4CONSUMER’s EQUILIBRIUM BASIC CONCEPTSConsumer’s Equilibrium Using Marginal Utility AnalysisConsumer’s Equilibrium by Indifference Curve Approach
5Basic concepts I Utility - Want satisfying power of a commodity . Total Utility - Total satisfaction obtained by a consumer from consuming given amount of a commodity .Marginal Utility - Change in total utility resulting from the change in consumption by one unit. MUn = TUn – TUn-1 .
6Basic concepts IILaw of Diminishing MU – As we consume more and more units of a commodity , the utility derived from each successive unit goes on diminishing.Assumption – LDMU is based on certain basic assumptions like Rationality of the consumer, Continuous consumption, Uniform quality of the commodity consumed.
7Basic concepts III Relation : TU & MU Unit of consumption TU MU 01 20 When TU increases at a diminishing rate , MU falls. ( Upto 4th Unit )When TU reaches its maximum & constant, MU = 0 ( At 5th Unit )When TU falls, MU < 0 ( Above 5th Unit )Unit of consumptionTUMU0120023616034610045005000644
8Condition of consumer equilibrium – In case of single commodity : Consumer’s Equilibrium by marginal utility analysis ( Cardinal Approach )Consumer Equilibrium : MeaningThe situation when a consumer is having maximum satisfaction with given income and has no tendency to change his way of existing expenditure.Condition of consumer equilibrium – In case of single commodity :MUx in terms of money = Px ( x : commodity )i.e MUx / MUm = PX ( MUm : MU of money )
9Consumer’s Equilibrium Consumer Equilibrium (in case of single commodity)Unit of XPrice of XMU xMUx / MumMUm = 1Mux/MUm - PxRemarks1210201620 / 1 = 2016/1 = 1620 – 10 = 1016 – 10 = 6MUx/MUm > PxIncrease in consumption310/1 = 1010-10= 0MUx/MUm = PxConsumer’s Equilibrium454/1 = 40 / 1 = 04 – 10 = -60 – 10 = -10MUx/MUm < PxDecrease in consumption
10Conditions of Consumer Equilibrium – In case of Two commodities ( X & Y ) : MU of last rupee spent on each commodity spentis same i.e. MUX / PX = MUY / PYSubject to Px . X + Py . Y = MM : Money income.
11Consumer Equilibrium ( In case of Two comm) Commodity XCommodity YUnit XMUxPxMux / PxUnit YMUyPyMUy / Py1 1001010 124212808221136063 20440189516147* Money Income (M) of the consumer is Rs 30.1. At X=1 & Y= 3, MUx / Px = MUy / Py but (Exp on X + Exp on Y ) ≠ M2. At X= 2 & Y= 5 , MUx / Px = MUy / Py and (Exp on X + Exp on Y ) = M (Equilibrium )If MUx/Px > MUy/Py , the consumer gets more MU from last rupee spent on X as compared to Y. He will buy more of X and less of Y till MUx/Px = MUy/Py.If MUx/Px < MUy/Py, the consumer gets more MU from the last rupee spent on Y as compared to X. He will buy more of X and less of Y till MUx/Px = MUy/Py .
12Consumer’s Equilibrium by Indifference Curve Approach ( Ordinal Approach ) Indifference Curve : MeaningA curve showing different combinations of two goods which give equal satisfaction to the consumer.Indifference Map : MeaningA family of indifference curves is called an Indifference Map. Higher IC represents higher level of satisfaction.
13Monotonic Preference : Meaning A consumer’s preferences are monotonic if and only if between any two bundles, he prefers the bundle which has more of at least one of the goods and no less of the other good as compared in the other bundle.Example : Consumer prefers bundle (2,3) to bundles (2,2), (1,3) & (1,2).Monotonicity of preferences implies that a point above IC represents a bundle which is preferred to the bundle on IC
14Slope of Indifference Curve / Marginal Rate of Substitution (MRSxy) (i) MRSxy – The amount of one good (Y) which a consumer is willing to sacrifice for an additional unit of the other good (X). The rate at which the consumer trades off Y for X.(ii) The slope measures the substitution ratio between the two goods.(iii) Slope of IC = Y / X = MRSxy
15Properties Of Indifference Curve (i) An IC slopes downward – If the consumer wants to have more units of one good, he will have to reduce the consumption of other good in order to maintain the same level of satisfaction.(ii) An IC is convex to the origin i.e. MRS is Diminishing – The consumer is willing to give up less and less unit of one good for an increment in the other (MU of the other falls with increase in consumption).(iii) Two ICs do not intersect each other.(Explanation may be given with diagram)
16Budget Line It shows all possible combinations of two goods that a consumer can buy with given income & prices of the commodities.Budget Line : Px . X + Py . Y = M ( M : total income)Slope of Budget Line = Px / Pyi.e. the consumer can substitute good X for Y at the rate of Px/Py.QyA (0, M/Py) Budget Line (AB)B (M/Px, 0)Qx
17Why is the slope of Budget Line represented by Price Ratio A point on budget line indicates a bundle which the consumer can purchase by spending his entire income. So, if he wants to have one more unit of one good ( say X) , he will have to give up some amount of the other good (say Y).Suppose price of good X is Rs 4 per unit (Px=4) & that of good Y is Rs 2 per unit (Py= 2). So to get one extra unit of X , he has to sacrifice 2 units of good Y.Slope of Budget Line = Unit sacrificed / Unit gained= 2 / 1Price Ratio = Px / Py = 4 / 2 = 2/1Thus, slope of Budget Line = Price ratio
18Shift in Budget Line (i) Change in Income – when income rises consumer can buy more of both the goods , the budget line shifts rightward (parallel shift - slope remains same as no change in price) & vice versa.(ii) Change in Price – ( change in slope)Px falls / Px rises Py falls / Py risesQy A Qy A1A Py fallsPx fallsA2 Qx Py rises QxB B B B
19Conditions of ConsumerEquilibrium(IC) (i) Slope of IC = Slope of Budget Linei.e. MRSxy = Px / Py(ii) Diminishing MRS
20Consumer Equilibrium with IC E : equilibrium point which shows the combination at whichSlope of Budget Line = Slope of ICi.e. Px / Py = MRSxy
21Consumer equilibrium with IC (contd…) (i) if MRSxy > Px/Py, to obtain one more unit of X, the consumer is willing to sacrifice more unit of Y than what the market requires i.e. he is willing to pay more for X than the price prevailing in the market. As a result, he buys more of X & MRS falls till it becomes equal to the ratio of prices.(ii) If MRSxy < Px/Py , to obtain one more unit of X , the consumer is willing to sacrifice lesser units of Y i.e. he is willing to pay less for X than the price prevailing in the market. As a result he buys less of X & more of Y & MRS rises till it becomes equal to the ratio of prices.
23THEORY OF DEMAND Basic Concepts Determinants of Demand Law of demand Change in quantity demandedChange in demand
24Basic ConceptsDemand The quantity of a commodity the consumer is willing to buy at a particular price during a particular period of time.Demand Schedule A tabular presentation of various quantities of a good that consumers are willing to buy at different prices Individual & Market Demand Schedule.Demand Curve A graphical presentation of various quantities of a good that consumers are willing to buy at different prices Individual & Market Demand Curve.
25Determinants of Demand I Price of the commodity – Inverse relationship between price of the commodity & its quantity demanded.Prices of Related commodities – Two cases (i) Substitute Goods (eg. Tea& Coffee) – Direct relation between price of a commodity & demand for its substitute.(ii) Complementary Goods (eg. Ink & Pen) – Inverse relation between price of a commodity & demand for its complementary good.
26Determinants of Demand II Income of the consumer – (Two cases)(i) Normal Good – Demand for the good increases with increase in income of the consumer. Direct relation.(ii) Inferior Good – Demand for the good decreases with increase in income of the consumer. Inverse relation.. Taste & preferences of the consumer – Favourable changes in taste & preferences of the consumer increases demand for a commodity. Direct relation.. Expectation of consumer about future change in price of the commodity – Direct relation. Size of population – Direct relation.
27Law of DemandStatement – Other factors remaining same the demand for a good is inversely related to its price.Example – PxQxDiagram – Inverse relation is represented by downward sloping demand curve.Pxd Qx
28Change in Quantity Demanded Expansion of Demand – Other things remaining same , demand for a commodity rises with fall in its price . Represented by downward movement along the demand curve. Eg. Px : Qx :Contraction of Demand – Other things remaining same , demand for a commodity falls with rise in its price. Represented by upward movement along the demand curve. Eg. Px : Qx : 20 15Diagram : Represented by the movement along the demand curve. Students should draw the diagram
29Change In Demand (i) Increase in demand . Meaning : When higher quantity of a commodity is demanded at the same price due to change in other determinants of demand.. Example : PxQx. Specific reasons : Change in determinants other than the price of the commodity eg. Increase in Income, Rise in price of substitute good, Fall in price of complementary good, Favourable change in taste & preference of the consumer etc.. Diagram : Represented by rightward shift of demand curve. (Students should draw the diagram.)
30(ii) Decrease in demand . Meaning : When lower quantity of a commodity is demanded at the same price due to change in other determinants of demand.. Example : PxQx. Specific reasons : Change in determinants other than the price of the commodity eg. Decrease in Income, Fall in price of substitute good, Rise in price of complementary good, Unfavourable change in taste & preference of the consumer etc.. Diagram : Represented by leftward shift of demand curve. Students should draw the diagram.
32Price Elasticity of demand MeaningMeasurement of Price Elasticity of Demand - Total Expenditure Method, Point Method & Percentage Method.Degrees of Elasticity of DemandFactors affecting Price Elasticity of Demand.
33Price Elasticity of Demand Meaning :It is a measure of degree of responsiveness of demand for a commodity to change in its price.
34Measurement of Price Elasticity of Demand I Total Expenditure Method Elasticity is measured on the basis of nature of change in total expenditure on the commodity due to change in its price.SLIf Price fallsDescriptionEdTerm Used1Expenditure IncreasesQty demanded rises in greater proportionEd > 1Elastic Demand2Expenditure remains constantQty demanded rises in the same proportionEd = 1Unitary elastic demand3Expenditure fallsQty demanded rises in a lesser proportionEd < 1Inelastic Demand
35Measurement of Price Elasticity of Demand II Point Method Elasticity of Demand = (Lower seg. / Upper seg.) of demand curvePrice A (Ed = ∞)E(Ed >1)C (Ed = 1 : C - Mid-point)D (Ed < 1)B(Ed=0) Qty
36Measurement of Price Elasticity of Demand III Percentage Method Ed = ( % change in Qty demanded / % change in Price)= ( change in Q / change in P ) X P/QThe absolute value of the coefficient of elasticity of demand ranges from Zero to Infinity.
37Degrees of Elasticity of Demand EdType of EdDescriptionType of GoodShape of Demand CurveEd = 0PerfectlyInelasticNo change in Qty demanded due to change in priceEssentials of lifeVertical St Line0 < Ed < 1% change in demand < % change in priceNecessities of lifeDownward sloping steeperEd = 1UnitaryElastic% change in demand = % change in priceNormal goodsRectangularhyperbola1 < Ed < ∞% change in demand > % change in priceLuxuriesDownward sloping flatterEd = ∞Infinite change in demand without any change in priceImaginary (under PC)Horizontal
38Factors affecting Price Elasticity of Demand Availability of close substitutes in marketNature of commodity – necessary / luxuryIncome level of the consumers.Proportion of total expenditure spent on the product.Time period needed to find substitute