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**Chapter 3: Consumer Preferences and the Concept of Utility**

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**Outline Introduction Description of consumer preferences**

The Utility functions Marginal utility and diminishing marginal utility Indifference Curves Marginal rate of substitution Special functional forms

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Introduction Supply and Demand Models (Ch. 2) are useful for analyzing economic questions concerning markets. How will increasing the real wage affect output? In these models we summed each individuals demand to obtain the market demand curve. But, how do individuals decide what to consume and how much to consume.

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Introduction We need to develop a model about individual or consumer behavior Model is based on: Individual tastes or preferences determine the amount of pleasure people derive from goods and services. (Chapter 3) Consumers face constraints (budget) that limit their choices Consumers maximize their well-being or pleasure from consumption, subject to the constraints they face. We want our model to be realistic so we can predict consumer behavior. But, still as simple as possible.

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**Description of Consumer Preferences**

Consumer Preferences tell us how the consumer would rank any two basket of goods, assuming these allotments were available to the consumer at no cost. baskets or bundles is a collection of goods or services that an individual might consume.

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**Properties of Consumer Preferences**

The Assumptions of Consumer Behavior 1. Complete: Preferences are complete if the consumer can rank any two baskets of goods A strictly preferred to B (A B ) B strictly preferred to A (B A ) indifferent between A and B (A ≈ B) Preferences are transitive if a consumer who prefers basket A to basket B, and basket B to basket C also prefers basket A to basket C 2. Transitive: No illogical behavior A B and B C → A C NOT C A

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**Properties of Consumer Preferences**

Monotonic (more is better) Preferences: are monotonic if a basket with more of at least one good and no less of any good is preferred to the original basket. – free disposal can’t be worse of with more The more is better assumption is also known as the property of non-satiation. It assumes are looking at what economists call a ‘good’. Something we want more of We are not looking at a ‘bad’ i.e. pollution We can relax this assumption it is the first two that are crucial for the analysis

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Preferences Examples

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**Intransitivity and Age**

Age Number of Subjects Intransitive Choices (%) Adults Source: See Hirshleifer, Jack and D. Hirshleifer, Price Theory and Applications. Sixth Edition. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey

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**Ordinal vs Cardinal Rankings**

Ordinal Ranking: gives us information on how a consumer ranks different baskets of goods. But it does not say by how much (i.e. 2 times as much) This is how we view preferences. Cardinal Rankings: Give us information on the intensity of the consumer preferences (i.e. they like basket A 10 times more than basket B). Would be hard to say I like eating pizza out 10.5 times more than eating bad Chinese. Putting an exact number to our preferences is hard! – this is why we use ordinal rankings for consumer preferences

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**Ordinal vs Cardinal Example**

Students take an exam. After the exam, the students are ranked according to their performance. An ordinal ranking lists the students in order of their performance (i.e., Harry did best, Joe did second best, Betty did third best, and so on). A cardinal ranking gives the grade of the exam, based on an absolute grading standard (i.e., Harry got 50, Joe got 100, so Joe did 2 times better than Harry).

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Utility Function Utility Function: measures the level of satisfaction that a consumer receives from any basket of goods. U=F(x1,x2,x3, ….., xn), where the x’s are quantities of n goods that might be consumed in a period Utility is an ordinal concept: the precise magnitude of the number that the function assigns has no significance.

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Implications difference in magnitudes of utility have no interpretation per se utility not comparable across individuals any transformation of a utility function that preserves the original ranking of bundles is an equally good representation of preferences. e.g. U = xy vs. U = xy + 2 represent the same preferences.

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**Utility Function (one good example) Are the assumptions on preferences meet?**

U(y): total utility of muffins U(y) = y.5 1.75 C 1.5 B 1.0 A 1 2 3 y, weekly consumption of muffins

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Marginal Utility Marginal Utility: Rate at which total utility changes as the level of consumption rises. Each new muffin makes you happier, but makes you happier by smaller and smaller amount.

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Marginal Utility The marginal utility:of a good, x, is the additional utility that the consumer gets from consuming a little more of x when the consumption of all the other goods in the consumer’s basket remain constant. U/x (y held constant) = MUx=∂ U/∂ x U/y (x held constant) = MUy =∂ U/∂ y …or…the marginal utility of x is the slope of the utility function with respect to x. The principle of diminishing marginal utility: states that the marginal utility falls as the consumer consumes more of a good

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**Marginal Utility MU(y): marginal utility of muffins 1.00 .50 .25 1 2 3**

-If more is always better: marginal utility must always be positive. -Diminishing marginal utility -A positive marginal utility means you like the good. Otherwise you would get zero or perhaps negative marginal utility 1.00 .50 .25 y, weekly consumption of muffins

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**Utility function (2 good example)**

Indifference curve

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**Indifference Curve (IC)**

Clothing 2 good graph (keeps it simple) - Along curve consumer is indifferent between each of the bundles of food and clothing Same level of utility for bundle A, B, and C A B C IC1 for U=4 food

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**Indifference Map: Clothing Are indifferent to any bundle along an**

indifference curve. But more is better so are better off as we move away from the origin. Preference direction ( happier the further away from the origin IC2 for U = 6 IC1 for U=4 Food

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**Indifference Curves and Map**

An Indifference Curve or Indifference Set: is the set of all baskets for which the consumer is indifferent An Indifference Map: illustrates a set of indifference curves for a consumer, it is an ordinal ranking.

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**Properties of Indifference Maps**

1. Monotonicity => indifference curves have negative slope …and… indifference curves are not “thick” 2. Transitivity => indifference curves do not cross 3. Completeness => each basket lies on only one indifference curve

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**Properties of Indifferences Maps**

One more assumption usually is made: 4. Averages preferred to extremes => indifference curves are bowed toward the origin (convex to the origin).

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**Monotonicity: Consumers like both goods.**

Clothing To meet monotonicity: preference curve must be in the these areas: downward sloping Preferred to A • A Less preferred IC1 Food

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**Monotonicity: Clothing**

If more is preferred to less, IC cannot be thick. B would be preferred to A, so could not be on same CI curve. B A IC1 for U=4 food

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**Indifference Curves Cannot Cross**

clothing Suppose that B preferred to A. but..by definition of IC, B indifferent to C A indifferent to C => B indifferent to A by transitivity. Contradiction, B should be preferred to A. IC2 IC1 • B • A C • food

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**Averages Preferred to Extremes**

Clothing A • (.5A, .5B) • IC2 • IC1 B Food

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**Example: For the indifference curves graphed **

below, are the underlying preferences: Complete? Transitive? Monotonic? IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 y Preference direction x

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**Example: For the indifference curves graphed **

below, are the underlying preferences: Complete? Yes Transitive? Yes Monotonic? No IC1 IC2 IC3 IC4 y Want as much X as possible but don’t care about Y: So same X and more Y are not better off, so not monotonic. B Preference direction A x

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**Marginal Rate of Substitution**

The marginal rate of substitution: is the maximum rate at which the consumer would be willing to substitute a little more of good x for a little less of good y…or… It is the increase in good x that the consumer would require in exchange for a decrease in good y in order to leave the consumer indifferent between consuming the old basket or the new basket…or…

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**Marginal Rate of Substitution**

It is the rate of exchange between goods x and y that does not affect the consumer’s welfare…or… It is the negative of the slope of the indifference curve: -y/x (for a constant level of preference) MRSx,y = =Slope of the indifference curve If you like both goods, the MRSx,y will be negative.

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**An indifference curve exhibits a diminishing rate of substitution:**

if the more of good x you have, the more you are willing to give up to get a little of good y…or… The indifference curves get flatter as we move out along the horizontal axis and steeper as we move up along the vertical axis. Example: The Diminishing Marginal Rate of Substitution

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**What type of good are these? Perfect substitutes**

Example: For the following indifference curves, what is the marginal rate of substitution between x and y is: 1, .5, 2, or 5? Is the MRS diminishing? y What type of good are these? Perfect substitutes Does the MRS need to be 1 for each of these? No could be in a ratio of 2 to 1 (2 oreo cookies for each glass of milk 3 2 1 IC1 IC2 IC3 x

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**Graphing an Indifference Curve**

y Example: Suppose U = xy, graph the utility curve if utility is equal to 10. 5 2 10 = xy 2 5 x

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y Example: U=20 5 Preference direction 20 = xy 2 10 = xy 2 5 x

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**Relative Income and Life Satisfaction (within nations)**

Relative Income Percent > ="Satisfied" Lowest quartile Second quartile Third quartile Highest quartile 8 % more satisfied 4% more satisfied 3 % more satisfied STOP HERE LECTURE 3 Source: Hirshleifer, Jack and D. Hirshleifer, Price Theory and Applications. Sixth Edition. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey

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**Absolute Income and Life Satisfaction (across nations)**

GNP per number of median "satisfaction" capita nations score < $2, $2,000-$4, $4,000-$8, $8,000-$16, Source: Hirshleifer, Jack and D. Hirshleifer, Price Theory and Applications. Sixth Edition. Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, New Jersey

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**Marginal Utility and Marginal Rate of Substitution**

MUx(x) + MUy(y) = 0 …along an IC… MUx/MUy = -y/x = MRSx,y Derive memorize

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**Marginal Utility and Marginal Rate of Substitution**

Positive marginal utility implies the indifference curve has a negative slope (implies monotonicity) Diminishing marginal utility implies the indifference curves are convex to the origin (implies averages preferred to extremes

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**Example: U = Ax2+By2; MUx=2Ax; MUy=2By (where: A and B positive)**

MRSx,y = MUx/MUy = 2Ax/2By = Ax/By Marginal utilities are positive (for positive x and y) Marginal utility of x increases in x; marginal utility of y increases in y

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Implications of this… Indifference curves are negatively-sloped, bowed out from the origin, preference direction is up and right Indifference curves intersect the axes

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**y Preference direction IC2 IC1 x Example: Graphing Indifference Curves**

Concave: prefer extremes to averages Preference direction IC2 IC1 x

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**Example: U= (xy).5;MUx=y.5/2x.5; MUy=x.5/2y.5**

Example: U= (xy).5;MUx=y.5/2x.5; MUy=x.5/2y.5 Is more better for both goods? Yes, since marginal utilities are positive for both. b. Are the marginal utility for x and y diminishing? Yes. (For example, as x increases, for y constant, MUx falls.) c. What is the marginal rate of substitution of x for y? MRSx,y = MUx/MUy = y/x

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**Do the indifference curves intersect the axes?**

A value of x = 0 or y = 0 is inconsistent with any positive level of utility.

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y Example: Graphing Indifference Curves IC1 x

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y Example: Graphing Indifference Curves Preference direction IC2 IC1 x

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**Special Functional Forms**

1. Cobb-Douglas: U = Axy where: + = 1; A, , positive constants MUX = Ax-1y Axy-1 MUY = MRSx,y = (y)/(x) Note: marginal rate of substitute only depends on the ratio of X and y not on the total amounts of X and y. So indifference curves for different levels of Utility look identical to each other no matter how far away from the origin they are.

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**Perfect Substitutes: U = Ax + By**

Where: A, B positive constants MUx = A MUy = B MRSx,y = A/B so that 1 unit of x is equal to B/A units of y everywhere (constant MRS). Note: marginal rate of substitute only depends on the ratio of A and B not on the total amounts of X and y. So indifference curves for different levels of Utility look identical to each other no matter how far away from the origin they are.

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**Example: Perfect Substitutes (Tylenol, Extra-Strength Tylenol)**

Slope = -A/B IC1 IC2 IC3 x

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**3. Perfect Complements: U = min( x, y) **

where: , are a positive constant. And min means take The smaller of the two constants. I.e you want 8 oz of Coffee with one oz of cream U = min( x, 8 y), where x is cream and y is coffee. So x/y = / =1/8 =fixed proportions MRSx,y is 0 or infinite or undefined (corner)

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y Example: Perfect Complements (nuts and bolts) IC1 x

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y Example: Perfect Complements (nuts and bolts) / IC2 IC1 x

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**Quasi-Linear Preferences**

U = v(x) + Ay Where: A is a positive constant. MUx = v’(x) = V(x)/x=dV/dx, where small MUy = A "The only thing that determines your personal trade-off between x and y is how much x you have."

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**• Example: Quasi-linear Preferences (consumption of beverages) y**

MRS diminishes at the quantity of X increase But does not depend on quantity of y. IC1 • x

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**• • y IC2 IC’s have same slopes on any IC1 vertical line x**

Example: Quasi-linear Preferences (consumption of beverages) IC2 IC’s have same slopes on any vertical line IC1 • • x

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Summary 1. Described consumer preferences without any restrictions imposed by budget 2. Minimal assumptions on preferences to get interesting conclusions on demand…seem to be satisfied for most people. (ordinal utility function)

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