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Linnea Van Eman PhD Sandra Lundak MS; EdS

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1 Linnea Van Eman PhD Sandra Lundak MS; EdS

2 Understand the goals and rationale for differentiation and curriculum compacting Be able to implement curriculum compacting Know where to begin curriculum compacting

3  Students come at different readiness levels  Students learn at different rates  Students have different styles of learning  Students have varying interests  Students have a variety of needs  What do you know about differentiation and curriculum compacting?

4 To differentiate the learning experience for gifted students, we adjust the content, the learning processes, the types of products that are created, and the learning environment through different expectations, places to do their work, and assessment practices.

5  60% of fourth graders in the school districts studied were able to achieve a score of 80% or higher on a test of the content of their math texts before they opened their books in September. (Reis & Westberg, 1994) 78% to 88% of fifth and sixth grade average and above- average readers could pass pretests on basal comprehension skills before they were covered by the basal reader. (Taylor & Frye, 1988) 100% of gifted sixth grader students in a school district had already mastered 90% ≥ of the regular sixth grade math curriculum before they opened their books in August. (Van Eman, 2009) 75% to 85% of average and above average elementary school students can pass subject pretests with 92-93% accuracy. (Rogers, 2002)

6 More authentic learning Students develop the ability to persist with hard work when the learning tasks are challenging  Consistent opportunities to learn that hard work and significant effort lead to learning success, rather than simply one’s inherent advanced abilities (Dweck, 2006)

7 1. Students experience repetition of content each year and know much of the regular curriculum content before “learning it.” 2. The quality of textbooks has not drastically improved. 3. The needs of high ability students are often not met in classrooms. 4. The pace of instruction and practice time can be modified. 5. Compacting enables differentiation to occur and provides educational accountability for students (Tieso, 2006). 6. Makes work particularly relevant for underachieving students 7. Unless students are consistently challenged, they will loose motivation to learn

8 boredom/underachievemen Gifted students resist work that is repetitive and beneath their learning level. Result: boredom/underachievement (Plucker & McIntire, 1996) When some previously bright but underachieving students realized that they could both economize on regularly assigned material and "earn time" to pursue self-selected interests, their motivation to complete regular assignments increased. As one student put it, “ Everyone understands a good deal!” … (Reis & Renzulli, 2005) Students will stretch themselves to do challenging work if they are convinced: will not have to do more work  They will not have to do more work than their classmates will not lead to lower recorded grades  Their advanced work will not lead to lower recorded grades.

9  Instructional strategy …  streamlines the grade-level curriculum  allows more time for challenging work  Designed to make appropriate adjustments in rate or level for students in any area or grade- level.  Not just for gifted learners.  eliminates redundancy or work that may be too easy for any student (Reis and Renzulli, 2005)  Curriculum compacting is a system designed to adapt the regular curriculum to meet the needs of gifted students by eliminating work that has been previously mastered and streamline it at a pace commensurate with the students’ abilities. (Reis & Westberg, 1994)

10 1. 1) What’s important? 2. 2) What do students already know or are able to do? 3) How do you know? 3. 4) What will they grasp at a faster rate? 4. 5) How will you adjust your instruction based on the information?

11  Already meets or exceeds standard  -Consistently finishes tasks quickly  - Mistakes are careless in nature  -Brings outside materials to class  -Tests well ( despite average or below class work)  -Consistently performs high in an academic area  -Appears bored during instruction and daydreams  -Asks questions that suggest advanced familiarity with the material  -Expresses interest in pursuing alternate or advanced topics (Starko, 1986)

12  Some teachers do not believe that students should be excused from doing work they already have mastered.  Some teachers feel there may be learning gaps  Some school districts’ renewed emphasis on mastery and achievement tests has resulted in administrative pressure to spend more time on predetermined tasks  How will I manage compacting in my classroom?

13 1. Identify objectives 2. Find or develop pretests/pre-assessments 3. Identify students who may have already mastered the objectives (or could master them more quickly). 4. Pretest to determine mastery levels 5. Streamline practice, drill or instruction for students who show mastery of the objectives 6. Provide (small group/individual): instruction as needed 7. Provide more challenging alternatives based on student interest. 8. Keep Records of the process and instructional options provided (get the student involved) (Reis, Burns, & Renzulli, 1992a) AND.. 9. Meet often with students to help them locate resources, to develop the confidence to choose challenging work, to follow the behavioral expectations or contract for working independently, and to demonstrate that you are still available to assist and coach them.

14  Find or develop pretest that assesses the skill or content which is the instructional focus.  What is the most powerful difference you expect to see among students?  How might you identify these potential differences in your students? 1. Identify learning objectives- 1. Identify learning objectives- What to consider: Do the objectives represent new learning? Do the objectives reflect C 3 /Common Core standards?

15  K-W-L Charts  End of unit test (as a pre-assessment-formal)  Journals  Parent Letters  Lists, Surveys  Products  Performances  Conferences/Discussions  Concept Maps  Observations  Socratic seminars

16 Mastery  90% or higher on the pre-assessment  Compact out of the entire lesson or unit Partial Mastery 80% or higher on the pre-assessment Compact out of selected lessons or portions of the unit.

17  Before giving an assignment, start by determining which items are the most difficult examples of the entire task.  Offer the whole class the explanation and opportunity to try the most difficult first.  Students who are successful in the completion of the most difficult and can demonstrate proficiency with this work are given time to explore the content in more depth.

18  Allowing students that show some mastery on some/all of the objectives, to complete extension or acceleration activities instead of completing the classwork. (Reis & Renzulli, 2006) 6. Provide (small group/individual) instruction as needed for students who have not yet mastered all of the objectives, but are capable of grasping more quickly than their classmates.

19  Classroom activities  Classroom activities : independent/small group study; mini courses; special interest groups; interest/learning centers  Resource Room/Special Class Programs  Resource Room/Special Class Programs : Where above activities are often held in places outside the classroom taught by a gifted coordinator/teacher which may also include career education, social/emotional development curriculum.  Accelerated Studies:  Accelerated Studies: grade skipping; cross grade subject-area grouping; honors/AP courses; college classes; summer classes; early admission to kindergarten/first grade; special seminars (Colangelo, et al. 2004)  Out of school experiences  Out of school experiences : internships; mentorships; work study programs; community programs (Reis & Renzulli, 2005)

20 20 Basic Skills Compacting is more conductive for eliminating mastered skills and is the easier of the two to implement. This can be used for spelling, language arts basic skills, math computation or drill and practice activities. Content Compacting is more conducive to alternative activities for those students who absorb the content at a faster pace (compresses the curriculum). Designed for general knowledge subjects like social studies, science, literature, math applications, and problem solving Both types of Compacting allow students to set their own pace for mastering new content; choose alternative activities for mastered content; or students can eliminate mastered content altogether. (Reis & Renzulli 2005)

21  Student’s Name: ____________________ Areas of Strength to be Compacted Documenting Mastery Adapted from Renzulli & Smith (1978) by Starko (1986) Alternate Enrichment and/or Acceleration

22  Jordan is a very strong math student. She scored Advanced on her OCCT’s and in the 90 th percentile on the quantitative portion of the CogAT. The teacher gives her the end of the unit test as a pre-assessment prior to the start of each chapter/unit.  What might the teacher do to compact the student?

23  Student’s Name: ____Jordan____________ Documenting Mastery Math ---Decimal Fractions Score of 85 percent or higher on the pretest Will work with class on days they learn concepts she has not mastered Will work on alternate math enrichment activities on other days Areas of Strength to be Compacted Alternate Enrichment and/or Acceleration

24  Isabelle and Martin missed only one word on their spelling pre-test. Should they have to do all the basic drill activities the rest of the class is doing with those words?  What might the teacher do to compact the student’s spelling for the week?

25  Student’s Name: Isabella and Martin Areas of Strength to be Compacted Documenting Mastery Alternate Enrichment and/or Acceleration Spelling Score of 90% of higher on the pre-test Will work on words from a harder list; or Complete higher level activities with the original list.

26 (VanTassel-Baska, 2012)

27  Sixth grade students Jesse, Lisa, Mya, and Sebastian express a strong interest in ancient cultures; specifically Greek and Roman mythology. These students are advanced readers who ask questions which suggests advanced familiarity with the material. The next unit is about Ancient Greece and Miss Smith would like to compact the curriculum for them.  What might she do to compact for these students?

28  Student’s Name: Jesse, Lisa, Mya, Sebastian Areas of Strength to be Compacted Documenting Mastery Social Studies--- Ancient Greece High Interest in Social Studies Strong Readers Will read and pick up concepts quickly Students will read chapters 5 & 6 in text at own pace Do chapter exercises 3, 7, & 9 Take unit test when ready Students will select a topic of interest from a list of alternate activities related to an aspect of Greek Mythology for an independent study Alternate Enrichment and/or Acceleration

29 MYTHOLOGY EXTENSION MENU Create a myth to explain a contemporary event, using all the essential elements found in myths. Hypothesize reasons why myths from ancient cultures have remained popular over time. Explain your findings. Compare and contrast the myths of aboriginal people with those of the ancient civilizations of the world. Compare and contrast religions in which multiple deities are honored with religions that honor one deity only. Explain the effects of these religions on its members. Student Choice Investigate words, expressions, and ideas from mythology that have become commonly used in your language. Create your own mythological family of humans or other creatures. Establish the order of power, and create stories that describe the characters’ powers, emotions, and conflicts. Visit a local art museum and observe how topics from ancient myths have been represented in the collected works of art Assume the role of storyteller and communicate a myth to younger children in a manner they can understand and appreciate. From The Cluster Grouping Handbook

30  Josh loved to read and was excited when his sophomore teacher distributed To Kill a Mockingbird on Friday afternoon. She assigned the first few chapters for weekend reading. He became engrossed in the story and finished reading the novel over the weekend. Monday morning he reported to his literature teacher that it was a great book.  How might the teacher compact for Josh? After a short conversation, she was convinced he had finished. "What are we reading next?" he asked. She gave him the next novel. He finished it in a couple of days and asked for the next one. She was hesitant and worried that he would confuse the stories. He participated in the class discussion and didn't want to miss it. He simply wanted to continue reading interesting literature. (Siegle, 1999)

31  Student strength areas: test scores; performance  Pretests used to determine mastery and the learning objectives that were eliminated  Recommended extensions and accelerated activities (Reis & Renzulli, 2005)

32 Tracking Math Data Example Basic Skills Compacting Student C3-Pacing Calendar Unit 1 C3-Pacing Calendar Unit 2 Priority Standard(s) Pretest 12345 Post Test Pretest 12345678 Post Test 1. Jerod 90 X 77 2. Ethan 100 X 100 X 3. Nina 85 80 4. Matthew 75 85 5. Ava 89 X 85 6. Seth 80 75 7. Cy 80 90 X 8. Gia 95 X 88

33 * THE ESSENTIAL RULES Don’t bother anyone Don’t call attention to yourself Do the work you have selected Keep records of your extension activities When you follow the rules, you get to choose what to do. When you do not follow the rules, I get to choose for you.

34 Compacting Contract

35 Daily Log of Project Work Student’s Name: Project Topic: DatePlanned WorkWork Actually Completed Today

36  Grades should be based on the material compacted (what the student has mastered), not the replacement material. This is not to say that replacement activities should not be evaluated. (Reis & Renzulli, 2005)  Are they engaged and learning something new? Are they delving deeper into the content area? Are they adhering to the contract?  If students are not using their time wisely, discuss the situation and the reason for compacting. Explain what the next steps will be if the behavior doesn’t change.

37  Start small, compact one content area at a time.  Start with one or two responsible students.  Try a variety of methods to determine student mastery of the material (a brief conversation with a student may be just as effective as a written pretest).  Compact by topic rather than time.  Define proficiency based on a consensus with administrators and parents.  Don't be afraid to request help from available sources such as your gifted coordinator, media specialists, mentors, community volunteers. (Reis, Burns, & Renzulli, 1992b)  Recommended reading: Reis, S. M., & Renzulli, J. S. (2005). Curriculum compacting: An easy start to differentiating for high-potential students. Prufrock Press Inc. Waco, TX.

38 Dweck, C. (2006). Mindsets: The new psychology of success. Random House, N.Y. Plucker, J. A., & McIntire, J. (1996). Academic survivability in high-potential, middle school students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 40, 7-14. Renzulli, J. S., & Reis, S. M. (1985). The Schoolwide Enrichment Model: A comprehensive plan for educational excellence. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press. Reis, S. M., & Renzulli, J. S. (2005). Curriculum compacting: An easy start to differentiating for high-potential students. Frances A. Karnes & Kristen R. Stephens, Eds. Prufrock Press, Waco, TX. Reis, S. M., Burns, D. E., & Renzulli, J. S. (1992a). Curriculum compacting: The complete guide to modifying the regular curriculum for high ability students. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press. Reis, S. M., Burns, D. E., & Renzulli, J. S. (1992b). A facilitator's guide to help teachers compact curriculum. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. Rogers, K. (2002). Re-forming gifted education: Matching the program to the child. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press. It is from Carolyn Coil's website: Siegle, D. (1999). Curriculum compacting: A necessity for academic advancement. The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented. Retrieved May 28, 2012 from Starko, A. J. (1986). It's about time: Inservice strategies for curriculum compacting. Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning Press. Tieso, C. L. (2006). Differentiation made easy: An oxymoron? Presented March 6-7, 2006 at the National Curriculum Network Conference in Williamsburg, VA. Van Eman, L. (2009), Academic adjustment of fifth, sixth and seventh grade children in accelerated math classes. In publication. VanTassel-Baska, J. (2012). Vocabulary web. Retrieved May 24 th, 2012 from pdf pdf

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