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Creating and developing a health and well-being culture CIPD University of Chester 1st May 2013 Professor Ivan Robertson Robertson Cooper Ltd & Universities.

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Presentation on theme: "Creating and developing a health and well-being culture CIPD University of Chester 1st May 2013 Professor Ivan Robertson Robertson Cooper Ltd & Universities."— Presentation transcript:

1 Creating and developing a health and well-being culture CIPD University of Chester 1st May 2013 Professor Ivan Robertson Robertson Cooper Ltd & Universities of Manchester and Leeds

2 Overview What is resilience and why does it matter? Individuals Organizations Factors influencing resilience Building emotional resilience and well-being

3 What is resilience? Psychologically positive and healthy Resilience protects psychological well-being and health Behaviourally effective and capable Resilience helps to retain a focus on what matters and supports effective behaviour

4 Resilience – Alias... Vitality Energy Flexibility Mental toughness/strength Hardiness, etc...

5 Why does it matter? More than 40 longitudinal studies in last years Psychological well-being factors (positive feelings, negative feelings, optimism, depression, anxiety, smiling(?)...) predict: Earlier death General ill health (including heart disease, blood pressure, immune system functioning, frailty in later life, cancer(?)...) Source: Diener & Chan, 2011

6 Why psychological well-being matters Stress Hypothalamus reacts and releases biochemicals (specifically CRF) HPA & Sympathetic Nervous System activated Shorter term physical reactions: increased BP, pulse rate... Stomach distress, headache, musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances Longer term consequences, including heart disease, immune system disruption

7 Why psychological well-being matters

8 Cardiovascular risk Blood pressure Cholesterol HR variability Weight/Diabetes Glucose regulation Protein & fat metabolism Immune system Inflammatory processes Autoimmune problems

9 Why does it matter? But how big are the effects on mortality and health? Twice as likely to have died (2,800 people, two year follow up; 850 people, five year follow up) Live 6-10 years longer (healthier and happier) Size of effect similar to other well-established risk factors (e.g. smoking, diet) Sources: Ostir et al., 2000; Wilson et al., 2003; Diener & Chan, 2011)

10 Why does it matter? Cohen et al., Psychosomatic Medicine, 2003

11 Psychological well-being: The link to performance Some studies: Donald et al., (2005) – almost a quarter (23%) of variance in employee productivity (sample of 16,000UK employees) is explained by: - Psychological well-being - Perceived commitment of organisation to employee - Resources and communications Cropanzano and Wright (1999) Five year longitudinal study of psychological well-being and performance. Strong correlation between well-being and work performance Taris & Schreurs (2009) Client satisfaction (66 organisations, r=.29) Ford et al., (2011) Overall performance (111 organisations, total sample 10,000+, r=.40)

12 Why psychological well-being matters People higher on psychological well-being Show greater flexibility and originality Respond better to unfavourable feedback Make more positive judgements about others Show higher levels of “Engagement” Are more productive Are likely to live longer … be sick less often … and have happier work and home life *Lyubomirsky, King & Diener, 2005

13 Why do we need resilience? Working more than 11 hours a day consistently Likelihood of depression – 250% higher than people working fewer hours Travellers versus non-travellers: – General medical claims are higher – Psychological illness claims are 300% times higher – Claims from spouses of travellers are 16% higher (over 30% higher for psychological problems) Sources: Virtanen et al., 2012; NISER, 2012, Dimberg et al., 2006, Liese et al., 1997, Espino et al., 2002, Westman & Etzion, 2002,

14 When do we need resilience?: N= 20,000, General working population

15 What factors influence psychological well-being and resilience at work? PersonSituation Work Non-work

16 i-resilience : Personal resilience

17 i-resilience Free for everyone, forever 35,000 users in 2 years From over 4000 organisations 15,000 users from the public sector 10,000 from the private sector

18 Levels of Current Coping in the UK Easier to cope

19 Where does this resilience come from?

20 Private vs. Public Sector Coping Easier to cope

21 What factors influence psychological well-being and resilience at work? PersonSituation Work Non-work

22 Resilience at work Psychological well-being Physical health Personality Personal circumstances Workplace factors Organisational & Management Factors

23 Resilience at work Organisational/management processes Health & (psychological) well-being Work place factors Outcomes: Performance, Sickness absence, presenteeism, etc… Personality Personal circumstances

24 Resilience at work Demands - Cognitive - Physical - Emotional Control Support Achievement

25 Important workplace factors Demands Control Support Johnson & Hall, 1988; De Lange et al., 2003; O’Driscoll & Brough, 2010

26 Workplace factors and well-being Demands Control Relationships Change Role Support Demands Control Support Change Role Reward & contribution The ‘6 Essentials of workplace well-being’ - Robertson Cooper

27 The “6 essential” sources of pressure Resources and communication (Pressure from lack of resources or information) Control and autonomy (Limitations on how the job is done or freedom to make decisions) Balanced workload (Peaks and troughs in workload, difficult deadlines, unsocial hours, work life balance challenges) Job security & change (Pressure from change and uncertainty about the future) Work relationships (High pressure relationships with colleagues, customers, bosses) Job conditions (Pressure from working conditions or pay and benefits)

28 The Well-Being Reservoir Respect & attention Learning & Development Fair rewards Resources & communications Work relationships Balanced Workload Job Security & Change Job conditions Control

29 Resources and Communication Control Balanced workload Job security & change Work relationships Job conditions Psychological Well-Being, Resilience: & Coping Behaviour Individual & Organisational outcomes Work & Well-Being

30 Building & sustaining resilience Tracking well-being AND the drivers of well- being Learning & development Effective management, leadership & organisational processes Selection, assessment & talent management processes

31 Resources and Communication Control Work Relationships Work Life Balance; Workload Job Security & Change Pay, Benefits & Job conditions Psychological well-being Tracking well-being AND the drivers of well-being

32 Measure well-being levels and their workplace drivers Well-being survey (even without follow-up) £1 invested return of £2* Focus groups Internal dialogues Foresight Mental Capital & Well-Being (2008): Government Office for Science

33 Drivers of well-being and engagement (The six essentials)  Resources & Communication  Control and autonomy  Work Relationships  Work Life Balance  Work Overload  Pay & rewards Positive/negative psychological well-being (including Sense of purpose) Engagement Psychological and physical health Productivity ASSET survey measures (and benchmarks):

34 Note: the higher the score the greater the extent to which the area is troubling people – compared to general working population Use results to develop action plan

35 Dept A Dept B

36 Level of intervention DescriptionExamples PrimaryPreventative measures Role re-design, selection, culture change SecondaryRecognise and/or avoid mental health problems. Resilience training, stress management training TertiarySupport for those experiencing mental health problems. Counselling/EAP/support groups/return to work Actions & Solutions

37 Positive (optimistic) thinking styles Experiencing tough challenges Recognising and developing signature strengths Using active (Problem-focused) coping strategies – rather than emotion- focused coping Retaining a clear sense of purpose Cognitive flexibility - control of thoughts and feelings Establishing and nurturing a supportive social network Looking after your physical condition – exercise may be the “magic bullet” Learning & development: Resilience training

38 Practical tips and techniques to build resilience Confidence Recognise your strengths Positive attribution Challenge & mastery Physical well-being Purposefulness Personal moral compass Achieving your goals Positive mental time travel Workplace purpose Social Support Effective networking Gratitude visits Capatalising Empathy vs. sympathy Adaptability Resilient thinking Thinking errors Mindfulness Working smarter Personal resilience

39 Learning & development: Resilience training Positive (optimistic) thinking styles Experiencing tough challenges - Stretch … but not Panic zone! Recognising and developing signature strengths Building mental toughness through tough experiences (but with suitable respite) Physical exercise!

40 Building resilience: Challenge & Mastery

41 Who said this..? “… I put myself under immense pressure - I’m very healthy, but I need that pressure. It only becomes stressful when you can’t handle it…..and boy, do I love handling it!” “…This job is everything … I know I will never be under more pressure … what I have truly gained is the knowledge that I can cope with the pressure of any job in the world … and that makes me happy”

42 Building resilience: “Tough” experiences Tough (very challenging) experiences CAN build higher resilience but only if … Failure and success are attributed positively There are sufficient periods of respite The challenge seems worth it (long-term goals can be a source of motivation) Thoughts and feelings are controlled Beliefs and ambitions are properly grounded in reality

43 Management, leadership & organisational processes

44

45 Control the “six essentials” of workplace well-being Balance challenge and support

46 Person profile Resources and Communication Control Work Relationships Balanced workload Job Security and Change Job Conditions Job profile Resources and Communication Control Work Relationships Balanced workload Job Security and Change Job Conditions “Matching” Score Score indicates if person is likely to “flourish” or be “troubled” in the role Selection, assessment & talent management

47 Job profile Resources and Communication Control Work Relationships Balanced workload Job Security and Change Job Conditions Source of pressure in the job 1…………………………………….6 Profiling the job

48 Person profile Resources and Communication Control Work Relationships Balanced workload Job Security and Change Job Conditions Profiling the person What “troubles” me at work 6…………………………………….1

49 Person profile Resources and Communication Control Work Relationships Balanced workload Job Security and Change Job Conditions Job profile Resources and Communication Control Work Relationships Balanced workload Job Security and Change Job Conditions Profile comparison

50 Collaboration to develop tool Expected outcomes A new, simple tool - to help ensure that recruits are better able to withstand the pressures in a job. “Pressure profile” of roles for collaborating An executive report summarising the work done and the main outcomes. Preferential access to the tool for collaborating organisations.

51 Building & sustaining resilience Tracking well-being AND the drivers of well- being Learning & development Effective management, leadership & organisational processes Selection, assessment & talent management processes

52 For free tools (including i-resilience) and downloads from Robertson Cooper visit Contact us:


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