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Children at risk What it takes to close the gap 1 Christine Davies CBE.

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Presentation on theme: "Children at risk What it takes to close the gap 1 Christine Davies CBE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Children at risk What it takes to close the gap 1 Christine Davies CBE

2  Why ‘narrowing the gap’ for children at risk is important  The challenges!  Evidence of ‘what works’  Sustaining improvement – Centre for Excellence and Outcomes in Children and Young People’s Services (C4EO) Presentation will cover:

3 Why ‘narrowing the gap’ is important in the UK and the developed world!

4  Despite 10 years of sustained investment in public services – the ‘gap’ remains steep and wide (education, health, well-being, economic success).  Much excellence, less equity – economically unsustainable in a competitive global economy  Strong sense of ‘moral purpose’ – imperative for social inclusion and community cohesion Cost of not doing it too high - individuals - families - communities - nation for:

5 What are the challenges?

6 Poverty (and social class) matter Despite all efforts, the strongest links between circumstances into which a child is born (socio- economic group) and their adult outcomes. The lower the social economic group, the higher the risk of poor outcomes. ‘Poor’ circumstances, leading to poor qualifications, transmits poverty across generations. Inequality affects us all.

7 and it starts early! 0 22 months 4 years10 years5 years6 years Low SEG Low cog at 22 m. Low SEG High cog at 22 m. High SEG Low cog at 22 m. High SEG High cog at 22 m. (Reducing Inequalities - NCB 07)

8 Overall children’s health, educational achievements and general well being are improving But strong correlation between social class and poverty with:  Low birth weight and poor physical health  Poor mental health  Poor educational outcomes  Poor school attendance  High admissions into care  Criminal activity record of school at -poor record of school attend

9 Schools matter Attainment has risen all round. Teachers recently qualified are best ever (Ofsted). Class sizes down, absenteeism down, post-16 participation up. 98% 3 and 4 year olds accessing early years education and quality improving.

10 Enjoy and Achieve: % 5+ A*to C GCSEs - by Free School Meals Source: DCSF. GCSE attainment by eligibility for Free School Meals, 2002 to 2008.

11  Performance gap between advantaged and more disadvantaged pupils, little changed in 10 years.  Those who do least well – poorer white boys, mixed race and black Caribbean boys, Irish travellers.

12 Key Stage 1 FSM 71% in reading (84%) 66% in writing (81%) Key Stage 2 FSM 63% in English (80%) 64% in Mathematics (79%) 77% in Science (88%) GCSE 27% ( 5+A*-C inc. English & Maths ) 51% Source: DCSF- KS1, KS2 and GCSE attainment by pupil characteristics in England 2008/09KS1KS2 GCSE

13 Post-16 participation low by international standards (UK 20 th out of 28 OECD countries). Significant and sustained gaps in participation in full-time education or training based on gender, ethnicity, social class and region year olds not in education, employment or training (NEET’s) (11%) and is higher than other developed countries.

14 Health matters Infant mortality falling –  But incidence of ‘low birth weight’ rising and high (11% of total) compared to other developed countries - correlates directly with social class and gives rise to poor health, development and educational attainment.

15 Obesity risen by 50% since 1997 (17% of year olds and 21% of year olds classified as obese, a rise of 10% in last 10 years). But physical activity increased (60%  80% 5-16 year olds take part in sport in last 3 years).

16 Mental Health declining – (13% year old boys and 10% girls) had clinically diagnosed mental disorders. Children living in lone parent families most vulnerable (19% compared to 9%) as well as those in poorer families (21% compared to 6%). 54% children with emotional disorders come from households with gross incomes under £300 per week

17 Teenage pregnancy at lowest level for 20 years but still high compared to other EU countries. Sexually transmitted diseases up – diagnosis of Chlamydia up by 34% (2001 – 2005).

18 Young people smoking is significantly associated with being white, low socio economic groups and being excluded from school. Drinking is declining but amount of alcohol drunk by those who do, up dramatically (5  12 units per week 1990–2006). Drug use has declined since 2001 (20%  17% year olds). But level of drinking and drugs use amongst year olds higher than other EU countries.

19 Being Safe matters Minority of offenders commit majority of offences (7% year olds for 83% offences). Offenders most likely to be victims (32%). Rates of death from injury falling, traffic accidents declining. Instability in care placements falling.

20 But... The UK has largest proportion of children in custody (as % of prison population) compared to other developed countries year olds NEET’s are more likely (15% compared to 5%) to commit offence. 25% of all children witnessed domestic violence.

21 Majority of young people ‘happy’ with their lives (89% of year olds) and are ‘moral’ (80% frown on cheating, bullying etc). Most (93% of year olds) enjoy living in their area and feel safe, although this declines at night. Children Matter

22 Nearly all teenagers view doing well at school as important… But while 94% happy with their families, 71% happy at school but 11% very unhappy at school. Most year olds are happy with their appearance (80%) and their health (90%) 50% year olds and 66% year year olds ‘volunteer’ in their local communities.

23 ‘Narrowing the Gap’ has been  A 2 year programme funded by DCSF (Dept for Children, Schools and Families).  Focussing on 0-13 years.  Across all 5 outcomes  Staying Safe  Enjoying and achieving  Being healthy  Making a positive contribution  Economic well-being

24 Included  Children from poorer socio-economic groups (including white ‘working class’ boys)  Children in Care  Children with disabilities  Children with SEN  Children excluded from school  Children with poor records of attendance at school  Children from different ethnic minority backgrounds  Young Offenders  Young Carers  Children at risk from significant harm  Children living with ‘vulnerable’ adults 30 %

25 NtG Review brought together: Best research evidence from the UK (and where relevant abroad) of what works in improving services and outcomes Worked with 100+ Local Authorities and 15,000 schools/ health / police... What does make the difference? Best quantitative data with which to establish baselines and assess progress improving outcomes Best validated local experience and practice on strategies and interventions already proved to be most powerful

26 The Narrowing the Gap Programme has tried to answer fundamental question? What is it, if applied universally and pursued relentlessly, would make a significant impact on the outcomes of vulnerable groups of children and young people?

27 NCSL Leadership Network National initiative on narrowing the gap  88 groups of leaders (from 8 to 23 in each group)  From 52 local authorities across all government regions  Focussing on wide range of issues and identifying different target groups (leadership skills of middle managers, engaging with parents, looked after children, student voice, transitions, early reading, boys writing, behaviour etc)  Looking at how effective leadership can help to narrow the gap  Starting with Audit tool, moving on to Action plans, recognising challenges and opportunities

28 Year 1 guidance – areas of focus  Moving towards early intervention and prevention (so that fewer children fall behind the rest)  Engaging and supporting parents and carers in helping their children to succeed  What children’s centres and early years settings can do to ‘narrow the gap’  What schools can do to ‘narrow the gap’  Links between children’s centres, schools and extended services to ‘narrow the gap’

29  How to strengthen local leadership and governance arrangements - both professional and political  How to strengthen systems for developing local leaders to deliver improved services based on the understanding of ‘what works’ Year 2 guidance

30 NtG Pack  Summary of research and data  Self evaluation tools for each theme  Top 12 Golden Threads  Key messages for local, regional and national Government  148 case studies of effective local practice 2 ‘packs’ of Guidance

31 What Children’s Centres and Early Years Setting can do Integrated Frontline Delivery Integrated Processes Integrated Strategy Integrated Governance All Children (Universal Services) Vulnerable Children with additional needs (Targeted Services) Children with complex, multiple needs (Intensive Targeted/ Specialist Services) Children in need of care or protection/ acute needs (Specialist Services) What needs to be in place between schools and other services Integrated Frontline Delivery Integrated Processes Integrated Strategy Integrated Governance All Children (Universal Services) Vulnerable Children with additional needs (Targeted Services) Children with complex, multiple needs (Intensive Targeted/ Specialist Services) Children in need of care or protection/ acute needs (Specialist Services) What schools can do Integrated Frontline Delivery Integrated Processes Integrated Strategy Integrated Governance All Children (Universal Services) Vulnerable Children with additional needs (Targeted Services) Children with complex, multiple needs (Intensive Targeted/ Specialist Services) Children in need of care or protection/ acute needs (Specialist Services) Effective Practice in engaging parents and carers Integrated Frontline Delivery Integrated Processes Integrated Strategy Integrated Governance All Children (Universal Services) Vulnerable Children with additional needs (Targeted Services) Children with complex, multiple needs (Intensive Targeted/ Specialist Services) Children in need of care or protection/ acute needs (Specialist Services) Shifting towards early intervention and prevention Integrated Frontline Delivery Integrated Processes Integrated Strategy Integrated Governance All Children (Universal Services) Vulnerable Children with additional needs (Targeted Services) Children with complex, multiple needs (Intensive Targeted/ Specialist Services ) Children in need of care or protection/ acute needs (Specialist Services)

32 Top 12 Golden Threads - each supported by Case Studies from across England -focussing on governance, strategy, process and front-line delivery

33 You can do it! (Expect the best) -creating a culture of high aspiration every service, every early years setting, schools, health centres, libraries, shopping malls, business -and giving children and parents access to a trusted (dependable) adult (e.g. mentor / health visitor) No child written off!

34 Together with parents (“you know your child, we know about children’s services, together we can do better”) - working in real partnership with parents and families and building on their strengths - schools support parents to create supportive home learning environments - ‘doing with, not doing unto’

35 …Parental involvement in a child’s schooling is a more powerful force than any other family background indicator such as social class or family size… and contributes to 10% or more of variation in educational achievement… (Desforges 03)

36 Through the voice and eyes of the child -ensuring children and young people’s views are listened to, their participation supported and they help shape services. -adult services more sensitive to their clients as parents and alert to the needs of children ‘Think Family’

37 Holding onto the baton -ensuring as much stability and continuity as possible, in relationships between trusted adults, with children and parents -managing those transitions that are unavoidable with care (between schools, services) -Always ‘3-way’ (child / parent / service)

38 ‘Learning to learn’ -make the building of children’s resilience a major policy objective -ensure children feel physically and emotional secure, are stimulated and engaged and able to communicate effectively -accurately identify and assess children at risk of under-achieving, and tailor support to their individual needs -celebrate success across all areas of learning

39 Leadership What matters in schools You can do it! Data - understood and acted on Strong behaviour managementTrusted, interested Adult - mentors Focus on social/emotional development – CHATTER MATTERS Engagement of children in decisions about school organisation, and their learning

40 ‘Cornflakes to Canoeing’ - extended schools -taking active steps to make extended services available to disadvantaged or vulnerable children and their families within, and beyond, the school Breakfast After school Weekends Holidays Booster classes Sports Arts Music Able and gifted

41 Extended Services work in ‘disadvantaged’ areas: Impact on: Health advice, adult learning, community activities, study support, sport, arts, music, wrap-around childcare Ref: Dyson study, Manchester University Educational Attainment at 11 and 16 years oldPost-16 participationIncidence of anti-social behaviour reduced

42 Unite to succeed – ‘sanity not vanity’ -focus on early intervention/prevention -locally based, multi-disciplinary teams -wrapping services around child and family ‘Team around the Child’ -common language, common values, common assessment

43 Multi-disciplinary Teams School & Community Hub Integrated Service Manager Family Support Worker Safeguarding Social Worker School Nurse Neighbourhood Action Team Youth Service Behaviour & Learning Support Education Welfare Primary Mental Health Worker Health Visitor School Based Staff Connexions Police Sgt School Improvement Youth Inclusion Support

44 ‘Shape up and keep fit’ -re-shaping the workforce and ensuring it is appropriately trained, supported and celebrated! -trained to work with and communicate with children and families -understand child development and child protection

45 Culture not structure -ensuring structures and processes underpinned by a culture of co-operation and high aspiration for all children (and all services) -driven by leaders who ‘walk the talk’ Shared sense of common purpose

46 From good to great – ‘passion with purpose’ -having transformational leadership in place, political and professional (local and national) -school leaders who are focussed on narrowing the gap -a clear vision communicated and communicated. -planning and processes to back it up and deliver results.

47 ‘Prove it’ – making change happen -rigorous planning and performance management -explicit focus on where the ‘gaps’ are -shared approaches to this across services, including Health -underpinned by shared data and information

48 Know ‘your’ children and ‘your’ communities

49 Describe needs of the local community Vulnerable Decayed missing or filled teethNon school attendance Foundation stage profileAchievement at KS1-4 Children attending TCDCSEN EthnicitySingle Parent Families PovertyFree School Meals Multiple DeprivationSmoking in Pregnancy Low Birth-weight babies Infant Mortality Breastfeeding Children whose first language is not English Complex Children in need Looked After Children Children excluded from school Children Not in Education Employment or Training CAMHS Substance misuse Young Offenders Teenage Conceptions Universal Numbers of children resident Number of children on school rolls Population projections Acute Children in need of protection

50 ‘It takes a community to raise a child’ -regenerating local communities (improved housing and local employment, play, safe streets) -open accessible local services -Council’s/Health services employ local people -bring together all capital funds for physical and cultural regeneration

51 Ten steps to heaven!

52 Key messages for Local Government Shared vision and clear focus on Narrowing the Gap Secure whole Council support Identify and grow ‘change champions’ and support leadership development Data – find it, share it, act on it Use C4EO and CSP programmes Employ local people inc. volunteers / apprenticeships Workforce – children and parents as partners Children’s centres and schools – at heart of early intervention and prevention Aspiration, aspiration, aspiration! Use ‘NtG’ findings – and celebrate success

53 What schools can do.... Schools are active partners in their local Children’s Trust – commissioning the services they need + playing central role as leaders of their local communities Aspiration and ambition for every child – evident throughout. School leaders ‘walk the talk’ Explicit focus on NtG – children ‘at risk’ identified / assessed + high quality tailored support Extended services embedded for all community – sports, arts, lifelong learning Parents as active partners + given help to support their child’s learning Emotional resilience + communication taught e.g. SEAL Children’s views are sought, listened to and acted onStrong links with health services + every school ‘a healthy school’ Safeguarding + child protection everyone’s business. Lead by senior staff Children’s success is celebrated – and celebrated!

54 54 Centre for Excellence and Outcomes in Children and Young People’s Services

55 C4EO helps the Sector make a difference Access to evaluated knowledge Capacity Building Events Newsletters and access to useful info Sector Specialists & Tailored Support Examples of Effective Local PracticeProgress Mapping Tools On line E-Learning Tools Local areas have a choice in which products and services will help them C4EO’s Services Available across Themes: Early Years Disability Vulnerable Children Child Poverty Safeguarding Schools and Communities Youth Families, Parents & Carers Early Intervention

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57 Suggest local practice examples

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59 The Spirit Level: why more equal societies almost always do better Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett, (Penguin, March 2009) Comparative evidence gathered from rich countries is presented on each of eleven different health and social problems: physical health, mental health, drug abuse, education, imprisonment, obesity, social mobility, trust and community life, violence, teenage births and child well-being. For all eleven of these health and social problems, outcomes are very substantially worse in unequal societies.

60 ...Or put another way If you do what you’ve always done, you’ll get what you’ve always got.

61    8 Wakley Street, London, EC1V 7QE  Contact:


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