2CHARACTERISTICS OF CYLINDERS A. General featuresB. Designations
3MARKING REQUIREMENTS CAP MARKING NECK RING CYLINDER ICC 3AA2015 1MARKINGANECK RINGPST 3NO STAMPINGS BELOW THIS LINEALL STAMPING AT LEAST 1/4 INCH HIGH, SEE 49CFRCYLINDER4. “5 56” date of manufacturer. Month and year “ “ disinterested inspector’s official mark1. DOT or ICC marking may appear-new manufacture must read:“DOT” 49CFR “3AA” indicates spec in 49CFR “2015” is the marked service pressure.5. Plus mark(+) indicates cylinder may be 10% even per 49CFR (C).2. Serial number- no duplicates permitted with any particular symbol- serial number combination6. Retest dates7. 5 pointed star indicates ten year retest interval See 49CFR (e)(15).3. Symbol, or manufacturer, user, or purchaser
5HANDLING CYLINDERS A. Receiving B. Storage C. Use -cylinders used for many gases can last for decades-cylinders need to be test periodically-visual inspection of cylinders for damage is importantC. Use-Leak testing-Pressure in system-Heat source-Structural damage-Toxic or other health hazard
7COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS Content IdentificationLabels – PrimaryColor - Secondary2. Handled by Trained PersonnelLabeled- Name or hazard classNo SmokingSecuredValve Caps/Plugs
8COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS 3. Defective Cylinders Not UtilizedLeaksBulgesDefective ValvesDefective Safety ValvesPhysical AbuseFire/Heat DamageRusting or Corrosion
91910.101 Compressed gases (general requirements). Inspection of compressed gas cylinders. Each employer shall determine that compressed gas cylinders under his control are in a safe condition to the extent that this can be determined by visual inspection.Visual and other inspections shall be conducted as prescribed in the Hazardous Materials Regulations of the Department of transportation (49 CFR parts and 14 CFR part 103).Where those regulations are not applicable, visual and other inspections shall be conducted in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlets C and C , which is incorporated by reference as specified in
10(b) Compressed gases.The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet P , which is incorporated by reference as specified in
11(c) Safety relief devices for compressed gas containers. Compressed gas cylinders, portable tanks, and cargo tanks shall have pressure relief devices installed and maintained in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet P and 1965 addenda and S , which is incorporated by reference as specified in
12SAFE HANDLING OF COMPRESSED GASES IN CONTAINERS COMPRESSED GAS ASSOCIATION, INC.
131. INTRODUCTION1.1 Scope. The following guidelines compiled by the Compressed gas Association, Inc. are primarily for the guidance of users of compressed gasses in containers and are based upon accident experience. Some precautions are also applicable to gas manufacturers and distributors. It should not be assumed that every applicable safety precaution or regulation is contained herein. The term “container” as used in this pamphlet shall refer to portable compressed gas cylinders and liquid containers made in accordance with the U.S. Department of transportation (DOT) and Transport Canada (TC) specifications. 1 and 
141.2 GENERALCompressed gas containers constructed, maintained, and used in accordance with applicable regulations (as referenced in section 2 of this document) are safe for the purposes for which they are intended. Accidents occurring during the transportation, handling, usage, and storage of these containers can invariably be traced to failure to follow the guidelines set forth in this pamphlet.
15CYLINDERGenerally a compressed gas container having a maximum water capacity of 1000 lbs. (453.6 kg.). This is approximately the equivalent of 120 gallons (454.2 L). Newer specifications permit the use of larger size containers having a water capacity of approximately 5000 lbs. ( kg.).
161.3.5 COMPRESSED GASAny gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, a pressure exceeding 40° psia at 70 degrees FahrenheitAny flammable liquid having an absolute vapor pressure exceeding 40 psia at 100 Fahrenheit
171.3.6 CONTAINERS (Compressed Gas) Vessels of various shapes, sizes, materials of construction (e.g., cylinders, portable banks, stationary tanks), and design meeting specifications of either the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Transport Canada, or the United States Department of Transportation.
18HIGHLY TOXIC GASA compressed gas that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 200 parts and less than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor when administered by continuous inhalation for an hour (or less if death occurs within one hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
19POSIN GAS 1.3.32 PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE A pressure and/or temperature activated device used to prevent the pressure from rising above a predetermined maximum, and thereby prevent rupture of a normally charged cylinder when subjected to a standard fire test as required by 49 CFR (d) or (d) of the TC Regulations. The term “pressure release device” is synonymous with “safety relief device,” as used by DOT, and TC regulations.psig. Pounds per square inch absolute. (See gas pressure)
20TOXIC GASA compressed gas that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of more than 200 and less than 2,000 parts per million or less by volume of gas or vapor when administered by continuous inhalation for an hour (or less if death occurs within one hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
21NESTINGA method of securing flat bottom cylinders upright in a tight mass using a contiguous three (3) point contact system whereby all cylinders, within a group have a minimum of three (3) points of contact with other cylinders, walls, or bracing. See Appendix D.
22PROPERLY NESTED CYLINDERS WALL SUPPORTEDTHREE POINT CONTACT SYSTEMALL CYLINDERS ARE IN CONTACT ON THREE POINTS- EITHER WITH OTHER CYLINDERS OR WALL.NESTED UNSUPPORTEDTHREE POINT CONTACT SYSTEMALL CYLINDERS ARE IN CONTACT WITH OTHER CYLINDERS ON THREE POINTS.
23IMPROPERLY NESTED CYLINDERS END CYLINDERS IN CONTACT WITH OTHER CYLINDERS ON ONLY TWO POINTS.NESTED UNSUPPORTEDEND CYLINDERS NOT IN CONTACT WITH OTHER CYLINDERS ON THREE POINTS.
24Paragraph states that, “All compressed gas cylinders in service or in storage at user locations shall be secured to prevent falling. At gas manufacture’s facilities and distributor's warehouse, the nesting of cylinders is considered an equivalent safe manner of storage.”
251.3.32 PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE A pressure and/or temperature activated device used to prevent the pressure from rising above a predetermined maximum, and thereby prevent rupture of a normally charged cylinder when subjected to a standard fire test
262.4 EMPLOYEE SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATING AUTHORITIES Compressed gas containers shall be marked, labeled, stored, handled, and used in accordance with applicable Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards as well as other Federal, State, and local regulations.
273. GENERAL SAFE HANDLING RULES FOR COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINERS Compressed gasses shall be handled and used only by properly trained persons.
283.2.2 PRESCRIBED MARKINGSThe prescribed stamped markings on the container shall be made and kept in a legible condition. The user shall not remove or alter any of these markings.
293.2.6 IDENTIFICATIONContainers not bearing a legibly written, stamped, or stenciled identification of the contents shall not be used, they shall be segregated for return to the gas manufacturer or distributor.
303.3 LABELSThe labels applied by the gas manufacturer to identify the container contents shall not be defaced or removed by the user.
313.3 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS The following precautions shall apply to distributors, users, and manufacturers when using or handling compressed gas cylinders:3.3.1 Compressed gas cylinders shall not be used as rollers, supports, or for any purpose other than to contain and use the content as received.
323.3 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS (CONT.) 3.3.2 Containers SHALL NOT be placed where they might become part of an electrical circuit. When compressed gas containers are used in conjunction with electric welding, they shall not be grounded or used for grounding. These precautions will prevent the container from being damaged by the electric welding arc.
333.3 GENERAL PRECAUTIONS (CONT.) 3.3.3 Compressed gas containers SHALL NOT be exposed to temperature extremes. High temperatures may result in excessive cylinder pressure. NEVER apply a flame or heat directly to any part of a compressed gas container or allow it to come in contact with an electrically energized system. If ice or snow accumulate on a container, thaw at room temperature, or with water at a temperature not exceeding 125 F° (51.7 C°)
343.3.1 CYLINDER MODIFICATIONS. The user shall not modify, tamper with, obstruct, remove, or repair any part of the cylinder, including the pressure relief device and the container valve or the valve protection device.
353.3.10 NONREFILLABLE CYLINDERS Nonrefillable cylinders shall not be refilled with any material after use of the original contents. After usage such cylinders shall be disposed of in accordance with the cylinder manufacturer’s recommendations.
363.4 VALVE PROTECTION CAPS AND VALVE OUTLET CAPS AND PLUGS Where provided by the gas manufacturer, the user shall keep such caps on containers at all times except when containers are secured and connected to dispensing equipment.
373.5 SAFE HANDLING OF CONTAINERS Users of compressed gas containers shall ensure that they are not rolled in the horizontal position or dragged. A suitable hand truck, forklift truck, or similar material handling device should be used with the container properly secured to the device.Caution should be used when handling containers to guard against dropping or permitting containers to violently strike against each other or other surfaces.
383.5.1 Personnel who handle containers shall be trained and instructed NEVER to lift containers by using the container cap or magnets.
393.6 TRANSFILLINGCompressed gases shall not be transferred from one container to another container except by the gas manufacturer using qualified, trained personnel with the appropriate equipment and operating procedures.
403.7 STORING CONTAINERS3.7.1 POSTINGContainer storage areas shall be prominently posted with the hazard class or the name of the gases to be stored and with “NO SMOKING” signs where appropriate.
413.7.2 STORAGE AREASStorage areas shall be designed to accommodate the various gases required by the user.Adequate spacing, or segregation by partitioning in accordance with applicable codes, shall be provided so that the containers can be grouped together by the hazard class of the gas.Additional consideration should be given to separate storage of full and empty containers. Further design consideration shall include a dry, well-ventilated area, preferably of fire-resistive construction.
423.7.2 STORAGE AREAS (CONT.)Containers are not to be stored near readily ignitable substances, such as gasoline.Furthermore, containers should not be exposed to corrosive chemicals or fumes. Corrosion may damage the containers and may cause the container valve protection caps to stick
43Containers shall be protected from any object that will produce a harmful cut or other abrasion in the surface of the metal.Containers shall not be stored near elevators, walkways, unprotected platform edges, or in locations where heavy moving objects may strike or fall on them.
44User shall ensure that containers stored or used in public areas are protected against tampering and damage.Furthermore, containers when stored (either inside or outside) shall not obstruct exit routes or other areas normally used or intended for the safe exit of people.
418.104.22.168 REMOVING PRESSURE REGULATOR Before a regulator is removed from a container, the container valve shall be closed and the regulator relieved of gas pressure.
463.7.3 OUTDOOR STORAGECylinders may be stored in the open, but to prevent bottom corrosion, prolonged exposure to a damp environment should be avoided.Cylinders should not be exposed to salt, corrosive chemicals, or fumes.
47(Cont.)It is preferable to store cylinders on paved surfaces, such as asphalt or concrete which has been graded to prevent accumulation of water. Cylinders may be stored in the sun except in locations where extreme temperatures prevail.If the gas manufacturer recommends storage in the shade for a particular gas, such recommendations shall be observed.
483.7.4 CYLINDER POSITIONS IN STORAGE All compressed gas cylinders in service or in storage at user locations shall be secured to prevent falling.Properly secured cylinders with a water volume less than 305 cu. in(5.01) may be stored in a horizontal position.
493.8.1 CONTAINER VALVEThe container valve shall be kept closed at all times (charged or empty) except when the container is in use.Valve outlets shall be pointed away from all personnel when the valve is being opened.
50The container valve shall be opened slowly. MANUALLY OPERATED VALVEThe container valve shall be opened slowly.On valves without hand wheels, the wrenches provided by, or recommended by, the gas manufacturer shall be used.The wrench shall remain on the valve while the container is in use.
513.8.4 GAS TIGHT CONNECTIONSPiping, regulators, and other apparatus shall be kept gas tight to prevent leakage.This can be confirmed by the use of a compatible leak test solution, or an appropriate leak-detection instrument.CAUTION: Do not tighten connections or leaking fittings or attempt other repairs while the system is under pressure.
523.10 EMERGENCY RESPONSEAn emergency response plan shall be implemented wherever compressed gas containers and products are used, handled, or stored.
53QUALIFIED PERSONNELOnly qualified and knowledgeable personnel shall respond to an emergency situation involving a compressed gas container or product.
543.10.2 MAINTAIN SAFE CLEARANCE Personnel shall be promptly evacuated from the immediate area in danger and kept up wind at sufficient distance to avoid any inhalation or contact with potentially hazardous products until safe re-entry can be assured.
55IDENTIFY HAZARDSPlacards, container labels, and markings when observed at a safe distance provide available information in identifying the products involved.
56Flammable gases shall not be used near open flames, sources of heat, adjacent to oxidizers and non-explosion proof electric systems, or near undergrounded electrical equipment.Transportation and use should be in well ventilated vehicles and areas.
57Acetylene containers should be stored valve end up ( the container axis may be inclined as much as 45 degrees from vertical) to minimize the possibility of solvent being discharged.
58Portable fire extinguishers (of carbon dioxide or dry chemical types) shall be available for fire emergencies at storage installations.No Smoking signs shall be posted around the storage area of buildings or at entrance(s) to special storage rooms.
59A flame shall not be used for detection of flammable gas leaks. Either a flammable gas leak detector or compatible leak detection solution shall be used.
60Electrical equipment must comply with the applicable electrical code.
61Spark proof tools should be used when working with or on flammable compressed gas cylinders/systems.
624.2.2 STORAGE OUTDOORS OR IN SEPARATE BUILDING WITHOUT OTHER OCCUPANCY Provisions should be made to protect flammable gases from hazardous exposures to and against hazardous exposure from adjoining buildings, equipment, property, and concentrations of people.The storage area shall be well ventilated.Heating shall be by steam, hot water, or other indirect means.Direct heating by flames or fire shall be PROHIBITED.The interior and the area surrounding the exterior of a building so used should be kept free of combustible materials.
634.2.4 STORAGE IN BUILDING AND ROOMS WITH OTHER OCCUPANCY Flammable gas containers stored inside of buildings with other occupancies shall be kept at least 20 feet (6.10m) from flammable liquids, highly combustible materials, and oxidizers and not near arcing electrical equipment, open flame, or other sources of ignition.
644.2.6 FLAMMABLE GAS SYSTEMSFlammable compressed gas systems (piping, tubing, fittings, gaskets, and thread sealants) should be suitable for the applicable flammable compressed gas service and for the pressures and temperature involved.
654.2.6 FLAMMABLE GAS SYSTEMSMaterial specifications and thickness requirements for piping and tubing shall conform to the American National Standard Code for Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refining Piping, ANSI/ASME B31.3.
664.2.6 FLAMMABLE GAS SYSTEMSAll lines and equipment associated with the flammable gas systems should be grounded and bonded.
674.4.4Oxidizers shall be stored separately from flammable gas containers or combustible materials (especially oil or grease).A minimum distance of 20 feet or a non combustible barrier at least five feet high having a fire resistance rating of at least one-half hour is considered a minimum requirement.
68Every effort shall be made to avoid contacting the skin or eyes or inhaling any of the corrosive or toxic gases. Areas where corrosive gases are filled or utilized shall be equipped with emergency showers and eyewash fountains. The capability for prompt emergency medical treatment, including first aid, shall be provided.
69Only trained and qualified personnel shall be allowed to fill , process or utilize corrosive and toxic gases.Training shall include the associated hazards of the materials, necessary precautions, protective equipment, and emergency response procedures.
704.5.2.4 VENTILATION, STORAGE, AND SITE CRITERIA Storage of toxic and corrosive gases within these categories shall be outdoors, or in a separate noncombustible building without other occupancy, or in a separate room without other occupancy and of noncombustible construction with a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour.Storage areas shall be adequately ventilated to prevent hazardous concentrations.Storage locations shall be protected against tampering and damage.
71(Cont.)It is also recommended that for inside storage areas toxic gas monitors be installed.Total quantity of these gases on the user’s site should be limited to the user’s near term foreseeable requirements.
722.214.171.124 VENTILATION, STORAGE, AND SITE CRITERIA These gases shall be filled and utilized only in forced ventilation areas or preferably outdoors or in exhausted enclosures.These gases when emitted from equipment in high concentrations shall be discharged into appropriate treatment equipment which will remove or neutralize such toxic gasses so that they are not present in the effluent gas streams at hazardous levels.
73Where self-contained breathing apparatus are provided they shall be of a positive pressure type, with a minimum of two (2) units, one as a backup, made available.Such equipment shall be stored in a location that is in close proximity to the area(s) where corrosive, toxic, or highly toxic gases are being utilized, but one not likely to be affected by the release of hazardous material.Only trained and properly qualified personnel shall be authorized to use such equipment and only when backup personnel and equipment are present.
74ACETYLENE(a) Cylinders. The in-plant transfer, handling, storage, and utilization of acetylene in cylinders shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet G , which is incorporated by reference as specified in
75HYDROGEN(a) General-(1) Definitions. As used in this section (i) Gaseous hydrogen system is one in which the hydrogen is delivered, stored and discharged in the gaseous form to consumer’s piping. The system includes stationary or movable containers, pressure regulators, safety relief devices, manifolds, interconnecting piping and controls. The system terminates at the point where hydrogen at service pressure first enters the consumer’s distribution piping.
76NITROUS OXIDEThe piped systems for the in-plant transfer and distribution of nitrous oxide shall be designed, installed, maintained, and operated in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet G , which is incorporated by reference as specified in
77OXYGEN(a) Scope. This section applies to the installation of bulk oxygen systems on industrial and institutional consumer premises. This section does not apply to oxygen manufacturing plants or other establishments operated by the oxygen supplier or his agent for the portable containers, trailers, mobile supply trucks, or tank cars, nor to systems having capacities less than those stated in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.