Implications for Dried Fruits n Postharvest n Depends Upon Registrations, Competitors n Preplant n More problems, too many parameters to control
ImportsImports n Treatments ok currently n If US loses use-growers will demand imports stop n Quarantine and Preshipment
OrganicOrganic n Temperature-Freeze n Controlled Atmospheres-Nitrogen n Turn Fruit
Two Types of Alternatives n Chemical Alternatives n Non-chemical Alternatives
Chemical Alternatives n Phosphine n Carbonyl sulfide (COS) n Methyl Iodide (CH 3 I) n Surfuryl Fluoride (SO 2 F 2 ) n Propylene Oxide (C 3 H 6 O) n Ozone (O 3 ) n Others: Ethyl formate, Pressurized CO 2, and HCN
SO 2 F 2 – Sulfuryl Fluoride ProFume® n Physical Parameters: –Boiling Pt. = -49.7 o C –Mol. Wt. = 102.07 n Ease of Application: Applied as a gas from cylinders. n Advantages: Very good penetration. Chemically inert. Little sorption on commodity or packing materials. Aerates quickly. n Disadvantages: Not a good ovicide.
SO 2 F 2 n Relative Toxicity: More toxic to all stages of insects except the egg stage when compared to methyl bromide. n Post-fumigation phytotoxicity: phytotoxic to citrus fruit. n Registration: Already registered for structural fumigation (Vikane®). Needs food tolerance.
Testing Alternative Fumigants vs Codling Moth Diapausing Larvae in Walnuts
Accelerated CA PhaseOut of MeBr n Increased cost (due to limited availability) –tripled in 4 years –Some uses are now priced out (trees and vines, vegetables) n New CA Regulations on Use –Very large buffers for most uses (840’ for 10 acre field; 220 ft for 1 ac; requires multiple applications to reduce buffers) –Very intensive notification requirements –Very restrictive worker hours