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Group Revision Essays. International Issues 2008 – Critically examine the view that China is becoming a more democratic society. China has experienced.

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Presentation on theme: "Group Revision Essays. International Issues 2008 – Critically examine the view that China is becoming a more democratic society. China has experienced."— Presentation transcript:

1 Group Revision Essays

2 International Issues

3 2008 – Critically examine the view that China is becoming a more democratic society. China has experienced much economic and social reform in recent years and while there has been some changes to the political system there has not been a significant increase in democracy. This is not to say, however, that there has been no expansion of democracy. The government has recognised pressure from the people to have more input into economic and social issues. They have responded to this by guaranteeing freedom of speech in the constitution (even if this is not granted in reality), voting at local level, an increase in legal political parties and responding positively to some single issues protests.

4 Key Arguments Voting Political parties legal and illegal Political dissidents Protests surrounding individual issues Freedom of speech in the constitution

5 Political Issues

6 2009 – Assess the impact of devolution on decision making for Scotland Devolution has had a significant affect on decision making for Scotland, it has enabled Scottish people to tackle Scottish problems. Scotland has significant issues with health problems and devolution has allowed the creation of innovative solutions for this. The introduction of the smoking ban, personal care for the elderly, minimum pricing for alcohol, display of cigarettes and free prescription charges have been the brain child of the Scottish Parliament. The Scottish Parliament has also introduced legislation to tackle inequality, they have removed tuition fees and have chosen to absorb the cost of the ‘bedroom tax’ rather than pass it on to the poor.

7 Key arguments Health – minimum pricing for alcohol (the UK parliament couldn’t get enough support to introduce this). Free prescription charges, has only been introduced in Scotland. Wealth inequality – free tuition fees – rest of UK still pays these. Scottish Parliament trying to encourage a Meritocratic society. Bedroom tax – believe it will simply make the poor, poorer.

8 Social Issues

9 2009 – Assess the impact of income on health. The impact of income on health is significant. There is much evidence to suggest that low income contributes to poor health, however, this is not the only contributing factor to poor health. Lifestyle choices also have a significant part to play, though, these are undoubtedly limited by low income. According to ONS he fact that the gap in life expectancy at birth between Kensington and Chelsea and Glasgow is 14 years for males, suggests that income is indeed a significant factor – this being a very wealthy area in comparison to a poor area. Males in the most advantaged areas can expect to live 19 years longer in ‘Good’ health than those in the least advantaged areas.

10 Key arguments Most of this essay should be about poverty and ill health Life expectancy - The gap in life expectancy at birth between Kensington and Chelsea and Glasgow is to 14 years for males. Glasgow is on a par with life expectancy in Albania and Palestine. London has had the biggest increase in life expectancy*. However, the figures reveal huge differences between the rich and poor parts of the capital. Life expectancy at birth for males in Kensington and Chelsea is 85, but just a few miles away in Lewisham and Newham male life expectancy is less than 77. Marmot Review 2010 for England said People with higher socioeconomic position in society: have a greater array of life chances and more opportunities to lead a flourishing life. They also have better health. The two are linked: the more favoured people are, socially and economically, the better their health. Physical illness - Males in the most advantaged areas can expect to live 19 years longer in ‘Good’ health than those in the least advantaged areas. Inequalities in health outcomes are apparent between areas with different levels of deprivation, with premature mortality from cancer and from coronary heart disease higher for those living in the most deprived areas. Between 2000 and 2009, Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) mortality rates in the under 75s fell by 45% in Scotland overall, but only by 36% in the most deprived areas. The Audit Scotland report, Health inequalities in Scotland says that while overall health has improved in the past 50 years, deep-seated inequalities remain. Deprivation is the key determinant, although age, gender and ethnicity are also factors.Health inequalities in Scotland Mental illness - Equally Well People struggling with poverty and low income have poorer mental health and wellbeing than those with higher incomes. There are large and increasing inequalities in deaths amongst young adults due to drugs, alcohol, violence and suicide. In a more equal UK, people could expect an extra eight and a half months of healthy life expectancy while rates of poor mental health could improve by 5%, valued at £24bn. Lifestyle choices – slide 14

11 Males in the most advantaged areas can expect to live 19 years longer in ‘Good’ health than those in the least advantaged areas. The gap in life expectancy at birth between Kensington and Chelsea and Glasgow is to 14 years for males. Glasgow is on a par with life expectancy in Albania and Palestine London has had the biggest increase in life expectancy*. However, the figures reveal huge differences between the rich and poor parts of the capital. Life expectancy at birth for males in Kensington and Chelsea is 85, but just a few miles away in Lewisham and Newham male life expectancy is less than 77. Inequalities in health outcomes are apparent between areas with different levels of deprivation, with premature mortality from cancer and from coronary heart disease higher for those living in the most deprived areas. Between 2000 and 2009, Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) mortality rates in the under 75s fell by 45% in Scotland overall, but only by 36% in the most deprived areas. Marmot Review 2010 for England said People with higher socioeconomic position in society: have a greater array of life chances and more opportunities to lead a flourishing life. They also have better health. The two are linked: the more favoured people are, socially and economically, the better their health. UCL 2012 study Health inequalities in London are severe, between London boroughs there are life expectancy gaps of 9 years for men The Audit Scotland report, Health inequalities in Scotland says that while overall health has improved in the past 50 years, deep-seated inequalities remain. Deprivation is the key determinant, although age, gender and ethnicity are also factors.Health inequalities in Scotland

12 This infographic shows evidence that wealth impacts health in Scotland. : Audit Scotland Report

13 Equally Well 2008 Scotland's health is improving. But there are big differences between rich and poor. In 2006, men could on average expect 67.9 years of healthy life and women 69 years. In the most deprived 15% of areas in Scotland, though, men could only expect 57.3 years of healthy life and women 59 years.* More babies born to mothers living in the most deprived fifth of areas have a low birth weight than those born to mothers living in the most affluent areas: 9% compared to 5%. People struggling with poverty and low income have poorer mental health and wellbeing than those with higher incomes. There are large and increasing inequalities in deaths amongst young adults due to drugs, alcohol, violence and suicide. These are just a few examples; there are many others detailed throughout this report.

14 Lifestyle Choices There are other factors which do result from individual choice, such as lifestyle choices, diet and smoking and personal circumstances, such as unemployment and wealth. Higher mortality rates are due to a range of factors; poorer diets, poor housing leading to illnesses such as asthma and hypothermia and increased rates of smoking. These disadvantages start young. Mothers who do not have a good diet when they are pregnant or who smoke or abuse alcohol or drugs or who do not get sufficient medical attention during pregnancy are at greater risk of still births. Diet – diabetes, heart disease, stroke, cancer Smoking – all of the above Lack of exercise – all of the above


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