGLRPGELLNVSIENID LKARIIWINKETQTKRAYFSFFSRKTAEFLEKVYLPAREEFIRANEKNIAKLAAANENQE IDLEKWKAKLFPYKDDVLRRKIYEAMDRALGKRFELYALRRHFATYMQLKKVPPLAINIL QGRVGPNEFRILKENYTVFTIEDLRKLYDEAGLVVLE

38 Using Iterative Blast

39

40

41

42 Using Iterative Blast (1st iteration)

43 Using Iterative Blast (3rd iteration)

44 HHpred webserver

45 Take home message Blast will often fail to recognize sequence relationships for low homology sequence pairs Sequence profiles contain information on conserved/variable residues in a protein sequence Sequence profiles are calculated from (multiple) sequence alignments Iterative Blast enables homology recognition also for low sequence similarity Sequence profiles give information on residues essential for protein function and protein structure

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