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Fluid Mechanics Chapter 9

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**Fluids and Buoyant Force**

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Defining a Fluid A fluid is a nonsolid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to move past each other, as in a gas or a liquid. Both liquids and gases are considered fluids because they can flow and change shape. Liquids have a definite volume; gases do not.

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**Density and Buoyant Force**

The concentration of matter of an object is called the mass density. Mass density is measured as the mass per unit volume of a substance. m /V V = Ah p = m/Ah density mass volume

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**Densities of Common Substances**

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**Density and Buoyant Force**

The buoyant force is the upward force exerted by a liquid on an object immersed in or floating on the liquid. Buoyant forces can keep objects afloat.

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**Buoyant Force and Archimedes’ Principle**

The Brick, when added will cause the water to be displaced and fill the smaller container. What will the volume be inside the smaller container? The same volume as the brick!

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Hydrostatic Pressure Pressure is a measure of how much force is distributed over an area. p = F┴ / A The unit of pressure is N/m2, called a pascal (Pa) A simple example N = mg p = N/A = mg/A

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Incompressible Fluid Water is incompressible. Gases are highly compressible. Fnet = 0 Fsurface = mg - Fdepth = 0 The equilibrium condition is p0 A + (pAh)g – pA = 0 → p = p0 + pgh Pascal’s principle: if p0 changes, the fluid changes by the same amount

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**Buoyant Force and Archimedes’ Principle**

Archimedes’ principle describes the magnitude of a buoyant force. Archimedes’ principle: Any object completely or partially submerged in a fluid experiences an upward buoyant force equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. FB = Fg (displaced fluid) = mfg magnitude of buoyant force = weight of fluid displaced

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**Buoyant Force The raft and cargo are floating because their weight and**

buoyant force are balanced.

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**Buoyant Force Now imagine a small hole is put in the raft.**

The raft and cargo sink because their density is greater than the density of the water. As the volume of the raft decreases, the volume of the water displaced by the raft and cargo also decreases, as does the magnitude of the buoyant force.

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**Buoyant Force Fg (object ) O FB f**

For a floating object, the buoyant force equals the object’s weight. The apparent weight of a submerged object depends on the density of the object. For an object with density O submerged in a fluid of density f, the buoyant force FB obeys the following ratio: Fg (object ) O FB f

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Example A bargain hunter purchases a “gold” crown at a flea market. After she gets home, she hangs the crown from a scale and finds its weight to be 7.84 N. She then weighs the crown while it is immersed in water, and the scale reads 6.86 N. Is the crown made of pure gold? Explain.

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**Solution Choose your equations: Rearrange your equations: F - F **

apparent weight g B F g O F B f Rearrange your equations: F F - apparent weight B g F g O F f B

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**Solution Plug and Chug:**

F 7.84 N N = 0.98 N B F 7.84 N g 1.00 10 3 kg/m 3 O F f 0.98 N B 8.0 10 3 kg/m 3 O From the table in your book, the density of gold is 19.3 103 kg/m3. Because 8.0 103 kg/m3 < 19.3 103 kg/m3, the crown cannot be pure gold.

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Your Turn I A piece of metal weighs 50.0 N in air and 36.0 N in water and 41.0 N in an unknown liquid. Find the densities of the following: The metal The unknown liquid A 2.8 kg rectangular air mattress is 2.00 m long and m wide and m thick. What mass can it support in water before sinking? A ferry boat is 4.0 m wide and 6.0 m long. When a truck pulls onto it, the boat sinks 4.00 cm in the water. What is the weight of the truck?

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Fluid Pressure

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Pressure Deep sea divers wear atmospheric diving suits to resist the forces exerted by the water in the depths of the ocean. You experience this pressure when you dive to the bottom of a pool, drive up a mountain, or fly in a plane.

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Pressure Pressure is the magnitude of the force on a surface per unit area. P F A pressure = force area Pascal’s principle states that pressure applied to a fluid in a closed container is transmitted equally to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the container.

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Pressure The SI unit for pressure is the pascal, Pa. It is equal to 1 N/m2. The pressure at sea level is about 1.01 x 105 Pa. This gives us another unit for pressure, the atmosphere, where 1 atm = 1.01 x 105 Pa

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Pascal’s Principle When you pump a bike tire, you apply force on the pump that in turn exerts a force on the air inside the tire. The air responds by pushing not only on the pump but also against the walls of the tire. As a result, the pressure increases by an equal amount throughout the tire.

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**Pascal’s Principle A F F A F F P A A A hydraulic lift uses**

Pascals principle. A small force is applied F1 (F1) to a small piston of area (A1) and cause a A2 A1 pressure increase on the F2 fluid. F F This increase in pressure P 1 2 inc A A (Pinc) is transmitted to the 1 2 larger piston of area (A2) and the fluid exerts a A force (F2) on this piston. F F 2 2 1 A 1

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Example The small piston of a hydraulic lift has an area of 0.20 m2. A car weighing 1.20 x 104 N sits on a rack mounted on the large piston. The large piston has an area of 0.90 m2. How much force must be applied to the small piston to support the car?

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**Solution F F A F F A A A Plug and Chug:**

1 2 F F 1 A A 1 2 A 1 2 2 Plug and Chug: F1 = (1.20 x 104 N) (0.20 m2 / 0.90 m2) F1 = 2.7 x 103 N

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Your Turn II In a car lift, compressed air exerts a force on a piston with a radius of 5.00 cm. This pressure is transmitted to a second piston with a radius of 15.0 cm. How large of a force must the air exert to lift a 1.33 x 104 N car? A person rides up a lift to a mountain top, but the person’s ears fail to “pop”. The radius of each ear drum is 0.40 cm. The pressure of the atmosphere drops from x 105 Pa at the bottom to x 105 Pa at the top. What is the pressure difference between the inner and outer ear at the top of the mountain? What is the magnitude of the net force on each eardrum?

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**Pressure Pressure varies with depth in a fluid.**

The pressure in a fluid increases with depth. P P gh absolute pressure = atmospheric pressure + densityfree-fall accelerationdepth

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Fluids in Motion

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Fluid Flow Moving fluids can exhibit laminar (smooth) flow or turbulent (irregular) flow. Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow

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Fluid Flow An ideal fluid is a fluid that has no internal friction or viscosity and is incompressible. The ideal fluid model simplifies fluid-flow analysis

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Fluid Flow No real fluid has all the properties of an ideal fluid, it helps to explain the properties of real fluids. Viscosity refers to the amount of internal friction within a fluid. High viscosity equals a slow flow. Steady flow is when the pressure, viscosity, and density at each point in the fluid are constant.

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**Principles of Fluid Flow**

The continuity equation results from conservation of mass. ∆m/∆t = p A1x1/∆t = p A1v1 ∆m/∆t = p A2x2/∆t = p A2v2 p A1v1 = p A2v2 Continuity equation: A1v1 = A2v2 Area speed in region 1 = area speed in region 2

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**Principles of Fluid Flow**

The speed of fluid flow depends on cross- sectional area. Bernoulli’s principle states that the pressure in a fluid decreases as the fluid’s velocity increases.

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Bernoulli’s Equation The continuity equation tells you when a horizontal pipe is constricted, the fluid speeds up. ½ p v2 + pgh + p = constant

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**Key Equations Pressure p = F┴ / A Hydrostatic pressure p = p0 + pgh**

Pascal’s Principle F’ = F ( A’/A) Archimede’s Principle FB = Fg (displaced fluid) = mfg Continuity Principle A1v1 = A2v2 Bernoulli’s Principle ½ p v2 + pgh + p = constant

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