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1 Handling and knowledge about high purity gases and gas mixtures Melina van Meer, AGA Gas AB, Segment Specialty Gas.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Handling and knowledge about high purity gases and gas mixtures Melina van Meer, AGA Gas AB, Segment Specialty Gas."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Handling and knowledge about high purity gases and gas mixtures Melina van Meer, AGA Gas AB, Segment Specialty Gas

2 2 Agenda AGA Gas AB Laws, regulations and rules Gases Risks Handling Storage of gas cylinders Colour marking of gas cylinders Gas equipment Training Summary

3 AGA Gas AB

4 4 AB Gasackumulator was founded 1904 with 16 employees in Saltsjö-Järla AGA Gas AB

5 5 ”Solve the problems of customers. Give them the opportunity to increase profitability, safety and quality in their operations. Help them to introduce new, better technology.” GUSTAF DALÈN, President of AGA 1909-1937

6 6 AGA Gas AB – part of The Linde Group 50.000 employees in more than 100 countries Turnover 2011 – 100 billion SEK AGA, Linde och BOC

7 7 Page 7 The Linde Group Today Result of world´s biggest gas fusion­ Merging of Linde Gas, AGA and BOC with three principal operations: Industry Gases Engineering Healthcare

8 8 Industry Gases are our main focus Other Gases Specialty Gases Medical Gases Air Gases Nitrogen Oxygen Acetylene Helium Propane HiQ High Purity Gases HiQ Specialty Mixtures Temperatures: from -269 o C up to +3.500 o C Pressure: from 0 to 300 bar Purity: up to 99,99999% Medical Oxygen Nitrous oxide NO-mixtures Working Areas Carbon dioxide & -monoxide Hydrogen Refigerants Argon Inert Gases (Kr, Ne, Xe) Methane

9 Laws, regulations and rules

10 10 Laws, Parliament Regulations, Government Rules, Authorities Standards, not law EU-directive Swedish legislation

11 11 Requirements of employer and users Lag om skydd mot olyckor – Law about protection against accidents Arbetsmiljölagen – Law about working environment Lag om brandfarliga och explosiva varor – Law about flammables and explosives Kemiska arbetsmiljörisker (AFS 2011:19) – Risks in chemical work environment Gaser (AFS 1997:7) – Gases Gasflaskor (AFS 2001:4) – Gas cylinders Användning av tryckbärande anordningar (AFS 2002:1) – Use of pressurised devices Brandfarlig gas i lös behållare (SÄIFS 1998:7) – Flammable gas in a cylinder Arbete i explosionsfarlig miljö (AFS 2003:3) – Working in explosive environment Explosionsfarlig miljö vid hantering av brandfarliga gaser och vätskor (SRVFS 2004:7) – Handling of explosive gases and liquids in an explosive environment

12 12 Regulations of Swedish Work Environment Authority AFS 1997:7 1 § These regulations applies to all operations using gas. 3 § In all operations where gas is used a risk assessment needs to be done. Any change in process, equipment or operating conditions -> new risk assessment needs to be done. 4 § Working with gas can only be managed or performed by a person with enough knowledge about the gas, about the risks when using gases and how to avoid these risks.

13 13 Responsibilty of Gas Superintendent Gas storage room locked and not accessible for unauthorized persons Always a person attending at unloading/loading of gas deliveries Safety signs according to legislations where gas cylinders are stored Combustible gases (i e acetylen, LPG) should not be stored together with combustion supporting gases (i e oxygen, nitrous oxide), this also includes empty cylinder Store cylinders vertically and securely to prevent them from toppling Make sure that protection hood stays on cylinder Inside and outside of gas storage room is clean That staff are using safety shoes and clothes when working with gas That handling of gases are according to regulations

14 14 Who appoints gas superintendent A person who is in charge of flammable products A signatory A suitable gas superintendent: ●Working in the daily operations ●Has knowledge and experience of working with gas

15 15 Risk Assessment Documented (Best before date 2004) Should be the basis of: Actions Program for continuos inspections Register of gases and how dangerous they are Information about possible risks Competence of staff working with gases Routines and instructions for working with gases Design of working area Storage/Handling Warning signs Documentation of explosive protection Plan of emergency

16 16 Risk Assessment

17 17 Risk Assessment Matrix 12345 > 1 time per 1 month 5 1 time per 1 month-1 year 4 1 time per 1 year-10 year 3 1 time per 10 year-100 year 2 <1 time per 100 year 1 Health Transient mild discomfort Single injured, lasting discomfort Single severe injured, severe discomfort Single death, several severe injured Several deaths, tens severe injured Environment No actual damage. Small propagation. No cleanup. Transient, brief damage Small propagation. Simple cleanup. Prolonged damage. Small to big propagation. Simple cleanup. Permanent damage. Small propagation. Difficult cleanup. Permanent damage. Big propagation. Difficult cleanup. Property <0,1 million SEK0,1-1,0 million SEK1-5 million SEK5-20 million SEK>20 million SEK Midddle risk High risk Low risk

18 18 When not following the legislation… Consequenses Compensation from insurance company is based on legal requirements.

19 19 Risk- and safety services Safety Engineers at AGA Gas AB: Jan Fransson Magnus Olsson Give a status of your gas system Show the way to a safety gas system

20 20 Services Legal Requirements Safety Review Risk assessment Documentation of explosion protection Plan of classification C1, C2 Flow chart List of components Counseling Documentation Voluntarily

21 Gases

22 22 % Nitrogen78,09 Oxygen20,95 Argon0,93 100 Sum about100 ppb Hydrogen500 Nitrous gas280 Carbon monoxide60-240 Xenon90 Ozon25-45 Acetylene10 Formaldehyde10 Ammonia2-20 Hydrogen sulfide2-20 Sulfur dioxide0-20 Hydrogen fluoride1-18 Ethylene3 Nitrogen oxide1-4 Chlorineca 1 ppm Carbon dioxide340 Neon15 Helium5 Krypton 1,1 Methane1-2 ppt R12ca 200 R11ca 200 R2270 Iodine4-40 Content of the air that we breathe

23 23 Air separation unit – Oxygen Nitrogen Argon 1.Filter 2.Compressor 3.Cleaning/purification 4.Cooling 5.Expansion 6.Separation 7.Argon 8.Nitrogen 9.Oxygen 10.Pump 11.Evaporator 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 889 7 10 11

24 24 Permanent gases Oxygen O 2 -183 °C ArgonAr-186 °C Nitrogen N 2 -196 °C HydrogenH 2 -253 °C HeliumHe-269 °C

25 25 How much gas in a cylinder? 200 bar 50 litres Atmospheric pressure 10 000 litres = 10 m 3 200 x 50 = 10 000 litres = 10 m 3

26 26 Condensed gases is liquid in the cylinder LPG 95% Propane C 3 H 8 - 42 °C 5% Butane C 4 H 10 ± 0 °C Carbon dioxide CO 2 - 78 °C Nitrous oxide N 2 O - 88 °C

27 27 Kryos is from greek language, meaning very cold Liquid gases = Cryogenic gases

28 28 Liquid gas 1 litre of liquid gas -> 500-800 litres of gas in gas phase

29 29 Absorbed gas Acetylene is a special case Acetylene C 2 H 2 - 84 °C Can not be stored in high pressure due to risk of spontaneously decay: Porous mass Acetone Acetylene solved (absorbed) in acetone

30 30 Light and heavy gases Hydrogen0,07 Helium0,14 Acetylene0,91 Nitrogen0,97 Air1,0 Oxygen1,11 Argon1,38 Carbon dioxide1,53 LPG (propane) 1,56

31 31 Gas cylinders Gas Phase of the gas Pressure of gas (bar) Temp risk for bursting valve Excess pressure protection Weight gas compare to air Dissolved in acetone in a porous mass 17 100 °C No Somewhat lighter Gas 200 350 °C No Somewhat heavier Liquid 50 100 °C Bursting disc Heavier Liquid 7 100 °C Safety valve Heavier Acetylene Oxygen + other air gases Carbon dioxide LPG

32 Risks with gases

33 33 Oxygen O 2 Nitrogen N 2 Argon Ar Helium He Hydrogen H 2 Carbon dioxide CO 2 Nitrous gas N 2 O LPG C 3 H 8 Acetylene C 2 H 2 Combustible Combustion supporting gas Inert/asphyxiating Permanent Condensed Absorbed Risks with gases

34 34 Risks with with gases High pressure Inert/asphyxiating gas Fire and explosion Poisonous gas Low temperature

35 35 Asphyxiating – Invisible danger Most accidents with asphyxia happends because rules have not been followed. Typical causes could be: ●Deviated from current working environment rules. ●Training and control of work not sufficient. ●Defiencies in supervision team. KVÄVNINGSRISK AFS 1997:7 6 § In working area the ventilation should be good enough that oxygen content normally is not less than 20%. When oxygen content in a working area is below 18% breathing apparatus should be used.

36 36 Risks when oxygen content decreases 21 %13 %15 %10 %

37 37 Ammonia Arsenic pentafluorideBromine chloride DicyanDichlorinesilane1,1-Dichlorine difluoroethylene DisilaneEthylene oxideFormaldehyde Phosphor penta- Germanium tetrahydrideCarbonylsulfide fluorideSilicon tetra fluorideChlorine Chlorine trifluorideCarbon monoxide Methylbromide MethylchlorinesilanNitrosyl chloridePerchlorylfluoride Selenium hexa-Selenium hydrogenSulfuryldifluorid fluoride Sulfur dioxide Sulphur tetra fluorideSulfur trioxide TellurhexafluorideTrifluoracetylkloridHydrogen chloride LD 50 0,5 - 2 mg gas / litre air Poisonous gases

38 38 Arsenic hydrogenBoron trifluoride Bor-tri-chlorideCyanogenchloride DiboraneFluorine Fluorväte Phosphine KarbonylfluoridCarbonylchloride Chlorine dioxide Chlorinepentafluoride Nitrogen dioxideNitrogen monoxide OzoneHydrogen sulphide SyredifluoridVinyl fluoride VolframhexafluoridHydrogen cyanide LD 50 < 0,5 mg gas / litre air Very poisonous gases

39 Handling

40 40 Wear personal protective equipment (PPE) i.e. safety shoes and gloves, gas detector Read safety data sheet Handle cylinders gently Protect cylinder from high temperature and mechanical impact Store cylinders vertically and securely to prevent them from toppling When transporting gas cylinder use a cart Open valve carefully Make sure that oxygen is not in contact with grease Liquid gases always a risk of frost-bite if contact with skin – wear correct PPE Handling of gas cylinders

41 41 Handle and store in well-ventilated spaces Not stored in sealed container Use personal protective equipment In contact with skin –> frost-bite Carbon dioxide – Handling dry ice

42 42 LPG Pressure and liquid volume at different temperature for a filled LPG-cylinder 15 °C 7 bar 50 °C 18 bar 65 °C 24 bar

43 43 Safety valve Gas Liquid 1 kg leaking LPG in liquid phase -> 525 litre gas LPG-bottle should always be standing Outlet

44 44 What is suitable working clothes? Safety googles/Visor Gloves Boots Covered working clothes Personal safety – liquid gases

45 45 1.Frost-bites are treated as burns -Water! -Do not put any bandage or similar on the wound! Can cause more damage. 2.If necessary go to hospital How to treat frost-bite?

46 46 Handling of cryogenic gases Always pant legs outside boot shafts!

47 47 Handling liquid gases What is missing? Always pant legs outside boot shafts! 1.Safety googles / visor 2.Gloves 3.Protect environment to damages 4.Personal gas detectorgas detector What else to remember?

48 48 Equipment Use proper and approved equipment designed for cryogenic gases

49 49 Combustion gas – what does the law says? § Handling and storage should be with precaution to avoid risk for fire. § Storage room performed in a safety way, preventing fire to occur. § Equipment installed carefully and with competence.

50 50 Actions when fire Warn staff and evacuate the area Call 112 If possible with safety respect Shut off gas cylinders, take away cylinders Cool cylinders with water from a safe space Mark gas cylinders that has been in a fire, contact AGA

51 51 Actions when gas leaking out of cylinder Close the valve of gas cylinder Ventilate the area Evacuate If a bigger gas leakage – rope off the area Alarm rescue department if a big gas leakage Identify what was causing the gas leakage – change broken part If gas is liquid or cold – measure gas content in lower areas

52 Storage of gas cylinders

53 53 Separate combustible gases from others gases Well closed cylinders Protect against abnormal heating Well ventilated area Store cylinders inaccessible for unauthorized people Warning signs Storage of gas cylinders Gas storage Acetylene Oxygen

54 Colour marking of gas cylinders

55 55 Colour marking – safety Colour marking according to european standard – EN 1089-3 The colour of the cylinder breast informs about the property of the gas in the cylinder Identification of gas property from a long distance Important for emergency personnel

56 56 Cylinder colours Colour of cylinder not regulated by standard. AGA has choosed following colours: Black Industrial gases AcetyleneFood gasesSpecialty gases Medical gases MaroonGreenSilver greyWhite

57 57 Specialty gases – Pure gases

58 58 Gas mixtures

59 59 What information on cylinder label? 1.Product name 2.Product information 3.Warning symbol(s) 4.Material number 5.Transport information 6.Safety information 1234 56

60 Gas equipment

61 61 Gas equipment Gas panels Point of use Cylinder regulators Flame barrier C 2 H 2 Setback protection C 2 H 2 Central gas supply system

62 62 Continous supervision AFS 2002:1 Use of pressurised devices, central gas supply system Control That controls and ev inspections are performed Function control Gas panels, point of uses, setback protection (C 2 H2) etc Leak detection and ocular inspection of pipe system Recommendation 2 times/year when combustible gases Known defiencies corrected Control of risk assessment, safety inspections, reports of incident Marking, visible Media, flow direction, safety sign Instructions for operation Flowchart, updated

63 63 Continous supervision, continued Ocular control/change of hose (both high and low pressure hose) Control of gas system according to supplier both daily and yearly inspections Control that gas cylinders are chained Controll of setback protection (C 2 H 2 ) every 24st month Part or all of supervision of gas system can be done by another company but it is the responsibility of the owner of the gas system that the supervision is done.

64 64 Portabel gas detector Stationary CO 2 alarm Use of gas detectors

65 Training

66 66 Training AGA Gas AB offers following trainings: 1) Open courses at AGA Gas AB: ●Safety handling of gas ●Gas safety according to laws, regulations and rules ●Superintendent training for a bigger gas system 2) Courses at customer site More information at: or from your local sales

67 67 Summary Gas superintendent Competent staff Risk assessment Be aware of risks with gases: high pressure, asphyxiating, poisonous, combustible, coldness Correct handling and storage of gas cylinders: chained, separate combustible gases from other gases, well ventilated working areas, personal protective equipment, gas detector Colour marking of gas cylinders, especielly yellow and red colours Continous supervision / yearly maintenance of gas equioment Continous training

68 68 Questions?

69 69 NOTHING CAN STOP PROGRESS Thanks for your attention!

70 70 Contact information AGA Gas AB Melina van Meer 0767-244 786

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