Presentation on theme: "FISIOLOGI TUMBUHAN TRANSLOKASI – TRANSPIRASI (1-2) UNSUR HARA (2) FOTOSINTESIS (3-4) Susiani Purbaningsih - 2007."— Presentation transcript:
FISIOLOGI TUMBUHAN TRANSLOKASI – TRANSPIRASI (1-2) UNSUR HARA (2) FOTOSINTESIS (3-4) Susiani Purbaningsih - 2007
UNSUR: SUATU ZAT YG TDK DPT DIBAGI LAGI MENJADI ZAT YANG LBH SEDERHANA OLEH REAKSI KIMIA SENYAWA, SUATU GABUNGAN DUA ATAU LEBIH UNSUR, BERIKATAN SATU SAMA LAIN DG BERBAGAI CARA CAMPURAN, PADUAN DUA ATAU LEBIH UNSUR DAN/ATAU SENYAWAYANG TDK BERGABUNG SCR KIMIA ATOM, PARTIKEL TERKECIL DARI SUATU UNSUR, YG MASIH MEMPUNYAI SIFAT KIMIA UNSUR MOLEKUL,
AIR DAN IKATAN HIDROGEN Water has a number of unique physical & chemical properties when compared with other molecules of similar size. The key to many of these properties is found in the structure of the water molecules & the strong intermolecular attractions that result from that structure.
Air terdiri atas 1 atom oksigen yang berikatan secara kovalen dengan 2 atom hidrogen Atom oksigen bersifat elektronegatif kuat kecenderungan menangkap e - Konsekuensi dari elektronegatif kuat, oksigen cenderung menjauhkan elektron dari hidrogen The shared e - yang menyusun ikatan O — H, on the average, closer to the oxygen nucleus than to hydrogen. As a consequence, the oxygen atom carries a partial negative charge & a corresponding partial positive charge is shared between the two hydrogen atoms
This asymmetric electron distribution makes water a polar molecules Overall, water remains a neutral molecule, but the separation of negative & positive charges generates a strong mutual (electrical) attraction between water & other polar molecules This attraction is called hydrogen bonding The energy of the hydrogen bond is about 20kJmol -1. The hydrogen bond is thus weaker than either covalent or ionic bonds, which typically measure several hundred kJmol -1, but stronger than the short-range, transient attractions known as Van der Waals forces (about 4 kJmol -1 )
Hydrogen bonding also accounts for attractions between water & other molecules or surfaces Hydrogen bonding, for ex., is the basis for hydration shells that form around biologycally important macro molecules such as protein, nucleic acid & carbohydrates These layers of tightly bound & highly oriented water molecules are often referred to as bound water It has been estimated that bound water may account for as much as 30% by weight of hydrated protein molecules
Bound water is important to the stability of protein molecules Bound water “cushions” protein, preventing the molecules from approaching close enough to form aggregates large enough to precipitate Hydrogen bonding, although characteristic of water, is not limited to water
It arises where ever hydrogen is found between electro-negative centers. This includes: alcohols, which can form hydrogen bonds because of the — OH group Macromolecules such as proteins & nucleic acids, where hydrogen bonds between amino (— NH 2 ) and carbonyl ( > C = O) groups help to stabilize structure
PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER 1.Temperature & Physical State 2.Absorption & Dissipation of Heat 3.Melting & Vaporizing Water 4.Water as a Solvent 5.Cohesion & Adhesion cohesi – adhesi – tensil strength
1. Temperature & Physical State Water is a liquid over the range of T° most compatible with life Boiling & melting points are generally related to molecular size, such that transit°s 4 smaller molecules occur at lower T° than for larger molecules On the basis of the size alone, water might be expected to exist primarily in the vapor state at temperatures encountered over most of the earth. However, both melting & boiling point of water are higher than expected when compared with other molecules of similar size, especially ammonia (NH 3 ) & methane (CH 4 ). Molecules such as ammonia & the hydrocarbons (methane & ethane) are associated only through weak Van der Waals forces & relatively little energy to change their state
Note The introduction of oxygen raises the boiling points of both methanol (CH 3 OH) and ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH) to temperature much closer to that of water. This is because presence of oxygen introduces polarity & the opportunity to form hydrogen bonds
2. Absorption & Dissipation of Heat The term specific heat is used to describe the thermal capacity of a substance or the amount of energy that can be absorbed for a given temperature rise The specific heat of water is 4,182 Jg -1 °C -1, higher than that of any other substance except liquid ammonia Because of its highly ordered structure, liquid water also has a thermal conductivity. This means that it rapidly conducts heat away from the point of application The combination of high specific heat & thermal conductivity enables water to absorb & redistribute large amount of heat energy without correspondingly large increases in temperature
3. Melting & Vaporizing Water Energy is required to cause changes in the state of any substance, such as from solid liquid, or liquid gas, without a change in temperature The energy required to convert a substance from the solid to the liquid state is known as the heat fusion The heat fusion for water is 335 Jg -1, which means that 335 J of energy are required to convert 1 g of ice to 1 g of liquid water at 0°C Expressed on a molar basis, the heat of fusion of water is 6,0 kJ mol -1 (18 g of water per mole x 335 Jg -1 )
The heat fusion of water is one of the highest known, second only to ammonia The high heat of fusion of water is attribute to the large amount of energy necessary to overcome the strong inter molecular forces associated with hydrogen bonding
4. Water as a Solvent Water comes close to being the ‘universal’ solvent, more substances will dissolve in water than in any other common liquid due to : - the highly polar character of the water molecule - water molecule has the ability to partially neutralize electrical attractions between charge solute molecule or ions by surrounding the ion or molecule with one or more layers of oriented water molecules called a hydration shells.
The polarity of molecules can be mesured by a quantity known as the dielectric constant Dielectric constant for some common solvents at 25°C - Water78,5 - Methanol33,6 - Ethanol24,3 - Benzene 2,3 - Hexane 1,9
5. Cohesion & Adhesion The strong mutual attraction between water molecules resulting from hydrogen bonding cohesion * One consequence of cohesion is that water has an exceptionally high surface tension * Surface tension arises because the cohesive force between water molecules is much stronger than interaction between water and air Pr……tensile strength of water * Adhesion, a process of water attraction to solid surface. Adhesion is an important factor in the capilary rise of water in small-diameter conduits.
COHESION ADHESION TENSILE STRENGTH Explain, why water rises in capillary tubes and exceptionally important in maintaining the continuity of water column in plants
TRANSLOCATION OF WATER One objective of plant physiology is: To understand the dynamic of water, as it flows into & out of cells or from soil, through the plant, into atmosphere Movement of substances from one region to another is commonly referred to as translocation Mechanisms: active or passive; depending on whether or not metabolic energy is expended in the process It is sometime difficult to distinguish between active and pasive transport, but the translocation of water is clearly a passive process
Passive movement of most substances can be accounted for by one of two physical processes either bulk flow or diffusion. In the case of water, a special case of diffusion known as osmosis
BULK FLOW Movement of materials by bulk flow (mass flow) is pressure- driven. Bulk flow occur when an external force, such as gravity or pressure, is applied all molecules move in a mass. Ex. Keran, tekanan hidrostatik (krn grafitasi).
DIFFUSION Diffusion can be interpreted as a directed movement from a region of a high concentration to a lower concentration !!! Bulk flow is pressure-driven !!! Diffusion is driven by concentration different Diffusion is a significant factor in the uptake & distribution of water, gasses & solutes throughout the plant.
OSMOSIS Diffusion of water, a process known as osmosis, will occur only when the two chambers are separated from one another by a selective permeable membrane !!!!!! A selective perm.memb.allows free passage of water & certain small molecules, but restrict the movement of large solute molecules,…….all cellular mb.are selectively permeable. Osmosis, is a simply special case of diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane
The water status of plant cells is constantly changing adjust to fluctuations in the water content of the environment changes in metabolic state Cell walls have a high elastic modulus, which means that they resist deformation It is this property that enables cells to develop high turgor pressure while maintaining structursl integrity
TRANSPIRATION ANATOMI : AKAR, BATANG, DAUN ABSORPTION (Large qtt) TRANSLOCATION (Large qtt, < 5% used biochemically) LOSS AS WATER VAPOR (>>>) The balance passes through the plant to be lost as Water vapor, a phenomenon known as transpiration >>>>kg water may be required 1 kg of dry matter
TRANSPIRATION The principal loss of water vapor from plants occurs through pores in the leaf and is driven by differences in vapor pressure between internal leaf spaces and the ambient air ABSORPTION (Large qtt) TRANSLOCATION (Large qtt, < 5% used biochemically) LOSS AS WATER VAPOR (>>>) (lenticels, stomata, cuticle) The balance passes through the plant to be lost as Water vapor, a phenomenon known as transpiration >>>>kg water may be required 1 kg of dry matter
TRANSPIRATION RATE HUMIDITY TEMPERATURE WIND SPEED