Presentation on theme: "Champlain, New France, and the Fur Trade Samuel de Champlain and His Huron Indian Allies Fighting the Iroquois Near Lake Champlain, c.1609."— Presentation transcript:
Champlain, New France, and the Fur Trade Samuel de Champlain and His Huron Indian Allies Fighting the Iroquois Near Lake Champlain, c.1609
Jacques Cartier had failed in the first attempt to establish a colony in New France in 1542. Samuel de Champlain convinced the Sieur de Monts to establish a French colony in New France. oSixty settlers established Port Royal in 1605. (in the Bay of Fundy) oDe Mont received a monopoly on the fur trade, from the King of France. oChamplain hoped to establish the colony and fur trade, as well as search for the Northwest Passage to Asia. oChamplain created the Company of Good Cheer to keep spirits up during the long winter. oThe fur trade did not go well. oDe Monts monopoly was cancelled by the King, and financial support for Port Royal was lost. oChamplain and de Monts were forced to abandon Port Royal in 1607.
In 1608 Champlain decided to give it another go, and established the Habitation of Quebec, at the site of today’s Quebec City. oQuebec provided a superior military site, as it was situated on top of large cliffs. (Quebec means ‘where the river narrows’) oThe first year was difficult with 16 of the 24 Frenchmen dying of scurvy.
In order to secure trade relations, Champlain became allies with the Algonkians and the Montagnais against their hated enemy, the Iroquois. oChamplain and 2 other Frenchmen accompanied a war party to attack the Iroquois. oThe Iroquois had never seen firearms, and lost many battles due to the influence of the French. oThe Iroquois would prove to be a poor choice for an enemy.
Champlain wanted to establish trade links with the Huron Nation to the west. oThe Huron lived an agrarian life in villages of up to 1600 people. oThe Algonkians and Montagnais made a nice living as middlemen in the fur trade and did not want Champlain to move any further west.
Champlain was able to begin an effective trade relationship with the Huron. oFurs, especially beaver, were becoming extremely valuable in Europe. oChamplain sent Coureurs de bois (runners of the woods) to live among the Huron and improve the fur trade. oBut many native groups did not appreciate French missionaries who demanded they change their lifestyle and religion. oEventually the Algonkians and Montagnais turned against the French because they were afraid of being cut out of the fur trade.
While the situation with various aboriginal groups went poorly, the fur trade continued to be very successful. oThe Company of a Hundred Associates continued the fur trade even after Champlain’s death in 1635.
Settling in New France While concentrating on the fur trade, the Co. of a Hundred Associates was also required to bring settlers to New France. oFrance had to compete with the English and their Thirteen Colonies to the south. oSettles were to be established in New France using the French Seigneurial system.
Cardinal Richelieu sent Jesuit Priests to convert the Huron people to Roman Catholicism. oThe Jesuits lived with the Huron in order to convert them. oThose who did convert received special privileges in the fur trade. oReligious differences eventually divided Huronia.
The Coureurs de Bois traveled far inland in the pursuit of furs, as well as in the search for the Northwest Passage to Asia. oThe Coureurs de Bois transported furs from inland groups that were under a blockade by the Iroquois. oPierre Radisson and Medart de Groseilliers were Coureurs de Bois who discovered the possibilities of furs from Hudson Bay. When the French were uninterested, Radisson and Groseilliers went to the English King with their idea – The Hudson’s Bay Company was formed.
The desire for better mercantilism led the French to improve the colony in New France. –Mercantilism was the economic system where raw materials were used to support the finished products that were produced in the home nation.
In order to ready New France for more settlement, in 1661, France sent 1100 soldiers under the Marquis de Tracy, to attack and subdue the Iroquois who were giving the French so much trouble.
In 1663 New France was officially made a Royal colony of France oThe Governor would represent the King in New France, supervise defense, and establish treaties. oThe Intendant would take care of day to day dealings within the colony oA bishop would be in charge of religious issues oThese three would become the Sovereign Council that governed the colony.