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Improving Achievement The CPC Way © 2004. James M. Furukawa, J.D., Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "Improving Achievement The CPC Way © 2004. James M. Furukawa, J.D., Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 Improving Achievement The CPC Way © James M. Furukawa, J.D., Ph.D.

2 2 of 49 Introduction Lesson 9: POWER Writing

3 3 of 49 Lesson Nine will give you the information you need to become a skilled writer. Lesson Goals In this lesson you will: Lesson 9: POWER Writing Click here to continue. Apply the CPC Way to improve your writing skills. skills.

4 4 of 49 Let’s use our imagination. Make believe that you are the president of a large hotel chain that is opening a new hotel. You need to hire a manager, so you have advertised the job and have received many letters of application. The Power of Writing Well Lesson 9: POWER Writing

5 5 of 49 As you begin to read the first letter, you begin to laugh. Why? The letter was written by a person who cannot spell, write grammatically correct sentences, or organize thoughts. Thinking aloud, you say, “How can such a person possible by qualified to be a hotel manager?” The Power of Writing Well Lesson 9: POWER Writing

6 6 of 49 The point of this make-believe situation is: We must be able to write well if we want to get a good job. For most of us, the first step in applying for a job is to write and submit a resume, a statement of our qualifications for the job. To be successful after we graduate from school, we must be able to write clearly and concisely. This requirement is especially true in today’s world of and faxes. We recommend the CPC Way known as POWER writing as shown in the next slide. The Power of Writing Well Lesson 9: POWER Writing

7 7 of 49 What does POWER stand for? POWER is an acronym, a memory device, to help you remember, and the letters stand for the following words. P = Plan O = Outline W = Write E = Edit R = Rewrite The Power of Writing Well Lesson 9: POWER Writing

8 8 of 49 Before we examine each of these parts, let us look at two checklists: One is for a writing time schedule and the other is a list of writing guidelines. You may wan to make copies for both checklists for future use. You can do this by printing Appendix 9. Checklists. The Power of Writing Well Lesson 9: POWER Writing

9 9 of 49 Writing Time Schedule Writing Stages Date 1. PLAN a. Title selection_______ b. Information collection_______ 2. OUTLINE a. Preparation_______ b. Teacher conference_______ 3. WRITE: First draft_______ 4. EDIT: Revise draft_______ 5. REWRITE: Final copy_______ Writing Time Schedule Writing Stages Date 1. PLAN a. Title selection_______ b. Information collection_______ 2. OUTLINE a. Preparation_______ b. Teacher conference_______ 3. WRITE: First draft_______ 4. EDIT: Revise draft_______ 5. REWRITE: Final copy_______ Lesson 9: POWER Writing

10 10 of 49 Many students tend to procrastinate and write their papers at the very last minute. Therefore, the quality of their papers suffers. To overcome this weakness, you can prepare and follow a time schedule like the one shown in the previous slide and in Appendix 9. Checklist. Writing Time Schedule Lesson 9: POWER Writing

11 11 of 49 The schedule should be flexible, with enough time available to increase or decrease the time spent at any stage and still allow sufficient time to submit your final copy by the specified date. Writing Time Schedule Lesson 9: POWER Writing

12 12 of 49 In addition to content, the appearance of your paper also adds to the value of your writing. A set of format rules for you to follow is given in the next slide and in Appendix 9. Checklist. You should, however, check with your teachers for their format requirements. Close the window that the appendix appears in to return to this lesson. Writing Guidelines Lesson 9: POWER Writing

13 13 of 49 In college you will find that there are publication manuals (e.g., Publication Manual, American Psychological Association) requiring specific formats. A suggested format is shown in the next two slides. Writing Guidelines Lesson 9: POWER Writing

14 14 of 49 Format Rules _____ PAGES. Type on one side of a page and number all pages. _____ MARGINS. Leave at least a one-inch of margin on all four sides. _____NAMES. Type your name, centered, on a cover page. Below it, type your teacher's name, and the date you submitted the paper. _____TITLE. Center the title on the first line of the first page of the paper (not the cover page). Writing Guidelines Lesson 9: POWER Writing

15 15 of 49 Format Rules _____SPACING. Double space all typewritten pages, unless you are told to single space by your teacher. _____APPEARANCE. A computer should lead to perfect appearance. _____FOLDER. For a professional appearance, place your paper in a folder or binder and submit it to your teacher. Writing Guidelines Lesson 9: POWER Writing

16 16 of 49 Now that we have considered a writing timetable and writing format, we are ready to move on to the first stage of writing: Plan. Writing Guidelines Lesson 9: POWER Writing

17 17 of 49 When you want to write something, you must plan what you are going to say. You should consider: Plan Lesson 9: POWER Writing Click here to continue. (1) the topic (2) your reason for writing (3) content (4) an information search (5) notes and (6) organization for writing.

18 18 of 49 A. Keywords. Keywords are normally the subjects of sentences and paragraphs. They are the controlling or essential words in obtaining meaning; therefore, they are usually a noun or an adjective-noun pair. Plan Lesson 9: POWER Writing

19 19 of 49 A. Topic. The first thing to do is to select a topic if one has not been assigned by the teacher. If you are choosing the topic yourself, write about something familiar to you. The topic should also be as specific as possible. For example, instead of “Protecting the Environment from Air Pollution,” you may choose to write about “Protecting My Home from Air Pollution.” The latter choice is more familiar and specific and therefore can be easier to write. Plan Lesson 9: POWER Writing

20 20 of 49 B. Reason. Who are you writing for, and why? The answers to these questions will establish the format of the paper and the language you use. For example, if you writing a diary to be read only by you, your language is informal. If you are writing the results of your science project, your language must be formal and scientific. Normally, the language of a written report differs from spoken language. Plan Lesson 9: POWER Writing

21 21 of 49 C. Content. Think about what you want to say. You may get ideas from brainstorming with your friend, by speaking to your teacher, or by speaking to a professional. Once you have decided what to write, you can begin gathering information. Plan Lesson 9: POWER Writing

22 22 of 49 D. Information search. Sources of information are varied. They can range from personal observations to scientific journals, and computer search engines (e.g., Google). You should also be able to get a complete list of references through library sources (e.g., card file and computer retrieval systems). Plan Lesson 9: POWER Writing

23 23 of 49 E. Notes. As you read, take notes by subjects or ideas. Some people copy all related material and later, when preparing their outlines, decide what they want to retain. Remember, quotes and ideas should be credited to the original sources. Plan Lesson 9: POWER Writing

24 24 of 49 F. Organization. Finally, organize your notes by ideas or subjects, read the notes, and revise your organization. Plan Lesson 9: POWER Writing

25 25 of 49 After you have completed the 6 steps of the PLAN stage, you are ready to move on to the second stage of writing: OUTLINE Plan Lesson 9: POWER Writing

26 26 of 49 Preparing an outline is very important. If your outline is well organized, clear, and concise, it will guide you during the writing process. What should you include in your outline? You should include headings and their key words. You should also consider revisions of the outline. Outline Lesson 9: POWER Writing

27 27 of 49 A. Headings. The subjects (usually nouns or adjective-noun pairs) can be arranged into an outline consisting of headings and subheadings. If you have taken notes by topics, each one can be used as a heading. For example, the major headings of this part on POWER writing are plan, outline, write, edit, and rewrite. Under the major heading, plan, the subheadings are topic, reason, content, information search, notes, and organization. Outline Lesson 9: POWER Writing

28 28 of 49 B. Keywords Select keywords under each topic of your notes. Keywords are the subjects of sections or paragraphs. For example, the key words for this section on outline are headings, keywords, and revision. Outline Lesson 9: POWER Writing

29 29 of 49 C. Revision As you prepare your outline, you may find it necessary to revise it several times. For example, you may find that some information belong better under another major heading, or it does not fit under any of the headings and can be eliminated. Outline Lesson 9: POWER Writing

30 30 of 49 To summarize, the headings and their keywords provide a guide for what you write. Furthermore, an outline can be the basis of a revision. Now, we are ready to write. Outline Lesson 9: POWER Writing

31 31 of 49 In the third stage, write, the major parts are an introduction, a body, and a summary. As a wise person said, ”Tell them what you are going to say (introduction), say it (body), and then tell them what you said (summary).” Write Lesson 9: POWER Writing

32 32 of 49 A. Introduction Your introduction can be simply a list of your major headings. The introduction gives the reader an idea of what the report is about, and it is like a road map that a traveler examines before taking a trip. Write Lesson 9: POWER Writing

33 33 of 49 B. Body Use your notes to add the flesh to the skeleton outline. Don’t write to impress your teacher with the length of your paper. Write to convey meaningful information as concisely and precisely as you can. Here are some specific suggestions. 1. Words. Use easy words to tell your story; use technical words for exact meaning. 2. Sentences. Keep sentences short—10 or fewer words; never more than 20 words. Write Lesson 9: POWER Writing

34 34 of 49 B. Body 3. Paragraphs. Limit paragraphs to an average of 10 sentences. Present the paragraphs in logical order by following your outline of headings. 4. Print. If you are using a computer, use 12- point type, add bold for headings and emphasis, and do not overuse capital letters. Write Lesson 9: POWER Writing

35 35 of 49 C. Summary Repeat the main points to make certain your message is across and will be remembered. This section on writing asks you to begin with an introduction to tell the reader what it is all about, follow it with a body of statements, and end the paper by stressing key points. We are now ready to move to edit. Write Lesson 9: POWER Writing

36 36 of 49 When students edit their papers in the fourth stage of writing, they usually limit editing to spelling and grammar. Beyond these tasks, however, it is even more important to see whether your ideas have been stated accurately and clearly. To edit for ideas requires more than just skimming the paper. You must read it carefully to see that it says exactly what you meant. Edit Lesson 9: POWER Writing

37 37 of 49 Here are some suggestions for editing a paper: concentrate on ideas, check spelling and grammar. Finally, make revisions whenever necessary. Specific suggestions are given in the following slides. Edit Lesson 9: POWER Writing

38 38 of 49 A. Meaning Set your paper aside for several days and read it once more. You may even ask a friend to read it for you. If you are checking it yourself, read the paper slowly and prepare a new outline as you read. Look at the headings and the relationships among sections and paragraphs. Do they all tie in with the title? Does it all make sense to you? Edit Lesson 9: POWER Writing

39 39 of 49 B. Spelling A paper is only as good as the words used in it. As good as the content may be, poor spelling ruins it. Using the spell check feature of your word processor practically eliminates common spelling errors, but if the error is an acceptable word but the wrong one, the computer will not pick it up. Don’t forget, when you apply for a job with a resume, it may not even be read if it begins with spelling errors. Edit Lesson 9: POWER Writing

40 40 of 49 C. Grammar Incorrect punctuations or verbs will also count against you. Nor should you use unusual expressions (e.g., slang), which can adversely affect the value of your writing. Edit Lesson 9: POWER Writing

41 41 of 49 D. Revision Revision can and should take place at any stage of the POWER writing sequence. The main purpose of a revision is to improve the quality of your paper. Edit Lesson 9: POWER Writing

42 42 of 49 In this final stage of POWER writing, all the problems you found while editing should be corrected. If you have access to a computer and its word processing program, rewriting will be easier. Write and rewrite again and again. This is one way to become a successful writer. Rewrite Lesson 9: POWER Writing

43 43 of 49 Even talented people who earn their living as professional writers must edit and revise everything they write. The powerfully moving story in your favorite book went through many revisions before it was printed. A simple poem of a few words or the enchanting description of a tree may have been rewritten numerous times. Rewrite Lesson 9: POWER Writing

44 44 of 49 Maxine Hong Kingston, one of the most widely read author at the college level, makes 10 to 12 drafts of her books before she submits them to a publisher. How many drafts do you think you will need? Rewrite Lesson 9: POWER Writing

45 45 of 49 In short, Plan, Outline, Write, Edit, and Rewrite and POWER your way to better writing, to better grades, to better jobs, and to a happier life. Rewrite Lesson 9: POWER Writing

46 46 of 49 What does POWER stand for? P = O = W = E = R = Answer your questions on a sheet of paper. Reading: QUESTIONS 7-1 ? ? ? Lesson 9: POWER Writing

47 47 of 49 P = Plan O = Outline W = Write E = Edit R = Rewrite Reading : ANSWERS 7-1 Lesson 9: POWER Writing

48 48 of 49 You are on your way to becoming a skilled reader, note taker, and writer. Your are future is getting brighter and clearer by the day. However, in today’s technologically complex world, not only must you be word-competent but also number-competent. Not a day will go by without math playing an important part. In the next lesson, we will show you what the strengths and weaknesses of many students are in math. If you know them, then you can capitalize on the strengths and avoid the weaknesses or improve on them. Bravo! Lesson 9: POWER Writing

49 49 of 49 Writing is something that you will do throughout your life, so you should learn how to do it well. Following the steps in POWER writing—plan, outline, write, edit, and rewrite— will make the task easier and will ensure that your writing is effective. Next In the next lesson we will see how we can use the CPC Way in arithmetic. Click the Next button to get started with Lesson Ten. Summary Lesson 9: POWER Writing


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