Presentation on theme: "Are You Smarter Than An 8th Grader?"— Presentation transcript:
1Are You Smarter Than An 8th Grader? For separate ecosystems to be classified as the same type of biome, they must —A) have deciduous forestsB) be located along the equatorC) have similar organisms and climatesD) be at least one hundred square meters in area
3Ecologists group Earth's diverse environments into biomes. Biome is a large area that exhibits similar climate, plants, and animals.
4Climate has 2 main components TemperaturePrecipitation
5Temperature and Precipitation help determine the type of vegetation in an ecosystem. As temperature and precipitation decrease, the climate of an area becomes drier and vegetation becomes sparser.
6Latitude and altitude affect climate and vegetation in similar ways.
7Ecotone – a transition area between 2 adjacent ecosystems or communities that overlap. contain elements of both bordering communities as well as organisms which are characteristic and restricted to the ecotone.
8Can any organism (plant or animal) live in any biome?Adaptation is a process in which a species becomes better suited to survive in an environment.
10Desert AdaptationsSmall leaves or spines on desert plants conserve water.Thick waxy skin holds in water.Shallow root system soak up rain water quickly before it evaporates.Xerophyte – plants structurally adapted for life and growth with limited water supply.Succulent – plants like cacti with fleshy tissues for storing moisture
11Grassland Adaptations Deep roots help plants survive prairie fires.Narrow leaves lose less water than broad leaves.Flexible stems bend in the wind.
12Tundra Adaptations Small plants grow close to the ground for warmth. Dark colored flowers absorb heat from the sun.Fuzzy stems provide protection from wind.
13Rainforest Adaptations The Capirona tree employs a unique adaptation to parasites. Each year, its bark sloughs off carrying with it an assorted variety of fungi, molds, insects, and other invasive plants.Pointed drip tips channel rain to the soil and help keep the leaf blades dry.Aerial plants gather nourishment from the air using 'air roots'
14Temperate Forest Adaptations Thick bark protects trees and dropping leaves in winter conserves water and nutrients during cold winters.
15Animal Adaptation – any behavioral or physical characteristic of an animal that helpsit survive in its environment.
16Structural (physical) adaptation -- are body structures that allow an animal to find and consume food, defend itself,and to reproduce.Body coverings & parts (claws, beaks, feet, armor plates, skulls, teeth)
18kangaroo rats Body size -Large size deters predators, makes metabolism more efficient-Small body size allows concealment, exploitation of small areasWater conservation-cutaneous (skin) loss-excretory (urine/feces) loss-respiratory (breathing -- fewer breaths per minute means less water lost per breath and lower metabolism)kangaroo rats*have the ability to convert the dry seeds they eat into water.*have specialized kidneys which allow them to dispose of waste materials with very little output of water.
19Temperature management -Cold vs Warm bloodedOR-Homeothermy vs Poikilothermy-Cold blooded (Ectothermic) animals have low energy overhead but are inactive in cool and cold conditions-Warm blooded (Endothermic) animals have high energy overhead but can be very active even at low temperatures
20Body Temperature Regulation: Endotherm vs. Ectotherm
21Protective coloration and protective resemblance allow an animal to blend into its environment = camouflage Their camouflage makes it hard for enemies to single out individuals.
22The Viceroy butterfly uses mimicry to look like the Monarch butterfly. Mimicry allows one animal to look, sound, or act like another animal to fool predators into thinking it is poisonous or dangerous.The Viceroy butterfly uses mimicry to look like the Monarch butterfly.
23Behavior adaptations include activities that help an animal survive – allows animal to respond to life needsBehavior adaptations can be learned or instinctive.
24Migration - - an animal or group of animals moving from one region to another and then back again. Animals migrate for different reasons (internal and external cues). better climatebetter foodsafe place to livesafe place to raise younggo back to the place they were born
25Hibernation -- deep sleep in which animal’s body temp drops, body activities are slowed to conserve energy.
27Tropical Rainforest Typically found near the equator Receives < 200 cm of rain annuallyTemperatures typically on the warmer side – averages about 75o F for the yearAs many as 50% of all the world’s animal species may be found hereAbout 1/4 of all the medicines we use come from rainforest plants
28Tropical Rainforest Layers of a Rainforest Emergent Layer – tallest trees (60-70m tall), grow and emerge in the direct sunlight.Canopy – trees >30m tall, form dense layer that absorbs 95% of sunlightUnderstory – trees and shrubs adapted to grow in shady areas. < 3.5 m tall
29Tropical Rainforest Threats: Exotic pet trading Habitat Destruction -Timber production (mostly for export and fuel)-Slash-and-burn practices– for agriculture and cattle ranchesLogging operations and development of roads pose a big threat to tiger habitatDeforestation for palm oil production in Malaysian Borneo.
30Tropical Savanna Grasslands with a few scattered trees Experience a wet and dry seasonHot temperaturesAnnual rainfall is between 50 and 127 cmMore species of grazing mammals than any other biome
31SavannasLocation:Africa, western India, Northern Australia & a few parts of South AmericaFound in tropical to subtropical areas near equator between tropical rainforests & desert biomes.
32Desert Typically found between 25o and 40o latitude Receives > 25 cm of rain each yearTemperatures can be hot or cold - typically range between 20oC and 25oC but some extreme deserts can reach temperatures higher than 38oC and lower than –15oC
33Desert Hot Desert = Arizona’s Sonoran Desert Cold Desert = Gobi Desert in China, Great Basin in western US.Often located near large mountain rangesRain shadow – An area having relatively little precipitation due to the effect of a barrier, such as a mountain range, that causes the prevailing winds to lose their moisture before reaching it.
35ChaparralFound between 32o and 40o latitude on the west coast of continentsFairly dry - Receives between 35 and 70 cm of rain, usually in the winterExtremely resistant to drought and weather events
36GrasslandBecause of the dry climate, trees are found only near water sources such as streamsUsually receives between 50 and 90 cm of rainfall each yearwarm or cold - Summer temperatures can reach up to 38oC and winter temperatures can fall to –40oCConsidered to be the “bread baskets of the world”
37Temperate Grasslands Other names: Prairies in North America, steppes of Russia and Ukraine, pampas of South America
38Temperate Grasslands Threats: Farming and overgrazing have changed grasslandsGrain crops can’t hold the soil in place like native grasses, so the soil is erodingBoth farming and overgrazing may cause this biome to move/change more towards a desert-like biome.
39Temperate Deciduous Forest Moderate climate - Temperatures range between –30oC and 30oCMost trees will lose their leaves in the winterModerate Precipitation - Averages from 75 to 150 cm of precipitationWell developed understory
40Temperate Deciduous Forest Deciduous – trees with broad leaves that fall during the winter season.Layers of the Forest:Canopy: tall trees (maples, oak, birch)Understory : small trees & shrubsFloor: ferns, herbs, mosses
41Temperate Boreal Forest/Taiga AKA TaigaTypically found between 45o and 60o North latitudeCold climate in winter(40 – 100 cm snow annually), with summer warm, rainy, and humidVery few reptilesLimited understory - A lot of coniferous treesSnow is primary form of precipitation (40 – 100 cm annually)
42Tundra Means treeless or marshy plain Characterized by permafrost – permanently frozen soil starting as high as a few centimeters below the surface – which severely limits plant growthWinter temperatures (low) average –34oC while summer temperatures usually average below 10oCLow precipitation (15–25 cm per year) but ground is usually wet because of low evaporation
43TundraPermafrost = permanently frozen soil (that lies underneath the topsoil)Sinking land can damage buildings and infrastructure such as roads, airports, and water and sewer pipes. It also affects ecosystemsU.S. Global Change Research Program (2009).
44TundraThreats:Fragile biome has a simple food chain, so it can be easily disruptedOil/natural gas explorationsairborne pollutants, such as DDT and PCB's