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LaTeX, BibTeX & FarsiTeX Yasser Ganji Saffar Computer Engineering Department Sharif University of Technology

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2 Outline LaTeX Bibliographies & BibTeX TeX tools IEEEtran FarsiTeX

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3 1.1 Introduction to LaTeX The history of TeX Donald Knuth, 1978 Everyone could easily use to typeset documents, particularly those that include formulae. Made it freely available. The history of LaTeX Leslie Lamport, wrote a variant of TeX called LaTeX. Focuses on document structure rather than TeX small details Strong when working with mathematical symbols Currently it is the standard of typesetting.

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4 1.1 Introduction to LaTeX (contd.) LaTeX is not a WYSIWYG word processor! not to worry too much about the appearance but to concentrate on getting the right content. For example: You only need to mention that a statement is the title of the document. You don’t need to mention the font, size,… for title.

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5 1.2 Documents Components Every LaTeX document must contain the following three components: 1. \documentclass{article} 2. \begin{document} 3. \end{document} In Latex commands generally: required information is included in braces {} optional information is included in square brackets [].

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6 An Example \documentclass[a4paper,11pt]{article} \begin{document} This is a simple latex file. \end{document}

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7 Document Classes & Options Classes: article report book slides Options: 10pt, 11pt, 12pt a4paper, letterpaper,… onecolumn, twocolumn

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8 1.3 Error Messages Since LaTeX will stop after any \end{document} command, a good strategy is to insert \end{document} temporarily to see if the error is above its location.

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9 1.4 Verbatim Environment Maybe, you have to type LaTeX commands as part of your text. Surround any text that you want printed as is with a \begin{verbatim} and an \end{verbatim} command. For example: \begin{verbatim} #include int main() { return 0; } \end{verbatim}

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10 2.Document Structure 1. Page Numbering and Headings 2. Creating a Title Page 3. Sections 4. Cross-References 5. Table of Contents 6. Abstracts 7. Footnote

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Page Numbering and Headings The command \pagestyle controls page numbering and headings. It can take the following forms: \pagestyle{plain} Just a page number \pagestyle{empty} Produces empty heads and feet - no page numbers. \pagestyle{headings} Prints the chapter or section name, and the page number in the heading and footer would be empty \pagestyle{myheadings} You specify what is to go in the heading with the \markboth or the \markright commands These commands can also be applied to a single page using \thispagestyle instead of \pagestyle.

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Creating a Title Page \documentclass{article} \title{some title} \author{some name} \date{some date} \begin{document} \maketitle

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Sections There are two related commands for creating sections: \section{sectiontitle} \section*{sectiontitle} They provide information to LaTeX in case you want to create a Table of Contents. \subsection{title} \subsubsection{title}

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Cross-References Use \label{name} to label the point in your document with some mnemonic. Section \ref{name} to refer to that point. \ref{name} will be replaced by the number of the section containing the corresponding \label command. You will need to run LaTeX twice to generate these references.

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Table of Contents If you have been using \section commands throughout your document, then LaTeX has all the information that it needs to construct one for you. Place the command \tableofcontents after your \begin{document} command. It may be necessary to run LaTeX twice on a document with a Table of Contents. If you have question marks instead of page numbers in your Table of Contents, run LaTeX again.

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Abstracts To create an abstract, place your text in an abstract environment, i.e., between \begin{abstract} and \end{abstract} commands. The abstract should come immediately after your \maketitle command, but before any \tableofcontents command.

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Footnote Using \footnote{your footnote message} For example: … in ICMP\footnote{Internet Control Message Protocol} …

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18 3.Mathematical Typesetting 1. Mathematical Formulas 2. Greek Letters 3. Exponents and Subscripts 4. Above and Below 5. Fractions 6. Functions 7. Sums, Integrals, and Limits 8. Roots 9. Text in Math Displays 10. Operators 11. Relations 12. Negated Symbols

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Mathematical Formulas There are two ways to insert mathematical formulas into your document with LaTeX: 1. Is to have it appear in a paragraph with text($). 2. Is to have them appear in a separate paragraph($$). $\alpha$ is the first letter of the Greek alphabet. $$ \frac{x^n-1}{x-1} = \sum_{k=0}^{n-1}x^k $$

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Greek Letters

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Exponents and Subscripts Use the ^ character to create exponents: If you have an exponent containing more than one character, group the exponent characters inside braces. $$ x^21 \ne x^{21} $$ Similarly, subscripts are created using the underscore character. $$ x_21 \ne x_{21} $$

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Above and Below 1. \overline 2. \overbrace 3. \underline 4. \underbrace $$ \left( \begin{array}{c} m+n\\ m \end{array} \right) = \frac{(m+n)!}{m!n!} = \frac {\overbrace{(m+n)(m+n- 1)\cdots(n+1)}^\mbox{$m$ factors} {\underbrace{m(m-1)\cdots 1}_\mbox{$m$ factors}} $$ ${ while $\overline{x+\overline{y}} = \overline{x}+y$

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Fractions 1. Diagonal fraction bar: $a/b$ 2. Horizontal fraction bar: written as \frac{numerator}{denominator}. $$ \frac{a/b-c/d}{e/f-g/h} $$

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Functions LaTeX uses italics in math mode. Roman (non-italic) for function names. Use a backslash in front of function names. Here is a list of function names: \arccos \arcsin \arctan \arg \cos \cosh \cot \coth \csc \deg \det \dim \exp \gcd \hom \inf \ker \lg \lim \liminf \limsup \ln \log \max \min \Pr \sec \sin \sinh \sup \tan \tanh

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Sums, Integrals, and Limits Summations and integrals both have lower and upper limits, and the commands are similar. Limits usually have text with an arrow placed below them. $$ \lim_{x\rightarrow 0} \frac{\sin x}{x} = 1 $$ $$ \sum_{k=0}^\infty\frac{(-1)^k}{k+1} = \int_0^1\frac{dx}{1+x} $$

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Roots Use the \sqrt{} command to produce square roots: $\sqrt{\frac{a}{b}}$ If you need an nth root, use \sqrt[n]{} instead. $\sqrt[10]{\frac{a}{b}}$

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Text in Math Displays Use the command \mbox{your text here} to include short phrases in a formula. $$ \int_0^{2\pi}\cos(mx)\,dx = 0 \hspace{1cm} \mbox{if and only if} \hspace{1cm} m\ne 0 $$

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Operators

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Relations

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Negated Symbols

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31 4.Spacing 1. Spacing Between Words 2. Double Spacing 3. Horizontal & Vertical Spacing

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Spacing Between Words LaTeX controls the spacing of your document, trying hard to break lines in places that are pleasing to the eye. one blank space = a million blank spaces. Tabs are treated like blank spaces. Blanks at the end of a line are ignored. A single Enter is treated like a blank space. More than one Enter marks the beginning of a new paragraph.

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Double Spacing There will be times when you will need to submit a draft that is double-spaced, to permit a grader or editor to make comments. To double-space a paper, put this in your paper's body: \setlength{\baselineskip}{2\baselineskip}

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Horizontal & Vertical Spacing Use \hspace{length} for horizontal space. Here the length must include a unit, such as 1.5in or 2.3cm. Use \vspace{length} for vertical space.

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35 5.Accents and Font Style 1. Accents 2. Hyphenation 3. Quotation Marks 4. Changing the Appearance of Words 5. Size of Words

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Accents $\hat{a}, \dot{a}, \ddot{a}, \tilde{a}, \bar{a}, \vec{a}$ LaTeX can also produce the following accents:

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Hyphenation There are four hyphens in LaTeX : 1. - (a single dash) is for hyphenating words (two dashes) is for ranges of numbers (three dashes) is for an honest-to-goodness dash between words. 4. $-$ is a minus sign in math mode. For example: My cousin-in-law lived in Germany in ; he speaks French---really, he does. His favorite number is $-2$.

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Quotation Marks Use `` (usually on the left side of the keyboard) to begin a quotation And ’’ (It is two ’ characters that is usually on the right side of the keyboard) to end a quotation. For example, ``This is a quote’’.

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Appearance of Words Use \underline{phrase} to underline a phrase. Use \textbf{phrase} or {\bf phrase} to print a phrase in boldface. Use \emph{phrase} to italicize a phrase.

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Size of Words {\Huge Huge} {\huge huge} {\Large Large} {\large large} normal {\small small}

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41 6.Tables & Arrays 1. Constructing Arrays 2. Constructing Tables

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Constructing Arrays Surround the entries with a \begin{array}{justificat ion} command and an \end{array} command. Separate column entries by an &. And end each line with a \\. If your array is a matrix, you can surround it with large parentheses \left( and \right). For example: $$ \left( \begin{array}{rcl} \alpha&\beta&\gamma\\ \delta&\epsilon&\zeta\\ \eta&\theta&\iota\\ \end{array} \right) $$

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Constructing Tables For example: \begin{tabular}{|r|c|l|} \hline Right & Center & Left\\ \hline alpha & beta & gamma\\ delta & epsilon & zeta\\ eta & theta & iota\\ \hline \end{tabular}

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44 7.Multi-line Equations 1. Multi-line Equations 2. Dots 3. Indenting

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Multi-line Equations Surround the equations by \begin{eqnarray*} and \end{eqnarray*}. Surround the equals sign or inequality with &'s, and end each line with \\. No for $$ with this environment. For example, \begin{eqnarray*} 1+2+\ldots+n &=& \frac{1}{2}((1+2+\ldots+n)+(n+\ldots+2+1))\\ &=& \frac{1}{2}\underbrace{(n+1)+(n+1)+\ldots+(n+1)}_ {\mbox{$n$ copies}}\\ &=& \frac{n(n+1)}{2}\\ \end{eqnarray*}

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Dots 1. \cdots for center height dots. 2. \ddots for diagonal dots, which occur in matrices. 3. \ldots for lower height dots. 4. \vdots for vertical dots. For example: $$ \left( \begin{array}{ccc} a_{11}&\cdots&a_{1n}\\ \vdots&\ddots&\vdots\\ a_{m1}&\cdots&a_{mn} \end{array} \right) $$

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Indenting The default for a LaTeX document is to indent new paragraphs unless the paragraph follows a section heading. If you want to change the indentation, use the \indent and \noindent commands respectively, at the beginning of the paragraph. If you wish to choose the amount of indentation for some reason, then use the command: \setlength{\parindent}{size of indentation} Since this is a command that affects the whole document, it should go in the preamble, between the \documentclass and \begin{document} commands.

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48 8.Text Formatting 1. Centering Text 2. Extended Quotation 3. Bulleted Lists 4. Numbered Lists 5. Filling a Line

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Centering Text By default, LaTeX will start all text at the left margin. If you want to center a title, a table, etc., surround what you want centered with the commands: \begin{center} and \end{center}.

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Extended Quotation If you are going to include an extended quotation from another source, it is important to indicate the difference between the quotation and your words. In LaTeX, surround the quotation with \begin{quote} and \end{quote}.

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Bulleted Lists To create a bulleted list, surround the information with a \begin{itemize} and an \end{itemize}, and begin each item with an \item. For example, \begin{itemize} \item A bulleted item. \item Another bulleted item. \begin{itemize} \item A nested bulleted item. \end{itemize} \item You get the idea. \end{itemize}

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Numbered Lists To create a numbered list, surround the information with a \begin{enumerate} and an \end{enumerate}, and begin each item with an \item. For example, \begin{enumerate} \item A numbered item. \item Another numbered item. \begin{enumerate} \item A nested numbered item. \end{enumerate} \item You get the idea. \end{enumerate}

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Filling a Line If you want a spacing in a line that will push the surrounding words to the left and right margins, use the \hfill command. If instead of spacing, you want either dots or a line, use \dotfill or \hrulefill, respectively.

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54 9. Including Graphics Put \usepackage{graphicx} before \begin{document}. \begin{figure} \centering \includegraphics[width=14cm]{sample.jpg} \caption{A Sample Image} \label{fig:sample} \end{figure}

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55 Bibliography & BibTeX Introduction Styles BibTeX

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56 Bibliographies LaTeX provides a mechanism for automatically linking citations with items in the bibliography. Surround the bibliography with \begin{thebibliography}{99} and \end{thebibliography}. With the bibliography in place, a citation in the body of the document is made with \cite{label}, where label is the same as what occurs in the corresponding \bibitem{label}. What is the 99 in \begin{thebibliography}{99} for? It is a dummy number indicating how many digits to leave space for in the numbering of the bibliography.

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57 author = “Y. Ganji Saffar and H. Abolhassani", title = "A Sample {IEEE} document", journal = “IEEE transactions on Web Services”, volume = "20", month = nov, year = “2005", pages = " " };

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58 BibTeX items An article from a journal or magazine. A book with an explicit publisher. A work that is printed, but without a named publisher. A conference article. A PhD thesis. A technical documentation. Use this type when nothing else ts.

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59 BibTeX Collections You can have a large BibTeX database and in each one of your documents reference to some parts of it. Use \nocite{label} when you want to have an item in your bibliography although you do not have a reference in your document.

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60 Bibliography Styles plain alpha unsrt abbrv

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61 Bibliography Styles - plain Entries are sorted alphabetically and are labelled with numbers

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62 Bibliography Styles - alpha Like plain, except that entry labels are formed from the authors' names and the year of publication.

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63 Bibliography Styles - unsrt Like plain, except that entries appear in the order of their first citation.

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64 Bibliography Styles - abbrv Like plain, except that entries are more compact because first names, month names and journal names are abbreviated

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65 TeX tools Windows WinEdt TeXnicCenter Linux Use the following series of commands: latex filename.tex bibtex filename.tex latex filename.tex

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66 WinEdt

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68 TeXnicCenter

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70 IEEEtran Class Options Text size 9pt, 10pt, 11pt, 12pt Modes conference, journal, technote, peerreview, peerreviewca Paper size letterpaper, a4paper Columns onecolumn, twocolumn Bibliography Style: IEEEtran IEEEtran.cls and IEEEtran.bst must be on the same directory of your TeX file (these are available on the course page).

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71 \documentclass[conference]{IEEEtran} 8 pages \documentclass{article} 19 pages

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72 conference

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73 journal

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74 technote

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75 peerreview

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76 FarsiTeX Based on LaTeX 2.09 (too old) Use \documentstyle[farsi]{article} instead of \documentclass{article} Undo is not supported in the current editor :( You can not copy the content to Windows clipboard.

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77 Inserting Pictures (1/2) 1. Convert your picture file to.eps format. In Windows: jpeg2ps.exe sample.jpg > sample.eps jpeg2ps.exe is available on course page. Often the quality of.eps files is dramatically low, so if you want to have a high quality result the resolution of your JPG file must be high. In Linux: convert sample.jpg sample.eps Convert converts an input file using one image format to an output file with a differing image format.

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78 Inserting Pictures (2/2) 2. Insert the following codes:

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79 Margins

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80 Bibliography BibTeX is not supported :(

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81 References & Links LaTeX Tutorial, Jeff Clark, Revised February 26, 2002 Some Examples of Using LaTeX(first draft), Samuel R. Buss, May 15, 1996 Introduction to the LaTeX Document Preparation System, Information Technology Rice University LaTeX, Henry Stern Carrie Gates, October 22, 2002 anual/ anual/

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The End

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