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Esau Tovar, Ph.D. Santa Monica College C LAREMONT G RADUATE U NIVERSITY D ISSERTATION C OMMITTEE : D R. D ARYL G. S MITH, C HAIR D R. D AVID D REW D R.

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Presentation on theme: "Esau Tovar, Ph.D. Santa Monica College C LAREMONT G RADUATE U NIVERSITY D ISSERTATION C OMMITTEE : D R. D ARYL G. S MITH, C HAIR D R. D AVID D REW D R."— Presentation transcript:

1 Esau Tovar, Ph.D. Santa Monica College C LAREMONT G RADUATE U NIVERSITY D ISSERTATION C OMMITTEE : D R. D ARYL G. S MITH, C HAIR D R. D AVID D REW D R. W ILLIAM P EREZ A Conceptual Model on the Impact of Mattering, Sense of Belonging, Engagement/Involvement, and Socio- Academic Integrative Experiences on Community College Students’ Intent to Persist RP Group 2014 Excellence in Thesis/Dissertation Award

2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM PURPOSE OF THE STUDY IMPLICATIONS 4 FINDINGS 5 METHOD & RESEARCH QUESTIONS T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL

3 High attrition/low degree attainment 1

4 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Stopout & “Graduation” Rates at Community Colleges Snyder & Dillow, % 1 ST TO 2 ND YEAR RETENTION RATE FOR PUBLIC COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS 40% FOR PT 60% FOR FT American College Testing, 2011

5 Barriers to Degree Attainment / Risk Factors T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Skomsvold et al., 2011 Work Family responsibilities Low income Remediation & “cool out” Commute Part-time

6 College Student Persistence Models T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Multitude of models have been proposed to explicate the dropout process of college students Vincent Tinto’s theory of individual student departure continues to predominate the college persistence literature, emphasizing the role of: Student commitment to the institution Academic integration Social integration Criticisms: onus is on the student; applicability to ethnic/racial minorities, first- generation, community college students, low SES Alternate theoretical models ignored: sense of belonging, validation, mattering, engagement, campus climate

7 Multitude of persistence models CCs in an expanding global economy High attrition/low degree attainment 1 No single “best” solution available Reexamine college-student interactions Need to integrate leading constructs

8 1 Integrate multiple constructs impacting college student persistence into single model Assess the concomitant effect of model variables/ factors on intent to persist for diverse CC students 1 2 2

9 4 Research Questions; 5 Hypotheses Conceptual Model based on I-E-O Framework Structural Equation Modeling 3

10 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Model Specification & Assessment Data Source, Sampling: Archival data held by author from a previous study 2,347 students responded; 2,200 complete surveys; 2,088 responses kept in analysis (following univariate/multivariate outlier deletion) 41% males; 59% female; Mean age=24.5; 86% were % White; 22% Latino/a; 21% Asian/PI; 5% Black; 6% Other; 5% Multiracial; 6% declined to state; <1% AINA 52% full-time; 13% F1-Visa 14% first semester; 27% 2 semesters; 31% 3-4 semesters; 29% 5+ semesters

11 Hypothesized relationships for conceptual model T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Race/Ethnicity were modeled in multiple group invariance analyses for structural model

12 Hypothesized relationships for conceptual model T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Key Proposition: Perceived institutional commitment to students directly or indirectly impacts student perceptions of mattering, sense of belonging, institutional involvement/engagement, socio-academic integrative experiences, goal (educational) commitment, and ultimately intent to persist to degree completion. Key Proposition: Perceived institutional commitment to students directly or indirectly impacts student perceptions of mattering, sense of belonging, institutional involvement/engagement, socio-academic integrative experiences, goal (educational) commitment, and ultimately intent to persist to degree completion.

13 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Factor Descriptions: Institutional Commitment to Students: Demonstrated in institutional actions to facilitate college transition and adjustment. Actions and behaviors by institutional agents in ongoing interactions to facilitate student development in a positive learning environment. Institutional Commitment to Students: Demonstrated in institutional actions to facilitate college transition and adjustment. Actions and behaviors by institutional agents in ongoing interactions to facilitate student development in a positive learning environment. Hostile Campus Climate Experiences of isolation at the college owning to personal characteristics: gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and age). Hostile Campus Climate Experiences of isolation at the college owning to personal characteristics: gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and age). Interactions with Diverse Peers: Degree to which peer interactions with racially/ethnically diverse peers are viewed as positive and relationships are characterized as close, supportive, and available. Interactions with Diverse Peers: Degree to which peer interactions with racially/ethnically diverse peers are viewed as positive and relationships are characterized as close, supportive, and available. Socio-Academic Integrative Experiences: Reflect student interactions with institutional agents of an academic and social nature that may co-occur (Deil-Amen, 2011), in and out of the classroom, which facilitate student integration to the institution. Socio-Academic Integrative Experiences: Reflect student interactions with institutional agents of an academic and social nature that may co-occur (Deil-Amen, 2011), in and out of the classroom, which facilitate student integration to the institution. Mattering to the College Student perceptions that there are individuals at the college, who are interested in their success and well-being. This interest may be expressed affectively or behaviorally— positively and negatively. Demonstrating concern, lending attention, noticing their presence or absence, recognizing accomplishments, expressing disappointment. Mattering to the College Student perceptions that there are individuals at the college, who are interested in their success and well-being. This interest may be expressed affectively or behaviorally— positively and negatively. Demonstrating concern, lending attention, noticing their presence or absence, recognizing accomplishments, expressing disappointment. Engagement/Involvement Activities deemed as educationally beneficial practices (Kuh, 2006) facilitating student outcomes, including studying, honors courses, student leadership, volunteering. Engagement/Involvement Activities deemed as educationally beneficial practices (Kuh, 2006) facilitating student outcomes, including studying, honors courses, student leadership, volunteering. Sense of Belonging: Perceptions of belonging, fit, acceptance, or rejection at the institution. Sense of Belonging: Perceptions of belonging, fit, acceptance, or rejection at the institution.

14 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Research Questions & Analysis Summary of Research Questions: Q1, 1.1.Assessment of fit for implied measurement model for each of the seven (7) factors [Analysis: Confirmatory Factor Analysis & multiple group invariance analysis] Q2, 2.1Assessment of fit for hypothesized structural model regressing intent to persist on all variables/factors [Analysis: SEM & multiple group invariance analysis] Q3.Given a good fit for the global structural model, assess findings for 5 proposed directional hypotheses (Model Propositions) [Analysis: Direct, Indirect, Total Effects on intent to persist for ALL Students, White, Latino/a, and Asian students]

15 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Research Questions & Analysis 5 Directional Hypotheses—RQ3: H 1. Institutional commitment to students will exert a positive and direct effect on sense of belonging, mattering, involvement, goal commitment, and intent to persist. H 2. Institutional commitment to students and interactions with racially/ethnically diverse peers will positively impact sense of belonging to the institution. By contrast, perceptions of a hostile campus climate will negatively impact sense of belonging. Sense of belonging will exert a direct and positive effect on intent to persist. H 3. Institutional commitment to students and interactions with racially/ethnically diverse peers will positively impact students’ perceptions of mattering to the institution. By contrast, perceptions of a hostile campus climate will negatively impact mattering. Mattering, in turn will exert a direct positive effect on sense of belonging, involvement/engagement and socio-academic integrative experiences, and an indirect effect on intent to persist through sense of belonging, involvement/engagement and socio-academic integrative experiences. H 4. Institutional commitment to students and perceptions of mattering to the college will positively impact students’ involvement/engagement. Involvement/ engagement will exert a positive and direct effect on sense of belonging, socio- academic integrative experiences, and on intent to persist. Involvement/ engagement will exert an indirect effect on persistence through socio-academic integrative experiences and goal commitment. H 5. Perceptions of mattering to the college and involvement/engagement at the institution will positively impact socio- academic integrative experiences. Socio-academic integrative experiences will have a positive and direct effect on intent to persist, and an indirect effect mediated by goal commitment.

16 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Model Specification & Assessment Model Specification & Hypothesis Testing: Model testing via Structural Equation Modeling (AMOS) Model Estimation: Maximum Likelihood Multivariate non-normality: 2000 bootstrap sets Use Bollen-Stine corrected chi-square Model Fit: assess via various indices Chi-square to degrees of freedom ratio (< 4.0) CFI >.90-95; RMSEA <.06; SRMR <.10 Model Respecification: Evaluated standardized residuals, modification indices, expected parameter change statistic, cross-loading items Simple structure highly desired

17 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Research Questions & Analysis Research Question 1: Q1.Does the implied measurement model for institutional commitment, interactions with diverse peers, perceptions of a hostile campus climate, sense of belonging, mattering, engagement/involvement, and socio-academic integrative experiences adequately fit the observed data? If not, what respecified model results in improved model fit? [Analysis: Confirmatory Factor Analysis] Q1.1Is the respecified measurement model for race/ethnicity invariant? If not invariant, how do the measurement models differ? [Analysis: Invariance Analysis]

18 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Research Questions & Analysis Research Question 2: Q2.Does the hypothesized structural model regressing intent to persist on student background characteristics, institutional commitment, interactions with diverse peers, perceptions of a hostile campus climate, sense of belonging, mattering, engagement/involvement, socio-academic integrative experiences, and goal commitment adequately fit the observed data? If not, what respecified structural model results in improved model fit? [Analysis: SEM] Q2.1Is the hypothesized structural model for intent to persist race/ethnicity invariant? If not, how do the structural models differ? [Analysis: Invariance Analysis]

19 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Research Questions & Analysis Research Question 3: Q3.Given a good fit for the global structural model, are the following hypotheses supported? 5 directional hypotheses proposed for Q3 [Analysis: Direct, Indirect, Total Effects on Persistence for all hypotheses for ALL, White, Latino/a, and Asian students. Tables 23, 24, and 25 present summaries of the direct, indirect, and total effects ]

20 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Research Questions & Analysis Research Question 4: Q4.Is there evidence to support the notion that the constructs of involvement/ engagement, sense of belonging, mattering, perceptions of the campus climate, and peer relationships might form part of an overarching construct? [Analysis: Second-Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis]

21 Figure 2. Hypothesized relationships in conceptual model T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL

22 4

23 Findings—Research Question 1 Research Question 1: Hypothesized measurement model depicted in Figure 3 did not fit the data. Alternate respecified model of best fit was derived (Respecified Model 2; Figure 4, 5) Deleted 6 variables Goodness-of-Fit Measures Modelχ2χ2 dfχ 2 / dfCFISRMRRMSEA (90% CI) Optimal Values--≤ 4.0≥.95≤.10≤.06 Hypothesized Model: 30 Items a (with covariances between: Q70-Q82; M30-M31; AcadValidInst-InstAgents) (90% CI =.050,.059) Respecified Model 1: 27 Items (Deleted: AcadValidInst, InstAgents, Q126) (90% CI =.037,.041) Respecified Model 2: 24 Items (Deleted: M49, M61, Q70) Best-Fit Model (90% CI =.032,.037)

24 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Figure 4. Standardized coefficients for Respecified Model 2 Rejected hypothesized 7- fator, 30 item model. Retained a 7-factor, 24 item respecified model.

25 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—Research Question 1.1 Research Question 1.1: Respecified Measurement Model 2—Race/Ethnicity Invariant Exceptionally well-fitting for: ALL, White, Latino/a, Asian Albeit, small latent means differences by race were found Model Description Comparati ve Model χ2χ2 dfΔχ 2 ΔdfSig.CFIΔCFI 1. Configural model; no constraints imposed Measurement Model (Model A). All factor loadings constrained equal. 2A v < Structural Model (Model 2A with covariances among all factors constrained equal). 3 v <

26 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—Research Question 2 Research Question 2—The Structural (Conceptual) Model: Alternate respecified structural model of best fit was derived 14 of the original 36 hypothesized causal paths removed: non-significant regression weights; 13 regression paths added to the model; 2 cross-loading items were deleted; Most significant path deletions from a theoretical perspective: engagement/involvement  socio-academic integrative experiences institutional commitment to students  goal commitment socio-academic integrative experiences  goal commitment.

27 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Standardized coefficients for Respecified Structural Model on intent to persist: Model of best fit.

28 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—Research Question 2.1 Research Question 2.1—Invariance of Respecified Structural Model 2: Structural model was fully invariant for White, Latino/a, Asian students Conclusion: Respecified Structural Model is comparable across groups Thus, the direct, indirect, and total effects for the model may be examined and compared across groups

29 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—RQ3, Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis partially supported No effect for Institutional Commitment to Students to Intent to Persist, Engagement, and Goal Commitment Strong effect of Institutional Commitment to Students on Mattering (ALL, W, L, A) Moderate to small effects of effect of Institutional Commitment to Students on Hostile Campus Climate (ALL), Sense of Belonging (ALL), and Socio-academic Integrative Experiences (ALL, W, L, A)

30 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—RQ3, Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis partially supported Positive effects of Mattering (ALL, W, L, A) and Interactions with Diverse Peers (ALL, W, A) on Sense of Belonging Negative effects of Hostile Campus Climate (ALL, W, L, A), Institutional Commitment to Students (ALL), and Gender (ALL) on Sense of Belonging. No direct effect of Belonging on Intent to Persist

31 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—RQ3, Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis partially supported Institutional Commitment and Interactions with Diverse Peers positively impacted Mattering; in turn, Mattering mediated and moderated Sense of Belonging, Engagement, and Socio-Academic Integrative Experiences (ALL, W, L, A) Engagement (ALL, W) and Socio-Academic Integrative Experiences (ALL, A) exerted a direct effect on Intent to Persist.

32 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—RQ3, Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis partially supported Mattering directly and positively influences Engagement (ALL, W, L, A); Mattering indirectly and positively impacts Intent to Persist through Engagement and Goal Commitment (ALL, W, L, A) Engagement (ALL, W) and Socio-Academic Integrative Experiences (ALL, A) exerted a direct effect on Intent to Persist.

33 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—RQ3, Hypothesis 5 Hypothesis partially supported Mattering directly and positively influences Socio-Academic Integrative Experiences (ALL, W, L, A); Socio-Academic Integrative Experiences mediates and moderates relationship between Mattering and Intent to Persist Goal Engagement directly and positively impacts Intent to Persist (ALL, L, A)

34 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—Decomposition of Effects Intent to Persist—Total Effects (standardized) Variance accounted for: ALL = 20%; White = 21%; Latino = 19%; Asian = 28% Direct Effects Indirect Effects  = n.s.               

35 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—Decomposition of Effects Perceptions of Mattering—Total Effects (standardized) Variance accounted for: ALL = 48%; White = 48%; Latino = 54%; Asian = 49% Direct Effects Indirect Effects

36 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—Decomposition of Effects Sense of Belonging—Total Effects (standardized) Variance accounted for: ALL = 52%; White = 50%; Latino = 53%; Asian = 53% Direct Effects Indirect Effects    = n.s.

37 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—Decomposition of Effects Engagement/Involvement—Total Effects (standardized) Variance accounted for: ALL = 24%; White = 29%; Latino = 29%; Asian = 11% Direct Effects Indirect Effects  = n.s.

38 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—Decomposition of Effects Socio-Academic Integrative Experiences—Total Effects (standardized) Variance accounted for: ALL = 46%; White = 45%; Latino = 49%; Asian = 41% Direct Effects Indirect Effects   = n.s.

39 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Findings—Research Question 1 Research Question 4: Hypothesized second-order CFA model with five factors NOT supported. Perceptions of a Hostile Campus Climate not a part of omnibus “Student Development & Success” 4- factor model. Goodness-of-Fit Measures Modelχ2χ2 dfχ 2 / dfCFISRMR RMSEA (90% CI) Optimal Values--< 4.0>.95<.10<.06 Hypothesized Model: 5 factors; 19 items a (with covariances between: eS30-eS32) (90% CI =.044,.051) Respecified Omnibus Second- Order Model 1: 4 factors; 15 items (Deleted: HCC factor) Best fit (90% CI =.026,.035)

40 Implications for Practice Implications for Theory Implications for Research 5

41 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Implications for Theory Findings support and question theoretical assumptions: Question assumptions that: institutional commitment to students socio-academic integration, and sense of belonging directly impact persistence (Caveat: This study focused on “intentions” to persist, not actual persistence)

42 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Implications for Theory The study showed there is a benefit to incorporating multiple constructs—that are often studied separately in college persistence studies—into a single conceptual framework. The study showed there is a benefit to incorporating multiple constructs—that are often studied separately in college persistence studies—into a single conceptual framework. Study lends support to the role of families and friends in promoting student success and persistence—no need for SEPARATION from former communities. Study lends support to the role of families and friends in promoting student success and persistence—no need for SEPARATION from former communities. Engagement, institutional commitment to students, interactions with diverse peers, mattering/validation play crucial role in persistence. Engagement, institutional commitment to students, interactions with diverse peers, mattering/validation play crucial role in persistence.

43 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Implications for Research Develop improved measures for engagement/involvement and socio- academic integrative experiences reflective of community colleges and of community college students. Develop improved measures for engagement/involvement and socio- academic integrative experiences reflective of community colleges and of community college students. Validity of the conceptual model should be studied with a variety of community colleges, especially since their educational missions and values differ. Validity of the conceptual model should be studied with a variety of community colleges, especially since their educational missions and values differ. Test the conceptual model by integrating longitudinal data, including actual persistence to degree completion indicators or progression milestones. Test the conceptual model by integrating longitudinal data, including actual persistence to degree completion indicators or progression milestones. Multiple group invariance analyses for the underlying structural framework of the model for gender, socio-economic status, residency status, age, should be conducted. Multiple group invariance analyses for the underlying structural framework of the model for gender, socio-economic status, residency status, age, should be conducted.

44 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Implications for Practice College transition support from family and friends exerted the highest impact on intent to persist for community college students. College transition support from family and friends exerted the highest impact on intent to persist for community college students. Recommendation: Actively integrate specific ideas into college orientation programs, workshops, or in semi-formal family/friends mentoring/academic coaching programs on how family and friends can be involved in students’ education (with limitations) Recommendation: Actively integrate specific ideas into college orientation programs, workshops, or in semi-formal family/friends mentoring/academic coaching programs on how family and friends can be involved in students’ education (with limitations)

45 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Implications for Practice Family/Friends Involvement Examples

46 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Implications for Practice Since institutional commitment to students, mattering, and interactions with diverse peers play an important role in intermediate college outcomes, there exists an opportunity for community colleges to “exploit” the impact of these constructs in students’ academic lives. Since institutional commitment to students, mattering, and interactions with diverse peers play an important role in intermediate college outcomes, there exists an opportunity for community colleges to “exploit” the impact of these constructs in students’ academic lives. Institute cost-neutral/inexpensive professional development activities designed to enhance non- cognitive factors with potential to increase persistence. Institute cost-neutral/inexpensive professional development activities designed to enhance non- cognitive factors with potential to increase persistence.

47 T OVAR : I NTENT TO P ERSIST M ODEL Implications for Practice Question for You! What low cost activity(ies) can your college implement fairly easily and across the board to address the following: Increase student perceptions that your college is COMMITTED to student success (beyond what you say in your Mission/Vision). Increase student perceptions that your college is COMMITTED to student success (beyond what you say in your Mission/Vision). Validate students and increase their sense of belonging to your college. Validate students and increase their sense of belonging to your college.

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