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© 2005 Prentice Hall13-1 Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-2 Stumpf and Teague Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design with UML
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-3 Learning Objectives Identify the drivers of information gathering during system development. Describe some of the principal sources of information for systems analysis. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of gathering information through interviews, questionnaires, and observation.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-4 Learning Objectives (continued) Summarize how to prepare for an interview. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of using joint application development during analysis and design. Explain important considerations in evaluating information gathered for use in system development.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-5 Learning Objectives (continued) Summarize some key concerns in communicating information. State what you should do when preparing an oral presentation.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-6 Overview The process of information system development depends on effective gathering, management, and communication of information. Gathering information to specify users’ requirements is driven by the needs of the UML models which describe those requirements.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-7 Overview (continued) Analysts gather information from a variety of sources, including people and documents. Multiple information sources increase confidence in the relevance and reliability of the information. Interviews, questionnaires, and observation are the principal methods of gathering information.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-8 Overview (continued) Regardless of its source or the methods used to gather it, information must always be evaluated for content, meaning, relevance, and reliability. Automated aids to information management can help cope with the quantity and complexity of information needed during development.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-9 Overview (continued) Effective written, oral, and graphic communication skills are essential not only to successful system developers, but also to the success of the projects on which they work.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-10 Gathering Information Most of the information gathered by the development team must come from the users who own the information.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-11 Gathering Information (continued) The critical information for object-oriented systems analysis is the information needed to: carry out event analysis, identify the use cases, write the expanded use case narratives, and construct the domain model.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-12 Information Sources Documents and displays describing the current system Other publications from the organization, such as annual reports and brochures Publications from the industry People, especially the users
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-13 Information-Gathering Methods Interviews Questionnaires Observation
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-14 Interviews An interview is a conversation in which questions are asked to gather information. Components of an interview: Prepare for the interview. Conduct the interview. Summarize and evaluate the interview.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-15 Questionnaires A questionnaire is a list of questions to which written answers are requested from several respondents. If the questions are asked orally, this technique is called a survey. A questionnaire is shorter and more highly structured than an interview.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-16 Questionnaires (continued) The design of a questionnaire requires great care. A statistician should prescribe the procedure for selecting the recipients in order to assure that the sample is representative. A statistician may also be helpful in interpreting the results after the replies have been tabulated.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-17 Joint Application Development Joint Application Development (JAD) involves users and developers in intensive workshops. It has been used most often to define system requirements and a preliminary system design.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-18 Joint Application Development (continued).
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-19 Joint Application Development (continued) JAD participants include: An executive sponsor An impartial facilitator A scribe Full-time participants On-call participants Observers
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-20 Joint Application Development (continued) JAD helps: give users a sense of ownership of the system; users understand the technical issues in the development process; facilitate decisions because the critical decision makers participate.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-21 Joint Application Development (continued) JAD requires: Intensive and time-consuming participation Careful planning Careful review and approval of the decisions made during the session Realistic expectations from the participants
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-22 Evaluating Information What does the information say? Summarize the information content. What does the information mean? Evaluate its implications, relationships, and consistency. Does it state fact, opinion, perceptions, or feelings?
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-23 Evaluating Information (continued) Is the information relevant? What does it contribute to specifying the requirements? Is the information reliable? Is it outdated, deliberately misleading, self-serving, or biased by its source or by the methods used to gather it? Independent sources and multiple methods of gathering information provide some cross-checks.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-24 Managing Information Information management during system development is necessary because of: the quantity of the information the complexity of the information the iterative nature of development the need to maintain the identity and integrity of documents and models throughout the process
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-25 Managing Information (continued) Manual Methods Organized files Legible records Minimal redundancy Automated Aids Word-processing software Graphics software Database management systems Integrated development environments (IDEs)
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-26 Reporting Information Principal modes of communication: Written reports Feasibility report, use case narratives, walkthrough findings Oral reports Management briefings, walkthroughs Graphic communication – the most effective means Graphic UML models, charts, graphs
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-27 Principles of Communication Know your audience. Answer the basic questions. Organize and plan the report or presentation. Prepare and rehearse the presentation. Make a final check. Watch for feedback.
© 2005 Prentice Hall13-28 Summary Gathering, evaluating, managing, and communicating information effectively are critical to successful information system development. The information needs of the UML models of users’ requirements determine what information to gather. Written, oral, and graphic communication skills are all necessary in this effort.
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