Presentation on theme: "Fitness Basics GETTING STARTED AND STAYING MOTIVATED."— Presentation transcript:
Fitness Basics GETTING STARTED AND STAYING MOTIVATED
Purpose & Overview −To provide the knowledge necessary to begin a safe, effective exercise program. −The following topics will be discussed: Components of physical fitness Before beginning an exercise program Exercise programming
Components of Physical Fitness −Cardiovascular (aerobic) fitness −Muscular strength and endurance −Flexibility −Body composition
Cardiovascular (CV) Fitness −Ability of the heart and blood vessels to deliver oxygen-rich blood to working musculature −Measured by oxygen consumption (volume of oxygen consumed—VO 2 ) −Indirectly measured by heart rate −Increased cardiovascular fitness is linked to reduced cardiovascular disease risk
Components of CV Fitness −Resting heart rate −Blood pressure −VO 2 maximum −Stroke volume −Cardiac output
Muscular Strength and Endurance −Strength: The ability of a muscle to exert maximum force −Endurance: The ability of a muscle to exert sub- maximal force over an extended period of time −Increased strength/endurance = increased lean muscle mass = increased metabolic rate
Flexibility −Range-of-motion at a particular joint −Varies with different joints −Limited by tightness of muscles and connective tissue surrounding the joint −Decreased flexibility leads to increased risk of injury
Body Composition −Percent body fat −Lean mass versus fat mass −Excessive body fat = increased health risk −Average percent body fat: Males = approximately 15 percent Females = approximately 23 percent
Before Beginning −Health risk factors and stratification −When to see your doctor −Get a fitness assessment
Health Risk Factors −Age −Family history of heart disease −Cigarette smoking −Hypertension −Dyslipidemia (higher-than-normal amounts of cholesterol and fat in the blood) −Pre-diabetes −Obesity −Sedentary lifestyle
Risk Stratification −Low Risk Asymptomatic One or fewer risk factors −Moderate Risk Asymptomatic Two or more risk factors −High Risk Symptomatic Known cardiovascular, pulmonary, or metabolic disease
When to See Your Doctor −You meet the criteria for moderate or high risk −You have any musculoskeletal injuries or other physical limitations
Get a Fitness Assessment −A thorough assessment will measure all components of physical fitness −Two primary functions: Determine “baseline” fitness level Evaluate progress
Types of Assessments −Body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, resting heart rate −Skin fold or bioelectric impedance (body composition) −Step, bike or treadmill test (cardiovascular fitness) −Sit and reach test (flexibility) −1-minute crunch test (muscular endurance) −Push-up test (muscular strength/endurance)
Exercise Programming −Cardiovascular training −Strength training −Flexibility training −A good exercise program
Cardiovascular Training −What is cardiovascular exercise? −Program recommendations −Benefits of cardiovascular training
What is Cardiovascular Exercise? −Involves rhythmic movement of large muscle groups over an extended period of time −Increases heart rate, breathing rate, blood flow, and perspiration −Can include walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, hiking, cross-country skiing, stair-climbing, etc.
Program Recommendations −Frequency: most days of the week −Intensity: 60-85% of your predicted heart rate max (target heart rate zone) Heart rate maximum = 220 minus your age Lower End =.60 × 220 minus your age Upper End =.85 × 220 minus your age −Type: walking, jogging, cycling, etc. −Time: 20-60 minutes −Include warm-up and cool-down periods
Benefits of CV Training −Reduced blood pressure −Lower resting heart rate −Increased stroke volume of heart when pumping −Reduced blood cholesterol levels −Reduced fasting glucose −Reduced body fat −Lower risk of cardiovascular disease −Lower risk of pre-diabetes or type II diabetes −Reduced risk of colon cancer
Strength Training −What is strength training? −Common terms −Program recommendations −Benefits of strength training
What is Strength Training? −An exercise/activity in which a muscle/muscle group exerts themselves against an external force −What are these external forces? Gravity Your own body weight (calisthenics) Resistance tubing/bands Free weights (dumbbells, barbells, etc.) Machines (Nautilus, Cybex, etc.)
Common Terms −Repetitions (“Reps”): Repeated movements against an opposing force through a full range of motion −Sets: Groups of repetitions performed consecutively before resting −Rest: Time between sets, exercises, or exercise sessions −Example: “Perform 2 sets of 12 repetitions with 30 seconds of rest between sets.”
Program Recommendations −2 to 3 sessions per week (skip a day between sessions) −Choose 8 to 10 exercises per session (one for each major muscle group) −Perform 1 set of 12 to 15 reps per exercise with 30 seconds of rest between exercises −Perform large muscle exercises first and core (abs and lower back) exercises last
Benefits of Strength Training −Increased strength −Increased lean muscle mass −Increased basal metabolic rate −Stimulates new bone growth
Flexibility Training −Stretching exercises −Program recommendations −Benefits of flexibility training
Stretching exercises −Exercises that elongate, to the point of slight tension, the muscles and connective tissue surrounding a joint −Two types: Static (preferred) Dynamic (usually sport-specific)
Program Recommendations −Stretch all major muscle groups at the conclusion of each exercise session −Hold each stretch for 15-20 seconds −Slow, controlled stretches to the point of slight tension…NO BOUNCING!
Benefits of Flexibility Training −Increased range-of-motion −Reduced muscle tension −Reduced risk of injury −Increased feeling of relaxation
A Good Exercise Program… −Accounts for your health status and fitness assessment results −Addresses all components of physical fitness −Progresses gradually as your fitness level improves −Is enjoyable!
References −ACSM’s Guidelines For Exercise Testing And Prescription, 8 th edition, Franklin, Barry A., PhD. (Senior Editor) 2009.