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+ LHCf: stato e programmi Oscar Adriani University of Florence & INFN Firenze INFN CSN1 Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "+ LHCf: stato e programmi Oscar Adriani University of Florence & INFN Firenze INFN CSN1 Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 + LHCf: stato e programmi Oscar Adriani University of Florence & INFN Firenze INFN CSN1 Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

2 + Hadronic models tuning after the first LHC data (for VHECR) O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013 PROTON IRON Auger Coll. ICRC X max as function of E and particle type T.Pierog, Cosmic QCD 2013 conference in Paris Pre LHC Post LHC

3 + Hadronic models tuning after the first LHC data (for VHECR) O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013 PROTON IRON Auger Coll. ICRC X max as function of E and particle type T.Pierog, Cosmic QCD 2013 conference in Paris Pre LHC Post LHC LHC is really useful!!!!!!!

4 + YearBeams Beam energy Proton equivalent energy in the LAB (eV) Setup 2009p - p GeV Arm1+Arm2 2009/2010p - p TeV Arm1+Arm2 2013p – Pb 4 TeV proton Arm2 2013p - p TeV Arm2 2015p - p TeV Arm1+Arm2 upgraded ? p – light ions ??? LHCf Physics Program O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

5 + Inclusive photon spectrum analysis at 7 TeV and 900 GeV “Measurement of zero degree single photon energy spectra for √s = 7 TeV proton-proton collisions at LHC“ PLB 703 (2011) 128 “Measurement of zero degree single photon energy spectra for √s = 900 GeV proton-proton collisions at LHC“ PLB 715 (2012) 298 O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013 A short review of already published results Forward  0 spectra at 7 TeV “Measurement of forward neutral pion transverse momentum spectra for √s = 7TeV proton-proton collisions at LHC“ PRD 86 (2012)

6 + DATA vs MC : comp. 900GeV/7TeV 900GeV 7TeV η > < η <8.9 O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013 None of the model nicely agrees with the LHCF data Here we plot the ratio MC/Data for the various models > Factor 2 difference

7 + DATA : 900GeV vs 7TeV Preliminary Data 2010 at √s=900GeV (Normalized by the number of entries in X F > 0.1) Data 2010 at √s=7TeV ( η >10.94) 900GeV vs. 7TeV with the same PT region Normalized by the number of entries in X F > 0.1 No systematic error is considered in both collision energies. X F spectra : 900GeV data vs. 7TeV data small- η Coverage of 900GeV and 7TeV results in Feynman-X and P T Good agreement of X F spectrum shape between 900 GeV and 7 TeV.  weak dependence of on E CMS O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

8 +  0 P T spectra for various y bin: MC/data EPOS gives the best agreement both for shape and yield. DPMJET 3.04 QGSJETII-03 SIBYLL 2.1 EPOS 1.99 PYTHIA P T [GeV] 00.6P T [GeV] 00.6P T [GeV] 00.6P T [GeV] 00.6P T [GeV] 00.6P T [GeV] MC/Data O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

9 +  0 analysis at √s=7TeV 1. Thermodynamics (Hagedron, Riv. Nuovo Cim. 6:10, 1 (1983)) 2. Numerical integration actually up to the upper bound of histogram Systematic uncertainty of LHCf data is 5%. Compared with the UA7 data (√s=630GeV) and MC simulations (QGSJET, SIBYLL, EPOS). Two experimental data mostly appear to lie along a common curve → no evident dependence of on E CMS. Smallest dependence on E CMS is found in EPOS and it is consistent with LHCf and UA7. Large E CMS dependence is found in SIBYLL Systematic uncertainty of LHCf data is 5%. Compared with the UA7 data (√s=630GeV) and MC simulations (QGSJET, SIBYLL, EPOS). Two experimental data mostly appear to lie along a common curve → no evident dependence of on E CMS. Smallest dependence on E CMS is found in EPOS and it is consistent with LHCf and UA7. Large E CMS dependence is found in SIBYLL PLB (1990) y lab = y beam - y Submitted to PRD (arXiv: ). p T spectra vs best-fit function Average p T vs y lab Y Beam =6.5 for SPS Y Beam =8.92 for7 TeV LHC O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

10 + On going analysis Neutrons at 7 TeV pp collisions The 2013 p-Pb run O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

11 + Muon excess at Pierre Auger Obs. Pierre Auger Collaboration, ICRC 2011 (arXiv: ) Pierog and Werner, PRL 101 (2008) Auger hybrid analysis event-by-event MC selection to fit FD data (top-left) comparison with SD data vs MC (top- right) muon excess in data even for Fe primary MC EPOS predicts more muon due to larger baryon production => importance of baryon measurement O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

12 + Very big discrepancies between models  Useful measurement! Performance for neutrons 35% E res 1mm Position 1.5TeV n And…. Detector performance is also interaction model dependent. Unfolding is essential to extract physics results from the measured spectra The challenge of n analysis MC Detector performance O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

13 + L 90% L 20% Layer[r.l.] hadron photon projection along the sloped line L 90% L 20% Shower development in the small calorimeter tower Neutron identification O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013 Particle Identification with high efficiency and small contamination is necessary A 2D method based on longitudinal shower development is used L 20% (L 90% ): depth in X 0 where 20% (90%) of the deposited energy is contained L 2D =L 90% L 20% Mean purity in the 0-10 TeV range: 95% Mean efficiency: ~90% L 2D

14 + ` Small tower 7 TeV pp Large tower 7 TeV pp Preliminary n spectrum O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013 Unfolding is in progress….. A paper for n performances is in preparation No efficiency correction No rapidity selection No unfolding No systematic errors

15 + Arm1-Arm2 comparison O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

16 + 3.5cm, 4.0cm The 2013 p-Pb run at  s NN = 5 TeV (Italian responsibility)  2013 Jan-Feb for p-Pb/Pb-p collisions Installation of the only Arm2 at one side (silicon tracker good for multiplicity) Data both at p-side (20Jan-1Feb) and Pb- side (1fill, 4Feb), thanks to the swap of the beams  Details of beams and DAQ – L = 1x10 29 – 0.5x10 29 cm -2 s -1 – ~ events –  * = 0.8 m, 290  rad crossig angle – 338p+338Pb bunches (min.  T = 200 ns), 296 colliding at IP1 – kHz trig rate downscaled to approximately 700 Hz – Hz ATLAS common trig. Coincidence successful! – p-p collisions at 2.76 TeV have also been taken p Pb IP8 IP2 IP1 Arm2 O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

17 + Physics in pA Nuclear effect in the forward particle production Photon spectra for different impact parameters Photon spectra at different η in p-p, p-N and p-Pb collisions Is p-Pb good test for p- atmosphere? p-p p-N p-Pb QGSJET II-04 All η 8.81< η <8.99 η >10.94 O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013 (Courtesy of S.Ostapchenko) Please observe that the impact parameter can be obtained from Atlas Lucid, for ex.! Frankly speaking…… No big feedback from ATLAS….

18 + Impact points and beam center O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre d distribution of impact point: neutrons are more peaked DAT A Determination of the beam center (BC) 2d gaussian fit Coordinates of the beam center with respect to the expected beam center  n n 2013 p-Pb run p-remnant side DATA

19 + Photon - y Neutron - x Neutron - y Photon - x PRELIMINARY Neutrons are well peaked at the beam center Forward baryon production is important to understand the muon excess [T. Pierog, K. Werner PRL (2008)]  and n impact point distributions (p-remnant) O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

20 + PRELIMINARY 25 mm 32 mm Detailed simulations with the available hadronic interaction models are on-going for a comparison with data Transportation of secondary particles from IP to detector, beam pipe structure, magnetic fields along the path and detector’s response will be taken into account Vertical bars: statistical errors p-Pb run:  spectra O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

21 + PRELIMINARY p-Pb run:  0 O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

22 + The status of the upgrades O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013 Arm1 and Arm2 are currently dismounted in Florence Calorimeter radiation hardening by replacing plastic scintillator with GSO is in progress Production and laboratory tests of the new scintillators in Japan is finished both for Arm1 and Arm2 Beam test at Ion facility (HIMAC) has been done in August 2013 Upgrade of the silicon positioning measurement system under way Rearranging Silicon layers for independent precise energy measurement Increase the dynamic range to reduce saturation effects New silicon hybrids and Kaptons are ready The assembly of new silicon modules is starting Test Beam at LNS for the absolute energy calibration of the silicon system has been assigned for 2014 Summer 2014: assembly of Arm1 and Arm2 in Florence Test beam at SPS in Autumn 2014 Re-installation in LHC at the end of 2014

23 + Silicon Calibration program at LNS Aim of the test 1. Absolute energy calibration of one silicon module by measuring the output signal vs deposited energy 2. Relative energy calibration of all PACE3 chips (96) for all the eight silicon modules 3. Scan one module at different X-Y positions to check for systematic effects To calibrate the silicon response we need to use different species of highly penetrating ions, allowing to span the whole energy range measurable with the PACE3 chips To select the ions that show a constant energy loss whilst traversing the module we have set-up a simulation of the silicon detector module using the SRIM package 1 MIP = eV/A PACE3 saturation ~600 MIP 16 O 62 MeV/A 12 C 62 MeV/A 23 silicon

24 + 1. Absolute energy calibration One module is centered on the beam spot and a scan with different energies/sources is done to cover the whole dynamic range from ~ 5- 10% to 120% of PACE3 chip (10K events per point) Beam energies/source are a compromise between the need to cover the full range and the availability and feasibility of the test at the LNS facilities Only gaseous sources have been selected and only two different energies Intensity < pps Ion source EnergyBTUSet-up time 20 Ne45 MeV/A0.252 hours 16 O45 MeV/A0.252 hours 14 N45 MeV/A0.252 hours 4 He45 MeV/A0.252 hours 13 C45 MeV/A0.252 hours 24

25 + 2. Relative calibration of each PACE3 chip A position scan (X-scan) through the 12 PACE3 x 8 modules should be done with an ion beam able to give ~ PACE3 saturation ( 12 C 45MeV/A or 13 C 62 MeV/A or 14 N 62 MeV/A are equivalent) 10K events per position (10 minutes each including set-up time) Beam spot size ~ 2-3 mm is required CS beam y-stage Support box To DAQ system x-stage Silicon module Flat cable 2 BTU Required Intensity < pps 25

26 + 3. Position scan along one strip – Y scan A position scan along one strip should be done with same beam as point 2. Useful to check for possible inhomogeneity due to the strip geometry 10 K events x 6 positions every 10 mm (60 mm long strip) for 10 minutes each including set-up time Beam spot size ~ 2-3 mm is required CS beam y-stage Support box To DAQ system x-stage Silicon module Flat cable <0.5 BTU Required Intensity < pps 26

27 + LNS panel evaluation Preferred period: Beginning of run period (May 2014) 27 LHCf-SiCal The PAC has been convinced that absolute energy calibration of the LHCf silicon detectors is important. The collaboration did an effort to reduce beam preparation in their final demand. 4 BTU of 45 A.MeV beams are allocated: 0.25x (20Ne, 16O, 14N, 4He, 13C) BTU plus 2.75 BTU of 13C. Beam attribution: 4 BTU (45 A.MeV, see text)

28 + p-p at 13TeV (2015) Main target: measurement at the LHC design energy. Study of energy scaling by comparison with √s = 900 GeV and 7 TeV data Upgrade of the detectors for radiation hardness. p-light ions (O, N) at the LHC (2019?) It allows studying HECR collisions with atmospheric nuclei. RHICf experiment at RHIC Lower collision energy, ion collisions. LOI to the RHIC committee submitted p-p collisions: Max. √s = 500 GeV Polarized beams Ion collisions: Au-Au, d-Au Max. √s = 200 GeV Possible, d-O,N (p- O,N)  Cosmic ray – knee energy. 10c m LHCf: future plan O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

29 + Nuclear modification factor at d-Au 200GeV Physics of RHICf Energy Scaling of Very Forward at p-p √s=500GeV Measurement at p-light ion collisions (p-O) √s NN =200GeV Asymmetry of Forward Neutron with polarized beams LOI submitted to the RHIC committee and nicely appreciated Physics of RHICf

30 + Conclusions We have published spectra of photons and neutral pions for pp interactions at  s = 900 GeV and  s = 5 TeV None of the hadronic interaction models that we have considered can reproduce the data within the errors, but data lie anyway between the models On-going data analysis for the hadronic component (neutrons) p-Pb run at the beginning of 2013 Successful data taking in p-remnant and Pb remnant side Common operations with ATLAS (trigger exchange) On-going data analysis (some hints for interesting results!!!) Future plan Continue and finalize the on-going data analysis (start also ATLAS/LHCf common analysis) Complete the upgrade of the detectors for radiation hardness Beam test at LNS for silicon calibration Data taking for pp collisions at  s = 13 TeV (2015) Run p-light ions at LHC (2019?) Operations at RHIC (p-O or p-N at lower energies) E …. Buon lavoro alla nuova responsabile nazionale A. Tricomi!!!!! O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

31 + Backups O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

32 + Proceedings in 2013 O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

33 + Conferences in 2013 O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

34 + x F = E/E 0 Playing a game with air shower (effect of forward meson spectra) E=E 1 +E 2 E1E1 E2E2 x F = E/E 0 pTpT DPMJET3 always over-predicts production Filtering DPMJET3 mesons according to an empirical probability function, divide mesons into two with keeping p T Fraction of mesons escape out of LHCf acceptance This process Holds cross section Holds elasticity/inelasticity Holds energy conservation Changes multiplicity Does not conserve charge event-by-event O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

35 + An example of filtering O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013 π 0 spectrum photon spectrum DPMJET3+filter 2.5x10 16 eV proton ~30g/cm 2 Vertical Depth (g/cm 2 ) AUGER, ICRC 2011 EPS-HEP 2013 July 18-24

36 + η ∞ 8.5 What LHCf can measure Energy spectra and Transverse momentum distribution of Energy Low multiplicity !! High energy flux !! simulated by DPMJET3 Gamma-rays (E>100GeV,dE/E<5%) Neutral Hadrons (E>a few 100 GeV, dE/E~30%) π 0 (E>600GeV, dE/E<3%) at pseudo-rapidity range >8.4 Front view of 100 μ rad crossing angle beam pipe shadow O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

37 + Comparison wrt MC Models at 7 TeV O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013 DPMJET 3.04 SIBYLL 2.1 EPOS 1.99 PYTHIA QGSJET II-03 Gray hatch : Systematic Errors Magenta hatch: MC Statistical errors

38 + Comparison wrt MC Models at 900 GeV O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

39 +  Mass O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013 Arm2 detector, all runs with zero crossing angle True  Mass:547.9 MeV MC Reconstructed  Mass peak: ± 1.0 MeV Data Reconstructed  Mass peak: ± 1.8 MeV (2.6% shift)

40 + Type-I Type-II Type-II at small tower Type-II at large tower Type-I LHCf-Arm1 Type-II LHCf-Arm1 LHCf-Arm1 Data 2010 BG Signal Preliminary Large angle Simple Clean High-stat. Small angle large BG Low-stat., but can cover High-E Large-P T π 0 analysis at √s=7TeV Submitted to PRD (arXiv: ). O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

41 +  0 Data vs MC O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

42 +  0 Data vs MC O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013  dpmjet 3.04 & pythia show overall agreement with LHCf data for 9.2

43 + MC study of n response O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013 E vs. at center Position resolution Correction for position dependent shower leakage Energy resolution (uniform incident on calorimeters)

44 + Proton remnant side – Photon spectra O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

45 + Proton remnant side - Neutron spectra

46 + Proton-remnant side –  0 We can detect  0 ! Important tool for energy scale And also for models check….. O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

47 + Lead-remnant side – multiplicity Please remind that EPOS does not consider Fermi motion and Nuclear Fragmentation n  Small tower Big tower O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

48 + Common trigger with ATLAS LHCf forced to trigger ATLAS Impact parameter may be determined by ATLAS Identification of forward-only events MC impact parameter vs. # of particles in ATLAS LUCID O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013

49 + LHCf: location and detector layout O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre X 0, 1.6 int INTERACTION POINT IP1 (ATLAS) Detector II TungstenScintillator Silicon  strips Detector I TungstenScintillator Scintillating fibers 140 m n π0π0 γ γ 8 cm6 cm Front Counter Arm#1 Detector 20mmx20mm+40mmx40mm 4 X-Y SciFi tracking layers Arm#2 Detector 25mmx25mm+32mmx32mm 4 X-Y Silicon strip tracking layers Energy resolution: < 5% for photons 30% for neutrons Position resolution: < 200 μ m (Arm#1) 40 μ m (Arm#2) Pseudo-rapidity range: η > zero Xing angle η > 140urad

50 + Radiation hardness of GSO No decrease up to 1 MGy +20% increase over 1 kGy ( τ =4.2h recovery) 2 kGy is expected for 350nb 14TeV pp) 1 kGy Not irradiated ref. sample Irradiated sample τ ~4.2h recovery K. Kawade et al., JINST, 6, T09004, 2011 Dose rate=2 kGy/hour (≈10 32 cm -2 s -1 )

51 + Silicon sensor Not used Normal configuration New configuration Readout Floating Readout Ground Arm2 detector New silicon Pb (40mm) e-, 200 GeV/c Different silicon bonding scheme The beam test setup 80  m implant pitch 160  m readout pitch

52 + New Silicon Module results (Quick analysis) Clearly the pulse height in the region of new configuration was reduced by a factor of 1.5 ~ 1.7 (we could naively expect 2)  The modification works fine and increases the silicon dynamic range #Strip NormalNew Silicon Lateral distribution Histogram of peak values

53 + ④ secondary interactions nucleon,  ① Inelastic cross section If large  rapid development If small  deep penetrating ② Forward energy spectrum If softer shallow development If harder deep penetrating If large k (  0 s carry more energy) rapid development If small k (baryons carry more energy) deep penetrating How accelerator experiments can contribute to VHECR? O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013 ③ Inelasticity k=1-E lead /E avail

54 + The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) pp 450GeV+450GeV  E lab ~ 2x10 14 eV pp 3.5TeV+3.5TeV  E lab ~ 2.6x10 16 eV pp 6.5TeV+6.5TeV  E lab ~10 17 eV ATLAS/LHCf LHCb/MoEDAL CMS/TOTEM ALICE O. Adriani LHCf: Stato e Programmi Bologna, 18 Settembre 2013  Total cross section ↔ TOTEM, ATLAS, CMS  Multiplicity ↔ Central detectors  Inelasticity/Secondary spectra ↔ Forward calorimeters ( LHCf, ZDCs) R. Orava, (2007) Full rapidity coverage!


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