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Al REFERENCES Berntsen, D., & Rubin, D. C. (2002). Emotionally charged autobiographical memories across the lifespan: The recall of happy, sad, traumatic,

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Presentation on theme: "Al REFERENCES Berntsen, D., & Rubin, D. C. (2002). Emotionally charged autobiographical memories across the lifespan: The recall of happy, sad, traumatic,"— Presentation transcript:

1 al REFERENCES Berntsen, D., & Rubin, D. C. (2002). Emotionally charged autobiographical memories across the lifespan: The recall of happy, sad, traumatic, and involuntary memories. Psychology and Aging, 17(4), Eckstein, J. J. (2010). Reasons for Staying in Intimately Violent Relationships: Comparisons of men and women and messages communicated to self and others. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 26, Elzinga, PhD, Bernet M., Schmahl, M.D., Christian G., Vermetten, M.D., Eric, Van Dyck, M.D., PhD, Richard, J. Bremner M.D., Douglas (2003). Higher cortisol levels following exposure to traumatic. Yale Psychiatric Research, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Retrieved from researchgate.net Hauer, B. J., Wessel, II., Engelhard, I. M., Peeters, L. L., & Dalgleish, T. (2009). Prepartum autobiographical memory specificity predicts post-traumatic stress symptoms following complicated pregnancy. Memory, 17, Mace, J. H., Clevinger, A. M., & Bernas, R. S. (2013). Involuntary memory chains: What do they tell us about autobiographical memory organisation? Memory, 21, Rasmussen, A. S., & Berntsen, D. (2013). The reality of the past versus the ideality of the future: emotional valence and functinal differenes between past and future mental time travel. Memory & Cognition, 41, Rubin, D. C., Berntsen, D., & Boals, A. (2008). Memory in posttraumatic stress disorder: properties of voluntary and involuntary, traumatic and nontraumatic autobiographical memories in people with and without postttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137, Schacter, Daniel L. (1999). The seven sins of memory: Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience. American Psychologist, 54,  Perform a longitudinal within-subject design study observing behavior and autobiographical memory as women age Follow women through life-time to observe behavior Measure GCs at intervals throughout lifespan Participants keep diary of cues and memories of when involuntary recall happens  Perform a between subject self-report study of women with trauma as they age in their later years Participants from many age brackets Participants who have been away from the trauma for at least one year Use Rubin et al. (2008) basic memory inventory for evaluating autobiographical memory of traumatic events to determine the level of developmental PTSD through word and sensory cues The drive to make happy events even happier than they really are may be fostered by need to downplay the negative memories of traumatic events and to reconcile emotions (Rasmussen and Burntsen, 2013). Self-preservation may be responsible for memory alterations of positive events while recalling traumatic events from the past (Rasmussen and Berntsen, 2013). Memory of these events may include emotional and physical memories that cause involuntary recall during unrelated tasks in every day life. The negative events leading to PTSD may be caused by a predisposition to the disorder rather than the event itself (Rubin, Bernsten, and Boals, 2008). Involuntary memory cues can lead to more involuntary memories recalled (Mace et al., 2013). Recall of Traumatic Events Contact Information: Cortisol Levels are Increased in Women with PTSD who are Exposed to Traumatic Stressors (Elzinga, Schmahl, Vermetten, Van Dyke, and Bremmer, 2003). Exposure to cues or written scripts by women who suffer from PTSD show signs of increased sympathetic response but not seen in women who were exposed to the same cues and did not suffer from PTSD from trauma (Elzinga, et al., 2003). Memory may be inhibited by high levels of glucocorticoids (GC) and have long-term inhibitory effects on memory recall (Elzinga, et al., 2003). Chemicals in the Brain Effect Recall PTSD and Domestic Violence Alters Memory Internal Conversations with the Self Which Alters Memory of Traumatic Event Information told to self and others may impact memory of events in autobiographical memory The alteration of memories of traumatic events because of domestic violence leads to women remaining in violent relationships far longer False memories can be created through suggestibility, misattribution, and transience, so maybe the memory of the event is altered and cannot be trusted (Schacter, 1999). Memory of events, even current ones, may be altered through mental reasoning. Reasons for desired change in memory of events (Eckstein, 2010): o Lack of Practical Resources o Lack of Relational Resources o Excusing the Partner o Positive Emotions o Face Concerns o Fear o Hope for the Future o Normative Behavior o Tradition o Parenting The focus of our presentation is on autobiographical memories of women over 40 who have experienced sexual, physical, and emotional abuse. Research shows that an increase in depression will cause memories to become generalized and less defined, both happy and unhappy memories (Rasmussen and Berntsen, 2013). Women in their 20’s maintain positive attitudes for a hopeful life and retain happier memories in exchange for unhappy ones and as women age past 40, they remember those years more clearly with word-cued memory recall (Berntsen and Rubin, 2002). Memory chains occur when triggered by memory sharing and exchanges the generalized information for a clearer memory of past events causing PTSD (Mace, Clevinger, and Barnes, 2013). More research is needed in the area of traumatic memories on women as they get older. INTRODUCTION Types of Memory Women experience both positive and negative types of memories which are linked to emotional responses for easier or more difficult recall at a later time (Rasmussen and Berntsen, 2013). Memories are classified as: Voluntary Deliberately recalled with descriptive cues Desirable recall – may be positive or negative Involuntary Spontaneous recall from cues in the environment Usually undesirable recall – generally negative Positive Memories of positive events may influence future memories to be increasingly more positive than they are Memories elicit positive emotions toward building relationships and self-esteem Negative Memories elicit negative emotions which may cause course corrections in behavior when imagining the future People tend to push negative memories farther away so as to push negative future images farther away and reducing negative emotions Traumatic memories may have a dissociation or disruptive effect on memory and impairs voluntary recall (Rubin et al., 2003). PTSD causes an inability to control memories as they are recalled and may be flooded by them involuntarily at times and unable to recall with the same clarity or accuracy when desired (Rubin et al., 2003). Higher emotional connection to event which influences severity of recall among people who suffer PTSD (Rubin et al., 2003). PTSD Effects on Memory in Women Autobiographical Memory of Traumatic Events by Women over 40 Angela Smith Angela Smith Department of Psychology Grand Valley State University Future Cognitive Research Study


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