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Chapter 6: Muscular Strength & Endurance. Muscular Strength and Endurance Defined  Muscular strength The ability of a muscle or muscle groups to exert.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Muscular Strength & Endurance. Muscular Strength and Endurance Defined  Muscular strength The ability of a muscle or muscle groups to exert."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6: Muscular Strength & Endurance

2 Muscular Strength and Endurance Defined  Muscular strength The ability of a muscle or muscle groups to exert maximal force against a resistance one time through the full ROM One repetition maximum (1RM)  Muscular endurance The ability of a muscle or muscle group to exert sub-maximal force repeatedly over a period of time  We often use muscular endurance to predict muscular strength Isometric (no movement) Isokinetic (same speed) or Isotonic (same resistance) 2

3 Benefits of Strength Training Health-Related Benefits Prevention of CVD Reduction and control of obesity & hypertension* Improved self-confidence & self-image Development of good posture Improved body comp* Improved flexibility Establishment of lifetime interest in fitness* Increased MS/ME/power Aerobic benefit w/ circuits^ *Post-pubescent-specific 3 Skill-Related Benefits –Improved ability to perform basic motor skills –Possible prevention of injuries –Greater ease & efficiency of sport skill performance –Early development of coordination & balance –Better performance on nationwide fitness tests

4 Myths About Muscular Strength and Endurance  Protein  Women and lifting  Spot training  The weight loss balance  Body building vs. weight training  Size ≠ Strength  Supplementation 4

5 Major Muscles in The Human Body

6 How the Muscles Work  Muscular contraction (pull only, no push): -cock-connect-pull-release (cross-bridge cycling) 6

7 Principles of Weight Training  Overload Doing more than you are used to  Progression Gradually increasing overload (frequency, intensity, time or some combination)  Specificity Choose activities that target desired systems  Regularity “Use it or lose it”  Individuality Start at your base fitness level, using your own goals and keep your genetics in mind  FITT guidelines ○ Frequency (how often) ○ Intensity (how hard) ○ Time (how long) ○ Type (mode) 7

8 AGES9-11 YEARS12-14 YEARS15-16 YEARS17 + YEARS FREQUENCY2 -3 days / week 2 + days / week INTENSITYVery light weight Or body weight Light WeightModerate WeightLight to heavy weight (based on type selected) TIMEAt least 1 set (may do 2 sets) 6-15 reps 20-30 minutes At least 1 set (may do 3 sets) 6-15 reps 20-30 minutes At least 1 set (may do 3 or 4 sets) 6 – 15 reps 20-30 minutes Min. 1 set 8-12 reps (based on type selected) TYPEMajor Muscle groups 1 exercise per muscle or muscle group Major Muscle groups 1 exercise per muscle or muscle group Major Muscle groups 2 exercises per muscle or muscle group Major muscle groups 8 – 10 exercises select muscular strength, power or endurance 8 FITT Guidelines Applied to Muscular Fitness Table 6.1

9  Professional position statements on youth strength training (ACSM, 2008; NSCA, 2008) ◦ Proper supervision & technique instruction are critical ◦ Focus on technique development & affective domain ◦ Emphasize a variety of activities & skill development ◦ Focus on full ROM, enjoyment, fun ◦ Avoid the use of maximal lifts with children & adolescents ◦ Sample training protocol:  Initial focus on lifting technique  High reps & light weight  1 set, 10-15 reps, 2x/wk (nonconsecutive days)  8-10 different exercises  Gradually increase load to 1-3 sets, 6-15 reps, 2-3 d/wk 9 Professional Guidelines & Recommendations (p. 103)

10 Estimating 1RM 10  Safety ◦ Lifting 1RM should ABSOLUTELY NOT be used to obtain training intensity ◦ Do NOT expose children to: ◦ Loads >70-80% estimated 1RM ◦ Explosive lifts with free weights  Calculate 1RM  6-12 rep weight  10 RM conversion (p. 102)

11 Basic Structure of Resistance Training Session  Dynamic, whole-body warm up -Not many static stretches  Total body or isolated resistance training  Cool down -Lots of static stretches 11

12 Exercise Safety Guidelines  Train all major muscle groups Large  small Large  small Opposing muscle groups Opposing muscle groups  Strengthen the core  Never lift alone  Warm-up & cool-down properly  Control speed (2-1-4 second count)  Use the full range of motion  Avoid breath-holding  Pay attention to pain and excessive fatigue

13 Strength Training Programs Can Include  Body weight exercise  Stability exercise balls  Resistance bands  Medicine balls  Strength training exercises  Core strength training  Pilates exercise system  Plyometrics  Dietary guidelines

14  It is NOT developmentally appropriate to lift heavy weights ○ Body weight training ○ Partner resistance training ○ Resistance bands ○ Medicine balls, stability balls ○ Light weight / High reps Resistance Training for Elementary Students 14

15 Things to Remember  Use training principles Progression, Overload, Specificity, Individuality, Regularity, FITT guidelines  Benefits  How muscles work  Structure of each type of workout  Safety guidelines and myths 15

16 Brian Mosier Flexibility 7 chapter

17 Flexibility The range of motion (ROM) of a single joint or a series of joints (ACSM, 2006)

18 Flexibility Concepts  Laxity Abnormal motion of a joint (↓ ligamentous stability)  Hypermobility Excess ROM around a joint (formerly “double-jointed”)  Static flexibility Reaching slowly w/o movement (seated toe touches)  Dynamic flexibility Performing PA while moving (arm swings)

19 Types of Stretching  Active (unassisted) Self-stretch; limited only by antagonist muscle(s)  Passive (assisted) Partner, gravity or implement provides stretch  Static: 10-30 secs; to point of mild discomfort  Ballistic: rapid, bouncing motions; momentum-driven  Dynamic: moving, but not bouncy/jerky (high knees)  Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF): combo active/passive; NOT 6-10 yrs  Yogic: mostly static & for trunk; CAUTION for some asanas; mind/body/spirit union

20 Benefits of Flexibility  Decreased muscle tension  Greater ease of movement  Increased ROM  Better postural alignment  Improved circulation  Prevention of spinal problems  Improved development and maintenance of motor skills  Current recommendations Controlled dynamic stretches for warm-up & static stretches for cool-down

21 Factors Affecting Flexibility  Muscle temperature: warmer is better  Age and gender: stable/↓ to 12 yr, peak 15-18 yr, F>M  Tissue interference: ↑ muscle or fat; can be improved  Genetics: maximize genetic limits w/ regular stretching  Pain: never ignore this!  Coordination and strength during active movement

22 Teaching Guidelines  Select stretches that meet lesson/unit needs  Give clear instruction  Infuse in warm-ups, cool-downs, stations, and individual student goals  Establish a regular schedule of flexibility fitness lessons  Emphasize proper form and technique* NO compet

23 Table 7.1 (p. 122) Flexibility Guidelines Frequency2-3 d/wk, preferably daily, after whole-body warm-up IntensitySlow stretch to mild discomfort and back off slightly Time2-4 stretches/muscle group; 10-30 sec ea; after warm-up TypeControlled stretching for all muscle groups (static after activity)

24 Safety Guidelines  Complete a whole-body warm-up before stretching  Use controlled movement  Hold each stretch just before the point of mild discomfort for 10 to 30 seconds  Avoid locking joints  Do not force a stretch  Do not hyperflex or hyperextend the spine while stretching from the waist only

25 25 Contraindicated Exercises  Appendix D p. 303-307

26 Summary  Flexibility is an important part of health-related fitness.  Make explicit connections for students.  Good flexibility is crucial for a healthy ROM.  Flexibility improves overall health.

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