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Trachoma Epidemiology, Vector Biology, & Environmental Risk Factors Rita Martinez March 9, 2012
Epidemiology 84 million infected worldwide in 55 countries Map of endemic areas: from International Trachoma Initiative
Vector Biology Life cycle: -egg matures and hatches (1 day) -larval feeding stages (4-10 days) -pupa stage (3-6 days) -adult fly emerges (lifespan of 15- 30 days) Three vector species: -musca sorbens (bazaar fly) -musca domestica (housefly) -musca vetustissima (bushfly) BTER Foundation
Vector Ecology Ecological Factors: -more flies in isolated human feces vs. latrines -dog, calf, and goat feces also viable for larval growth -eye-seeking behavior of vector Crenshaw
Mechanical Transmission Flies landing on faces and feeding off secretions Gilbert; International Trachoma Initiative
Direct Transmission Contact with secretions at home Contact with secretions in school/playground Mukhida, SightsaverMatthewsOrbis International
Indirect Transmission Contaminated hands, face cloths, towels, and bed sheets (fomites) also transmit infection Mukhida, Sightsavers; Orbis
Environmental Risk Factors: 6 D’s Dirt, Dust, Dung, Dry, Discharge, Density Vasquez, Orbis International Poor sanitation and hygiene; “dirty faces”
Environmental Risk Factors: 6 D’s Dirt, Dust, Dung, Dry, Discharge, Density Gilbert; International Trachoma Initiative “Dirty faces”
Environmental Risk Factors: 6 D’s Dirt, Dust, Dung, Dry, Discharge, Density Crenshaw Vector breeding ground
Environmental Risk Factors: 6 D’s Dirt, Dust, Dung, Dry, Discharge, Density Mukhida, Sightsvaers Limited access to water; compromised hygiene
Environmental Risk Factors: 6 D’s Dirt, Dust, Dung, Dry, Discharge, Density Coughing/sneezing Ocular/nasal secretions Matthews, Sightsavers
Environmental Risk Factors: 6 D’s Dirt, Dust, Dung, Dry, Discharge, Density Overcrowding fosters favorable conditions for transmission Fraser, Science Photo Library
Flies, Feces, Faces, Fingers, Fomites Gilbert; International Trachoma Initiative Environmental Risk factors: 5 F’s Serve as mechanical vectors by landing on faces, feeding off secretions, and spreading to others
Flies, Feces, Faces, Fingers, Fomites Charlottesville Environmental Risk factors: 5 F’s Vector breeding ground, presence of livestock Crenshaw
Flies, Feces, Faces, Fingers, Fomites Gilbert, International Trachoma Initiative Environmental Risk factors: 5 F’s Direct transmission through ocular and nasal secretions
Flies, Feces, Faces, Fingers, Fomites Environmental Risk factors: 5 F’s Indirect transmission through dirty hands Development Media
Flies, Feces, Faces, Fingers, Fomites Environmental Risk factors: 5 F’s Contaminated face cloths, handkerchiefs, towels, and pillowcases can transmit infection
Children under 10 Risk Populations Children are main reservoir due to poorer hygiene/contact with infected children The Carter Center
Women Risk Populations Women are main caretakers of children, 3x more likely to be infected than men Mukhida, sightsavers
Current challenges Priorities: -vector control vs. mass drug administration -targeting risk populations vs. whole communities Mukhida, Sighsavers
Current challenges Priorities: -diagnosis vs. treatment -mortality vs. morbidity -latrines vs. access to clean water Holt, Saighsavers
Current challenges Context of Humanitarian Crisis: -diagnosis vs. treatment -mortality vs. morbidity -limited capacity in refugee camps and conflict zones Holt; Sightsavers
Current challenges Context of Humanitarian Crisis: -endemic areas made inaccessible through conflict -lack of political will or instability International Trachoma Initiative
Epidemiology. Epidemiology involves: –determining etiology of infectious disease –reservoirs of disease –disease transmission –identifying patterns associated.
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