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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Buoyant Force Buoyant force is the upward force exerted on an object immersed in or floating on a fluid. Buoyancy explains why objects float. All fluids exert pressure: the amount of force exerted per unit area of a surface. Archimedes’ principle states that the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid that the object displaces. Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Density Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Pascal’s Principle, continued Hydraulic devices are based on Pascal’s principle. Hydraulic devices can multiply forces, as shown in the figure below. Because the pressure is the same on both sides of the enclosed fluid, a small force on the smaller area (at left) produces a much larger force on the larger area (at right). Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fluids in Motion Viscosity is the resistance of a gas or liquid to flow. Bernoulli’s principle states that as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure of the moving fluid decreases. Bernoulli’s principle is illustrated below: as a leaf passes through a drainage pipe from point 1 to point 2, it speeds up, and the water pressure decreases. Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fluids A fluid is a nonsolid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to move past each other, as in a gas or liquid. Fluids are able to flow because their particles can move past each other easily. The properties of fluids allow huge ships to float, divers to explore the ocean depths, and jumbo jets to soar across the skies. Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fluid Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Buoyant Force, continued The volume of fluid displaced by an object placed in a fluid will be equal to the volume of the part of the object submerged. The figure below shows how displacement works. Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Buoyant Force, continued An object will float or sink based on its density. If an object is less dense than the fluid in which it is placed, it will float. If an object is more dense than the fluid in which it is placed, it will sink. Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fluids and Pressure Fluids exert pressure evenly in all directions. For example, when you pump up a bicycle tire, air particles are constantly pushing against each other and against the walls of the tire. Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fluids and Pressure, continued Pressure can be calculated by dividing force by the area over which the force is exerted: Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3 The SI unit for pressure is the pascal (abbreviation: Pa), equal to the force of one newton exerted over an area of one square meter (1 N/m 2 ).

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Equation for Pressure Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Pascal’s Principle Pascal’s principle states that a fluid in equilibrium contained in a vessel exerts a pressure of equal intensity in all directions. Mathematically, Pascal’s principle is stated as p 1 = p 2, or pressure 1 = pressure 2. Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Math Skills Pascal’s Principle A hydraulic lift, shown in the figure below, makes use of Pascal’s principle, to lift a 19,000 N car. If the area of the small piston (A 1 ) equals 10.5 cm 2 and the area of the large piston (A 2 ) equals 400 cm 2, what force needs to be exerted on the small piston to lift the car? Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Math Skills, continued 1. List the given and unknown values. Given:F 2 = 19,000 N A 1 = 10.5 cm 2 A 2 = 400 cm 2 Unknown:F 1 2. Write the equation for Pascal’s principle. According to Pascal’s principle, p 1 = p 2. Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu 3. Insert the known values into the equation, and solve. Math Skills, continued Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3 F 1 = 500 N

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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Viscosity Section 2 Fluids Chapter 3

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