Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Dark Knight of the Cataloging Soul: Videorecordings and RDA

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Dark Knight of the Cataloging Soul: Videorecordings and RDA"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dark Knight of the Cataloging Soul: Videorecordings and RDA
Indiana Library Federation 2013 Annual Conference “Everyday Superheroes in the Library” Indianapolis, Indiana 2013 October 21 Dark Knight of the Cataloging Soul: Videorecordings and RDA Jay Weitz Dark Knight of the Cataloging Soul: Videorecordings and RDA Indiana Library Federation 2013 Annual Conference “Everyday Superheroes in the Library” Indianapolis, Indiana 2013 October 21 Jay Weitz Senior Consulting Database Specialist WorldCat Quality Management Division OCLC Senior Consulting Database Specialist WorldCat Quality Management Division OCLC

2 Introduction: First, Some Shameless Plugs
Music OCLC Users Group (MOUG) Online Audiovisual Catalogers (OLAC) Introduction: First, Some Shameless Plugs Music OCLC Users Group (MOUG) If you catalog scores and/or sound recordings of any kind, you should consider becoming a member of the Music OCLC Users Group (MOUG): Online Audiovisual Catalogers (OLAC) If you catalog films, videos, and/or electronic resources you should consider becoming a member of the Online Audiovisual Catalogers (OLAC):

3 Introduction: Shameless Plugs, Continued
OLAC’s Cataloging Policy Committee (CAPC) “… to represent the concerns of AV catalogers in matters relating to the formation, interpretation, and implementation of national and international cataloging standards, rules, and related matters.” A/V and Nonprint Glossary Expands and updates Nancy Olson's 1988 Audiovisual Material Glossary DVD/Blu-Ray Disc RDA Guide Task Force Guide to Cataloging DVD and Blu-ray Discs Using AACR2r and MARC 21, Update Streaming Media RDA Guide Task Force Best Practices for Cataloging Streaming Media Video Language Coding Best Practices Task Force Video Language Coding: Best Practices Introduction: Shameless Plugs, Continued OLAC’s Cataloging Policy Committee (CAPC) Among the most important elements of OLAC is its Cataloging Policy Committee. CAPC represents the concerns of AV catalogers in matters relating to the formation, interpretation, and implementation of national and international cataloging standards, rules, and related matters. That’s the underlying purpose of CAPC, but on a day-to-day basis, it provides practical guidance on cataloging through its many useful, often invaluable documents. Currently, CAPC and its various subgroups are hard at work revising several of its existing sets of guidelines for the brave new world of RDA. These will serve all of us as “best practices” documents if and when RDA is adopted in our individual institutions and will additionally assist those who don’t adopt RDA to understand what we’re seeing and not seeing in RDA records. A/V and Nonprint Glossary Expands and updates Nancy Olson's 1988 Audiovisual Material Glossary: This is updated and available. DVD/Blu-Ray Disc RDA Guide Task Force Guide to Cataloging DVD and Blu-ray Discs Using AACR2r and MARC 21, 2008 Update In the process of being revised. Streaming Media RDA Guide Task Force Best Practices for Cataloging Streaming Media Video Language Coding Best Practices Task Force Video Language Coding: Best Practices 2012 version is updated and available.

4 Introduction: A Few Basics
Not comprehensive Trying to be practical Assumes basic cataloging knowledge of: AACR2 MARC 21 Sound Recordings Videorecordings Electronic Resources RDA Introduction: A Few Basics Like most of my cataloging workshops, this one: Will not be comprehensive Is trying to be practical Will assume basic knowledge of AACR2; MARC 21; Sound Recording, Videorecording, Electronic Resource cataloging; and RDA Now, about that last point, RDA. Like many of you, I’ve been approaching RDA with baby steps and am not an expert, by any means or by any stretch of the imagination. At least in part, I’ve tended to stick to topics in this workshop that will be useful regardless of what cataloging guidelines you happen to be following. There are, however, a few cases where we will discuss differences between AACR2 and RDA as I understand them.

5 Introduction: AACR2 to RDA
Chapter 1: General Rules for Description Chapter 2: Books, Pamphlets, and Printed Sheets Chapter 3: Cartographic Materials Chapter 4: Manuscripts (Including Manuscript Collections) Chapter 5: Music Chapter 6: Sound Recordings Chapter 7: Motion Pictures and Videorecordings Chapter 8: Graphic Materials Chapter 9: Electronic Resources Chapter 10: Three-Dimensional Artefacts and Realia Chapter 11: Microforms Chapter 12: Continuing Resources Chapter 13: Analysis Section 1: Recording Attributes of Manifestation and Item Section 2: Recording Attributes of Work and Expression Section 3: Recording Attributes of Person, Family, and Corporate Body Section 5: Recording Primary Relationships between Work, Expression, Manifestation, and Item Section 6: Recording Relationships to Persons, Families, and Corporate Bodies Associated with a Resource Section 7: Recording Subject Relationships Section 8: Recording Relationships between Works, Expressions, Manifestations, and Items Section 9: Recording Relationships between Persons, Families, and Corporate Bodies Introduction: AACR2 to RDA AACR2 began the move toward an integrated catalog, wherein the cataloging of all kinds of resources was kept in parallel as much as possible. The same intellectual process was used to determine the main entry, title proper, publisher, date, etc., for a score or sound recording as was the case with other materials. AACR2, however, kept the rules for description of different types of materials in separate chapters. Without going into the complexities of the different organization of RDA, let it suffice to say that RDA takes this integration much further, attempting to treat all kinds of resources the same. (By the way, on the left is just Part I “Description” of AACR2; on the right, just the “Attributes” and “Relationships” sections of RDA that have actually been written.)

6 Introduction: LCRI to LC-PCC PS
AACR2 is to the Library of Congress Rule Interpretations (LCRI) just as RDA is to the Library of Congress- Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS) Introduction: LCRI to LC-PCC PS In exact parallel to the transition from AACR2 to RDA is the transition from the Library of Congress Rule Interpretations (LCRI; often referred to as the RIs) to the Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS; often referred to as the PSs). In each case, LC and the PCC make their recommendations on best practices, roughly speaking, “national” practice.

7 Introduction: Brief History of RDA
October 1997: International Conference on the Principles & Future Development of AACR (“Toronto Conference”). May 1998: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report (FRBR). December 2004: Draft of AACR3, Part I. April 2005: Transition to RDA. November 2008: “Full Draft” of RDA. June 2010: RDA Toolkit published. October-December 2010: RDA Test. June 13, 2011: United States national libraries announce RDA implementation not before January 1, 2013. June 14, 2011: : Audible sighs of relief in some quarters, widespread panic in others Introduction: Brief History of RDA Up on the left is a rough timeline of just a few of the major events in the checkered history of Resource Description and Access (RDA). Since the June 2011 announcement by the three U.S. national libraries that RDA implementation would occur no sooner than January 2013, every cataloging community began a process of trying to fix the many things in RDA that they had previously identified as not working for them. RDA Day One for the national libraries was Sunday, March 31, (Making it Monday, April 1 risked too many obvious jokes.)

8 Introduction: Taming RDA, Transforming MARC
JSC CC:DA MARBI/MAC LC Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative Introduction: Taming RDA, Transforming MARC Compared to a few years ago, the state of the RDA tool is relatively stable, but the Joint Steering Committee, the ALA Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access (CC:DA), and others are still fiddling. ALA’s MARBI has been adapting MARC to accommodate RDA to the extent possible; its successor organization, the MARC Advisory Committee (MAC) continues that process. The Library of Congress’s Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative is working on “the project … to translate the MARC 21 format to a Linked Data (LD) model while retaining as much as possible the robust and beneficial aspects of the historical format. ” Additionally, of course, your local system vendors and other service providers such as OCLC have been busy preparing for this impending future. Every cataloging community had its own substantial list of things that RDA does not address adequately or at all, or that are not dealt with in a manner that makes sense for each specific type of material.  Plus, even when (or if) most or all of those problems are ironed out, RDA allows such wide latitude of practices that every community is also drawing up its own set of best practices. Please keep in mind that a good deal of what I say in this workshop regarding RDA practices remains tentative because best practices from the AV community remain in flux. Without casting aspersions on the choices that individual institutions make, it should also be said that deviating from documented “best practices” is a bit like lying: You’ve got to remember your deviations/lies or else you’ll find yourself in trouble later on. When you’ve followed the rules and/or best practices, you need only refer to them in the future. When you’ve made a policy decision to do otherwise, you need to document it and the rationale for it, not only for your colleagues and your future self but also for those who catalog after you. You future self will thank you, believe me. Document your decisions. So let us begin to get down to business.

9 DVD Video: History Tangible medium for videorecordings:
“DVD” originally stood for "Digital Video Disc" or "Digital Versatile Disc." Tangible medium for videorecordings: Grooveless. Laser-read. 4 3/4 inch (12 cm) diameter. Look exactly like audio CDs and CD-ROMs. Huge data capacity, highly compressed, often two sided. DVD Video: History “DVD” originally stood for "Digital Video Disc" or "Digital Versatile Disc“ Some wags, mocking its slow development path, said DVD stood for “Delayed, Very Delayed” Others, doubting its commercial viability, said DVD stood for “Dead, Very Dead” Tangible medium for videorecordings Grooveless Laser-read (red laser) 4 3/4 inch (12 cm) diameter Look exactly like audio CDs and CD-ROMs Huge data capacity, highly compressed, often two sided

10 DVD Video: History DVDs evolved from several earlier videodisc technologies beginning in the late 1950s: CED (Capacitance Electronic Disc) Grooved, stylus-read, 12 inch. Commercially available March 1981. Faded after 1984. Laser Optical Disc Grooveless, laser-read, 12 inch. CAV (constant angular velocity) standard play disc. CLV (constant linear velocity) extended play disc. Flourished /2000. DVD Video: History DVDs evolved from several earlier videodisc technologies beginning in the late 1950s, although for various reasons, none of those earlier formats became commercially available until after videocassettes had already sparked the video revolution in the mid-1970s (Beta in 1975, VHS in 1977). CED (Capacitance Electronic Disc) Grooved, stylus-read, 12 inch Commercially available March 1981 Faded after 1984 Laser optical disc Grooveless, laser-read, 12 inch CAV (constant angular velocity) standard play disc CLV (constant linear velocity) extended play disc Flourished /2000 That’s the LaserDisc logo on the right

11 DVD Video: History DVDs introduced March 1997 in U.S. (late 1996 in Japan). No U.S. DVD Video can have a publication date earlier than (Japanese 1996). Most commercial DVD Videos: Films. Television programs. Also various kinds of recordable DVD Video formats. May be write-once or re-writable. DVD Video: History What we know and love as the DVD Video was introduced commercially in March 1997 in U.S. (late 1996 in Japan), so -- No DVD Video from U.S. can have a publication date earlier than 1997, Japanese DVD Videos 1996 Most commercial DVD Videos tend to be: Films Television programs Because of DVD’s large capacity, they often have additional material -- documentaries, restored scenes, various language options, etc. -- tacked on, aside from the main offering. Also various kinds of recordable DVD Video formats May be write-once or re-writable Often used for preservation purposes, for recording of local events, etc.

12 DVD Video: Sources of Information
RDA 2.2.2: Preferred Source of Information RDA : Resources Consisting of Moving Images Use title frame or frames, or title screen or screens. Alternative: Label with a title that is permanently printed on or affixed to the resource (excluding accompanying textual material or a container). For tangible resources, in the absence of a title frame or title screen, use the first of the following with a title: a) A label that is permanently printed on or affixed to the resource, excluding accompanying textual material or a container (e.g., a label on a videodisc). b) For a comprehensive description, a container or accompanying material issued with the resource. An internal source forming part of a tangible digital resource (e.g., a disc menu). … If the resource contains neither a title frame or title screen nor a source of information as listed for tangible or online resources, use as the preferred source of information another source forming part of the resource itself, giving preference to sources in which the information is formally presented. AACR2 7.0B1: Chief Source of Information The chief source of information for motion pictures and videorecordings is (in this order of preference): a)  The item itself (e.g., the title frames). b)  Its container (and container label) if the container is an integral part of the piece (e.g., a cassette). If the information is not available from the chief source, take it from the following sources (in this order of preference): Accompanying textual material (e.g., scripts, shot lists, publicity material). Container (if not an integral part of the piece). Other sources. AACR2 7.0B2: Prescribed Sources of Information Title and statement of responsibility: Chief source of information. Edition; Publication, distribution, etc.; Series: Chief source of information, accompanying material, container. Physical description; Note; Standard number and terms of availability: Any source. DVD Video: Sources of Information AACR2 7.0B. Sources of information    7.0B1. Chief source of information The chief source of information for motion pictures and videorecordings is (in this order of preference): a)   the item itself (e.g., the title frames) b)   its container (and container label) if the container is an integral part of the piece (e.g., a cassette). If the information is not available from the chief source, take it from the following sources (in this order of preference): accompanying textual material (e.g., scripts, shot lists, publicity material) container (if not an integral part of the piece) other sources 7.0B2. Prescribed sources of information  The prescribed source(s) of information for each area of the description of motion pictures and videorecordings is set out below. Enclose information taken from outside the prescribed source(s) in square brackets. Prescribed Sources of Information Title and statement of responsibility: Chief source of information Edition: Chief source of information, accompanying material, container Publication, distribution, etc.: Chief source of information, accompanying material, container Physical description: Any source Series: Chief source of information, accompanying material, container Note: Any source Standard number and terms of availability: Any source RDA RDA 2.2.2: Preferred Source of Information RDA : Resources Consisting of Moving Images If the resource consists of moving images (e.g., a film reel, a videodisc, a video game, an MPEG video file), use the title frame or frames, or title screen or screens, as the preferred source of information … Alternative: Use a label with a title that is permanently printed on or affixed to the resource in preference to the title frame or frames, or title screen or screens. This alternative does not apply to labels on accompanying textual material or a container. If the resource does not contain a title frame or title screen, apply the following guidelines for tangible or online resources to choose the preferred source of information. : Tangible Resources Use as the preferred source of information the first of the following with a title: a) a label that is permanently printed on or affixed to the resource, excluding accompanying textual material or a container (e.g., a label on a videodisc) b) for a comprehensive description, a container or accompanying material issued with the resource an internal source forming part of a tangible digital resource (e.g., a disc menu). … If the resource contains neither a title frame or title screen nor a source of information as listed for tangible or online resources, use as the preferred source of information another source forming part of the resource itself, giving preference to sources in which the information is formally presented. That last statement from RDA actually amounts to more-or-less the same thing as AACR2 because of what RDA says about “Preferred Source of Information,” in part: “When choosing a preferred source of information, treat as part of the resource itself: a) the storage medium (e.g., paper, tape, film) and b) any housing that is an integral part of the resource (e.g., a cassette, a cartridge). When describing the resource as a whole using a comprehensive description, treat accompanying material as part of the resource itself. … Treat a container issued with the resource (e.g., a box in which a game or kit is issued, a clamshell box containing compact discs in individual jewel cases or cardboard sleeves) as part of the resource itself .…”

13 DVD Video: Fixed Field Coding
Type (Type of Record: Leader/06; VIS 006/00): g (Projected Medium) TMat (Type of Material: VIS 008/33; VIS 006/16): v (Videorecording) DVD Video: Fixed Field Coding Type (Type of Record; Leader/06; VIS 006/00): g (Projected Medium) TMat (Type of Material; VIS 008/33; VIS 006/16): v (Videorecording) Fixed field coding remains the same whether RDA or AACR2.

14 DVD Video: Video 007 Coding
007/00 (Subfield $a): Category of material v = Videorecording 007/01 (Subfield $b): Specific material designation d = Videodisc 007/03 (Subfield $d): Color b = Black and white c = Multicolored 007/04 (Subfield $e): Videorecording format g = Laserdisc (analog, pre-DVD) v = DVD 007/05 (Subfield $f): Sound on medium or separate a = Sound on medium 007/06 (Subfield $g): Medium for sound i = Videodisc 007/07 (Subfield $h): Dimensions z = Other 007/08 (Subfield $i): Configuration of playback channels k = Mixed m = Monaural q = Quadraphonic, multichannel, or surround s = Stereophonic u = Unknown (not stated) DVD Video: Video 007 Coding Field 007, which records certain physical characteristics in coded form, was originally designed for machine manipulation and implemented in its current form in (These are only selected values in most of the 007 positions.) 007/00 (Subfield $a): Category of material v = Videorecording 007/01 (Subfield $b): Specific material designation d = Videodisc 007/03 (Subfield $d): Color b = Black and white c = Multicolored 007/04 (Subfield $e): Videorecording format g = Laserdisc (analog, pre-DVD) v = DVD “v” defined and “g” more narrowly redefined December 2002 007/05 (Subfield $f): Sound on medium or separate a = Sound on medium 007/06 (Subfield $g): Medium for sound i = Videodisc 007/07 (Subfield $h): Dimensions z = Other There are no specific codes for any of the common sizes of videodiscs 007/08 (Subfield $i): Configuration of playback channels k = Mixed m = Monaural q = Quadraphonic, multichannel, or surround s = Stereophonic u = Unknown (not stated) DVD Videos are often coded “k” because they commonly have different sound tracks with different characteristics (some in stereo, some in surround) Base coding on a clear indication on the resource itself Video 007 coding remains the same whether RDA or AACR2.

15 DVD Video: GMD Versus Content/Media/Carrier
RDA 336 two-dimensional moving image $b tdi $2 rdacontent 337 video $b v $2 rdamedia 338 videodisc $b vd $2 rdacarrier AACR2 245 GMD: $h [videorecording] DVD Video: GMD Versus Content/Media/Carrier What was expressed in AACR2 cataloging by the one-dimensional General Material Designation is expressed in RDA cataloging by the three-dimensional 33X fields, which allow more specificity. Although a GMD CANNOT be included on an RDA record, the 33X fields may be included in any record, regardless of whether it is cataloged according to RDA. RDA 336 two-dimensional moving image $b tdi $2 rdacontent 337 video $b v $2 rdamedia 338 videodisc $b vd $2 rdacarrier AACR2 245 GMD: $h [videorecording] Let’s take a moment to look a bit more closely at the 33X fields.

16 DVD Video: RDA Content, Media, Carrier
336 - Content Type The form of communication through which a work is expressed. 337 - Media Type A categorization reflecting the general type of intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource. 338 - Carrier Type A categorization reflecting the format of the storage medium and housing of a carrier in combination with the type of intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource. 336 text $b txt $2 rdacontent 337 unmediated $b n $2 rdamedia 338 volume $b nc $2 rdacarrier DVD Video: RDA Content, Media, Carrier The multidimensional Content, Media, and Carrier terms and codes that in RDA replace the one-dimensional General Material Designations (GMDs) may be the most familiar of the new Bibliographic fields. OCLC implemented these in 2010. The three fields – 336 for Content Type, 337 for Media Type, and 338 for Carrier Type -- are identically structured, with subfield $a for the appropriate term, subfield $b for the corresponding code, and subfield $2 for the source of the term and/or code. Because both the terms and the codes are supposed to be from controlled lists, they can theoretically be programmed to display (or not display) as, for example, text in any language or as some sort of icon, or whatever. Different combinations of 336, 337, and 338, could be defined as a particular sort of icon or a specific term, and so on. 336 – Content Type (R) RDA : “Content type is a categorization reflecting the fundamental form of communication in which the content is expressed and the human sense through which it is intended to be perceived. For content expressed in the form of an image or images, content type also reflects the number of spatial dimensions in which the content is intended to be perceived and the perceived presence or absence of movement.” MARC 21: “The form of communication through which a work is expressed. Used in conjunction with Leader /06 (Type of record), which indicates the general type of content of the resource. Field 336 information enables expression of more specific content types and content types from various lists.” “Term and Code List for RDA Content Types” (http://www.loc.gov/standards/valuelist/rdacontent.html). 337 - Media Type (R) RDA : “Media Type is a categorization reflecting the general type of intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource.” MARC 21: “Media type reflects the general type of intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource. Used as an alternative to or in addition to the coded expression of Media type in field 007/00 (Category of material). Field 337 information enables indication of more specific media types and media types from various lists.” “Term and Code List for RDA Media Types” (http://www.loc.gov/standards/valuelist/rdamedia.html). 338 - Carrier Type (R) RDA : “Carrier Type is a categorization reflecting the format of the storage medium and housing of a carrier in combination with the type of intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource.” MARC 21: “Carrier type reflects the format of the storage medium and housing of a carrier in combination with the media type (which indicates the intermediation device required to view, play, run, etc., the content of a resource). Used as an alternative to or in addition to the coded expression of carrier type in field 007/01 (Specific material designation). Field 338 information enables indication of more specific carrier types and carrier types from various lists.” “Term and Code List for RDA Carrier Types” (http://www.loc.gov/standards/valuelist/rdacarrier.html).

17 DVD Video: Physical Description Versus Extent
RDA 300: Extent $a: Number of units and type of carrier videodisc(s) OR “Term in Common Usage” $b: Sound Content: “silent”/“sound” $b: Colour of Moving Image: “black and white”/“color” $c: Dimensions of Carrier: 4 3/4 in. AACR2 300: Physical description $a: SMD videodisc(s) OR “Term in Common Usage” $a: Duration: Corresponding to title(s) proper in 245 $b: Other physical details: “si.”/”sd.”, ”b&w”/“col.” $c: Dimensions: 4 3/4 in. DVD Video: Physical Description Versus Extent AACR2 300 Physical description SMD: $a (AACR2 7.5B1 and option) videodisc(s) OR “Term in Common Usage” (DVD Video) Duration: Corresponding to title(s) proper in 245 (AACR2 7.5B2) Exclusive of added materials, durations of which may be detailed in notes, if appropriate In the form: (XX hr., XX min., XX sec.) Other physical details: $b sound characteristics, color/b&w (AACR2 7.5C) Use only “sd.” for sound, “si.” for silent. For DVD releases of originally silent films, use the correct designation for the DVD -- if DVD includes sound, such as a musical sound track and/or added sound effects, use “sd.” and note that the original film was silent in a note For videos, DO NOT include “stereo.” in 300 field; this and similar sound details go in 538 (or 500) For colorized films, use “col.” For films that mix color with B&W, use “col. with b&w sequences” or vice versa, as appropriate Dimensions: $c 4 3/4 in. (AACR2 7.5D4) RDA 300: Extent $a: Number of units and type of carrier videodisc(s) (RDA ) “Term in Common Usage” (RDA ) $b: Sound Content: “silent” or “sound” – spelled out (RDA ) $b: Colour of Moving Image: “black and white”, “color”, “sepia” – all spelled out, with parenthetical “tinted”, “toned”, etc. when appropriate (RDA ) $c: Dimensions of Carrier: 4 3/4 in. (RDA and its LC-PCC PS, which says to use “in.”) Abbreviation “in.” for “inches” still used (RDA Appendix B.7)

18 DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility
For moving images, various types of statements of responsibility are commonly distributed over at least three fields: 245 Subfield $c (Statement of responsibility, etc.) 508 (Creation/Production Credits Note) 511 (Participant or Performer Note) Use of 511 for “participants, players, narrators, presenters, or performers.” Generally, a film’s “cast.” DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility Traditionally for moving images, various types of statements of responsibility have commonly been distributed over at least three fields: 245 Subfield $c (Statement of responsibility, etc.) 508 (Creation/Production Credits Note) 511 (Participant or Performer Note) Use of 511 for “participants, players, narrators, presenters, or performers” fairly straightforward. Generally, a film’s “cast” Let’s look at how both AACR2 and RDA deal with these differences.

19 DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility
Field 245 Subfield $c AACR2 7.1F1: Transcribe statements of responsibility relating to those persons or bodies credited in the chief source of information with a major role in creating a film (e.g., as producer, director, animator) as instructed in 1.1F. Give all other statements of responsibility (including those relating to performance) in notes. DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility In AACR2, we had a distinction between those with “a major role in creating a film” (usually limited to directors, screenwriters, producers) and everyone else, including performers, when it cam to which entities were mentioned in the statement of responsibility (245 subfield $b). AACR2 7.1F1: Transcribe statements of responsibility relating to those persons or bodies credited in the chief source of information with a major role in creating a film (e.g., as producer, director, animator) as instructed in 1.1F. Give all other statements of responsibility (including those relating to performance) in notes. LCRI 7.1F1, which was cancelled in 2001 but is still useful to explain the spirit of what remains in AACR2 7.1F1: Those with “some degree of overall responsibility” go in 245 subfield $c producers directors writers Field 245 subfield $c: Statement of responsibility, etc.

20 DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility
AACR2 7.7B6: Statements of responsibility. Cast. List featured players, performers, narrators, and/or presenters. Field 511: Participant or Performer Note. Incorporate names of the cast into the contents note [field 505] if appropriate (see 7.7B18). Credits. List persons (other than the cast) who have contributed to the artistic and/or technical production of a motion picture or videorecording and who are not named in the statements of responsibility (see 7.1F). Do not include the names of assistants, associates, etc., or any other persons making only a minor contribution. Preface each name or group of names with a statement of function. Field 508: Creation/Production Credits Note. DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility AACR2 7.7B6: Statements of responsibility. Cast. List featured players, performers, narrators, and/or presenters. Field 511: Participant or Performer Note. Incorporate names of the cast into the contents note if appropriate (see 7.7B18). Field 505. Credits. List persons (other than the cast) who have contributed to the artistic and/or technical production of a motion picture or videorecording and who are not named in the statements of responsibility (see 7.1F). Do not include the names of assistants, associates, etc., or any other persons making only a minor contribution. Preface each name or group of names with a statement of function. Field 508: Creation/Production Credits Note. AACR2 LCRI 7.7B6: Although this LCRI was long ago cancelled, much of the guidance remains solid and useful. Include those responsible for only one segment or aspect of the work in field 508: photographers cinematographers animators artists, illustrators film editors music/composers consultants, advisers

21 DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility
RDA 2.4.1: Basic Instructions on Recording Statements of Responsibility. RDA : Scope : A statement of responsibility is a statement relating to the identification and/or function of any persons, families, or corporate bodies responsible for the creation of, or contributing to the realization of, the intellectual or artistic content of a resource. For statements identifying performers of music whose participation is confined to performance, execution, or interpretation, see 7.23 … For statements identifying performers, narrators, and/or presenters, see 7.23. For statements identifying persons who have contributed to the artistic and/or technical production of a resource, see 7.24. For statements identifying persons, families, or corporate bodies responsible for the production, publication, distribution, or manufacture of a resource, see 2.7.4—2.7.5, 2.8.4—2.8.5, —2.9.5, and —2.10.5, respectively. DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility RDA 2.4.1: Basic Instructions on Recording Statements of Responsibility. RDA : Scope : A statement of responsibility is a statement relating to the identification and/or function of any persons, families, or corporate bodies responsible for the creation of, or contributing to the realization of, the intellectual or artistic content of a resource. For statements identifying performers of music whose participation is confined to performance, execution, or interpretation, see 7.23. For statements identifying performers, narrators, and/or presenters, see 7.23. For statements identifying persons who have contributed to the artistic and/or technical production of a resource, see 7.24. For statements identifying persons, families, or corporate bodies responsible for the production, publication, distribution, or manufacture of a resource, see 2.7.4—2.7.5, 2.8.4—2.8.5, 2.9.4—2.9.5, and —2.10.5, respectively. The RDA distinction seems to echo the AACR2 distinction pretty closely, using somewhat different language. Currently, there is a CC:DA task force (MLA BCC and OLAC) examining the inconsistency in RDA between the Statement of Responsibility element (2.4) in Chapter 2 (Manifestation Level, transcribed) and the Performers, Narrators, and/or Presenters (7.23) and Artistic and/or Technical Credits (7.24) in Chapter 7 (Expression Level, not transcribed). So we continue to stay tuned for best practices.

22 DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility
Creator RDA : A creator is a person, family, or corporate body responsible for the creation of a work. Contributor RDA : A contributor is a person, family, or corporate body contributing to the realization of a work through an expression. Contributors include editors, translators, arrangers of music, performers, etc. DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility RDA tries to make a distinction between “creator” (of a work) and “contributor” (to an expression). Now this may be my own problem as a cataloger steeped in the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules tradition for close to four decades, but when it comes to identifying creators of a moving image “work” in the FRBR/RDA sense, responsibilities seem to be too diverse and numerous, and responsibility too diffuse to consider any entity to be a literal “creator.” Intellectually, however, I have no problem thinking of that same AACR2 list of those “credited … with a major role in creating a film (e.g., as producer, director, animator)” as “creators,” as entities with some overall responsibility: directors, screenwriters, producers, the animator of an animated film, the composer and librettist of a filmed opera, the composers for a filmed concert, and so on. With any luck, the task force will clarify this and subsequent best practices will prevent further agonizing. Creator: RDA : A creator is a person, family, or corporate body responsible for the creation of a work. Contributor : RDA : A contributor is a person, family, or corporate body contributing to the realization of a work through an expression. Contributors include editors, translators, arrangers of music, performers, etc. The notion of “contributor” does seem much more clear and RDA does offer much more guidance in Chapter 7. With apologies to William Blake. WORK

23 DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility
RDA : Recording Performers, Narrators, and/or Presenters. Record the names of performers, narrators, and/or presenters, if they are considered to be important for identification, access, or selection. For performers of music, indicate the medium in which each performs. Performers go in 511 note. Prescribed punctuation may be useful for sake of clarity. DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility RDA : Recording Performers, Narrators, and/or Presenters. Record the names of performers, narrators, and/or presenters, if they are considered to be important for identification, access, or selection. For performers of music, indicate the medium in which each performs. Performers most commonly go in 511 note. Prescribed punctuation may be useful for clarity.

24 DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility
RDA 7.24: Artistic and/or Technical Credit RDA : Basic Instructions on Recording Artistic and/or Technical Credits RDA : Scope: An artistic and/or technical credit is a listing of persons, families, or corporate bodies making contributions to the artistic and/or technical production of a resource. RDA : Recording Artistic and/or Technical Credits: Record the names of persons, families, or corporate bodies who have contributed to the artistic and/or technical production of a resource if they are considered important for identification, access, or selection. Include a statement of function with each name or group of names. Credits go in 508 note. Directors of photography, Rob Lyall, Juan Zacarias Muñoz, Hernan Baigorria; editor, Mickey Green; music, Lenny Williams, Chris Biondo. Music and sound effects by Enku Girma ; animation by Habtamu Mebratu ; edited by Estifanos Berhe, Yonathan Kessete. DVD Video: Statements of Responsibility RDA 7.24: Artistic and/or Technical Credit RDA : Basic Instructions on Recording Artistic and/or Technical Credits RDA : Scope: An artistic and/or technical credit is a listing of persons, families, or corporate bodies making contributions to the artistic and/or technical production of a resource. RDA : Recording Artistic and/or Technical Credits: Record the names of persons, families, or corporate bodies who have contributed to the artistic and/or technical production of a resource if they are considered important for identification, access, or selection. Include a statement of function with each name or group of names. Credits go in 508 note. Prescribed punctuation may be useful for clarity.

25 DVD Video: (Mostly) Carrier Details
Video Encoding Format Broadcast Standard Regional Encoding Presentation Format Aspect Ratio Sound Characteristics DVD Video: (Mostly) Carrier Details No matter what we may think of RDA in general, we have to give it credit for improving the treatment of these mostly physical/carrier details for videorecordings, among other things. Video Encoding Format Broadcast Standard Regional Encoding Presentation Format Aspect Ratio Sound Characteristics We can’t really fault AACR2 for its treatment of these elements that are often crucial for users in choosing videos. When AACR2 was published in 1978, what would become the video revolution was in its infancy. Videotape had been around since the early 1950s, becoming commercially viable in The earliest videocassettes in U-matic/U-standard format came out in Beta in 1975 and then VHS in 1976 really launched the revolution, followed by laser optical video discs in So, the existence of various video formats was acknowledged in 1978’s AACR2, but the rules and, as a result MARC 21, struggled to keep up with technology for the next three decades.

26 DVD Video : (Mostly) Carrier Details
Video Encoding Format (Videorecording System): DVD video Broadcast Standard (Colour Broadcast System): NTSC PAL SECAM HDTV Regional Encoding (Not explicitly accounted for in AACR2). Aspect Ratio (Aspect Ratio and Special Projection Characteristics): full screen wide screen Sound Content (Sound Characteristics): silent sound Configuration of Playback Channels (Sound Characteristics): mono stereo surround DVD Video: (Mostly) Carrier Details Until RDA and the corresponding changes in MARC 21 came along, AACR2 accounted for most of these details in the Physical Description (MARC 300 subfield $b “Other Physical Details”, the italicized element) and in notes (most prominently, MARC 538 “System Details Note”, all the rest). The names listed here are the RDA elements followed by the AACR2 equivalent in parentheses, when one exists. Video Encoding Format: RDA (Videorecording System: AACR2 7.7B10f): DVD video. Broadcast Standard: RDA (Colour Broadcast System: AACR2 7.7B10c): NTSC, PAL, SECAM, HDTV. Regional Encoding: RDA (Not explicitly accounted for in AACR2). Aspect Ratio: RDA 7.19 (Aspect Ratio and Special Projection Characteristics: AACR2 7.5C2): wide screen, full screen. Sound Content: RDA 7.18 (Sound Characteristics: AACR2 7.5C3): silent, sound. Configuration of Playback Channels: RDA (Sound Characteristics: AACR2 7.7B10a): mono, stereo, surround.

27 DVD Video: 538 System Requirements Note
538 DVD video; NTSC; all region; wide screen (16:9); Dolby digital 5.1 surround sound or stereo surround sound. DVD Video: 538 System Requirements Note 538 DVD video; NTSC; all region; wide screen (16:9); Dolby digital 5.1 surround sound or stereo surround sound. The Visual Materials community took advantage of the provision in AACR2 7.7B that allows us to “give a particular note first when it has been determined that note is of primary importance.” But neither AACR2 nor the LCRIs offered much guidance on how to word, order, or punctuate the 538 note. In some cases depending upon the complexity of data, it might be more appropriate to put some details in separate 5XX fields. In most common cases, however, a single field will do, worded as clearly and succinctly as possible. My suggestion for punctuation is semicolon-space between elements, but use common sense and strive for clarity. As to the order of these elements, frankly, the order in AACR2 7.7B10 is illogical and not user-friendly. My suggestion for the 538 is as it appears on the screen, but other orders are certainly permissible. Let’s look at a few of these video attributes in more detail. This should be helpful regardless of what cataloging guidelines you use. Then we’ll look at some of the (mostly) new fields where some of these data elements can be placed in a manner that looks forward to a Linked Data/post-MARC future.

28 DVD Video: Video Encoding Format
RDA 3: Describing Carriers RDA 3.19: Digital File Characteristic RDA : Encoding Format RDA : Video Encoding Format DVD video DVD Video: Video Encoding Format The most obvious aspect of a videorecording that needs to be specified is the Video Encoding Format. We won’t go into the well-intentioned mess that RDA creates by dividing analog formats from digital formats. Both that division and that mess get carried over into MARC. We’re dealing here with DVD video, a digital format. Here’s the RDA instruction hierarchy: RDA 3: Describing Carriers RDA 3.19: Digital File Characteristic RDA : Encoding Format RDA : Video Encoding Format DVD video

29 DVD Video: Broadcast Standard
NTSC (National Television Systems Committee) Used in US, Canada, Mexico, Japan, a few other places 525 horizontal lines PAL (Phase Alternation Line) Used in most of Western Europe (except France); China; India; Australia; New Zealand; parts of Africa, Asia, and South America Developed in Germany 625 horizontal lines SECAM (Séquential Couleur à Mémoire) Used in France, Russia, Eastern Europe, Francophone Africa, Middle East Developed in France ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee) Used in U.S., Mexico, Canada, South Korea, various other places Digital format replaced NTSC on 2009 June 12 Supports various image sizes DVD Video: Broadcast Standard In our increasingly global cataloging world, you should always indicate the Broadcast Standard when the resource identifies it. In most cases, simply place it right after “DVD” (following a comma or semi-colon). Broadcast Standard is RDA In AACR2, we referred to this as the “Color Recording System” or “Color Broadcast System.” It has to do with the technology of displaying video color: the number of horizontal lines displayed and the way they are transmitted. There are three widespread systems and one newer system: NTSC (National Television Systems Committee) Used in US, Canada, Mexico, Japan, a few other places 525 horizontal lines “Never Twice the Same Color” PAL (Phase Alternation Line) Used in most of Western Europe (except France); China; India; Australia; New Zealand; parts of Africa, Asia, and South America Developed in Germany 625 horizontal lines “People Are Lavender”; “Picture Always Lousy”; “Perfection At Last” SECAM (Séquential Couleur à Mémoire) Used in France, Russia, Eastern Europe, Francophone Africa, Middle East Developed in France “System Entirely Contrary to American Method” ATSC (Advanced Television Systems Committee) Used in U.S., Canada, various other places; slated to be adopted in other places (Mexico, South Korea, etc.) in coming months or years Supports various image sizes Digital broadcast format replaced NTSC on 2009 June 12 No idea if ATSC has or will ever show up on commercial videorecordings “Ask The Swedish Chef”; “Always The Same Colors” [Joke designations courtesy of Marc Richard, McGill University] Actually, there are several other emerging digital systems used elsewhere, including DVB/T [Europe, Russia, Australia], ISDB/T [Japan], SBTVD [Brazil, Peru], and DMB-T/H [China]. Don’t even ask.

30 DVD Video: Regional Encoding
Regional restrictions indicated by code number superimposed on globe 0. All-region or multi-region 1. U.S., Canada, U.S. Territories 2. Japan, Europe, South Africa, and Middle East (including Egypt) 3. Southeast Asia and East Asia (including Hong Kong) 4. Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands, Central America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean 5. Eastern Europe (Former Soviet Union), Indian subcontinent, Africa, North Korea, and Mongolia 6. China 7. Reserved 8. Special international venues (airplanes, cruise ships, etc.) DVD Video: Regional Encoding Many DVDs (and DVD players) include an indication that they will play only in a certain region or regions. This is represented by the region number(s) superimposed on a world globe. The symbols here are among the more common versions, but there are several other variations. (For instance, a few slides ago we saw the “All” designation.) 0. All-region or multi-region 1. U.S., Canada, U.S. Territories 2. Japan, Europe, South Africa, and Middle East (including Egypt) 3. Southeast Asia and East Asia (including Hong Kong) 4. Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands, Central America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean 5. Eastern Europe (Former Soviet Union), Indian subcontinent, Africa, North Korea, and Mongolia 6. China 7. Reserved 8. Special international venues (airplanes, cruise ships, etc.) Regional Encoding is RDA

31 DVD Video: Aspect Ratio
Horizontal Width of Image: Vertical Height of Image Often expressed as XX:1 or as XX:XX DVD Video: Aspect Ratio “Aspect ratio” is ratio of horizontal width to vertical height of a moving image. When expressed as XX:1, the smaller the number to the left of the colon, the more square the image (as with most older traditional TVs); the larger the number to the left, the wider the image (as with most motion picture screens and, increasingly, newer widescreen televisions). Aspect ratio can also be expressed in its “unreduced” form, where 4:3 = 1.33:1 and 16:9 = 1.78:1. You can do the math. Over the history of motion pictures, at least 18 different aspect ratios have been used, a few of them for only one or a small number of particular films. Roughly a half dozen have evolved into sort-of standards in various geographical areas; in various film, video, and/or broadcast media; and/or for various purposes. One reason that catalogers care at all about aspect ratio is that the difference between the size of an original film image and the size of the screen on which a videorecording is shown often results in different versions of the same video resource, what we have commonly called “letterboxed” and “standard” versions. In RDA, Aspect Ratio is RDA 7.19.

32 DVD Video: Aspect Ratio
Identifying “Wide Screen” Versions Aspect ratio 1.5:1 and larger (commonly 1.66:1, 1.78:1, 1.85:1) Also called “Letterboxed” or “Widescreen” Identifying “Full Screen” Versions Aspect ratio smaller than 1.5:1 (commonly 1.33:1, sometimes expressed as 4:3) Also called “Pan-and-Scan” or “Standard” “Formatted to fit your TV screen” DVD Video: Aspect Ratio "Letterboxing" is a technique used in video publishing to fit the wide rectangle of a motion picture image into the much more square space of a traditional TV screen. This usually means reducing the size of a video image so that the entire horizontal span fits onto the video screen, leaving black horizontal bands above and below the image. It's ugly but retains the integrity of the image. There’s also a less common technique called “pillarboxing” (“reverse letterboxing”) where there are black bands on the sides of the image. It is used when an image not intended for a wide screen is shown on a wide screen. Some early sound films were even more narrow than 4:3 because they had to accommodate the sound-on-film track. Furthermore, there is also “windowboxing,” where both letterboxing and pillarboxing are used. Shadowboxing is a different story. Identifying “Wide Screen” Versions: Aspect ratio 1.5:1 and larger (commonly 1.66:1, 1.78:1, 1.85:1) Sometimes expressed as 5:3 (1.66:1) or 16:9 (1.78:1) Also called “Letterboxed.” Identifying “Full Screen” Versions Aspect ratio smaller than 1.5:1 (commonly 1.33:1, sometimes expressed as 4:3) Also called “Pan and Scan” or “Standard”; commonly noted on videos as ”Formatted to fit your TV screen.” In all cases, the numeric aspect ratio may or may not be present, but if it is, it’s wise to include it. RDA says: “record the numerical ratio in standard format with a denominator of 1, if known.” Example: “wide screen (2.35:1) “.

33 DVD Video: Aspect Ratio
Options for Aspect Ratio: Separate 500 note 500 Aspect ratio 1.33:1; formatted from the original version to fit the television screen. Combine aspect ratio details with 538 System requirements note 538 DVD; NTSC; Region 1; wide screen (2.4:1) presentation; Dolby digital 5.1 surround. Presented as edition statement 250 Pan and scan ed. 250 Widescreen version. DVD Video: Aspect Ratio RDA goes on to say: “Record the specific method used to achieve the aspect ratio if considered important for identification or selection,” giving the examples of “Pan-and-scan,” “Letterboxed,” and “Anamorphic widescreen.” “Anamorphic widescreen” refers to digital manipulation of the image to compress or stretch it to fit a particular display format. Such notes as “Enhanced for widescreen TVs” also usually indicate anamorphic manipulation. Options for aspect ratio: Separate 500 note 500 Aspect ratio 1.33:1; formatted from the original version to fit the television screen. Quoted notes are also good, when appropriate. Combine aspect ratio details with 538 System requirements note 538 DVD; NTSC; Region 1; wide screen (2.4:1) presentation; Dolby digital 5.1 surround. Include in 538 when data is relatively simple to convey and the resulting note is clear. Presented as edition statement: 250 Pan and scan ed. 250 Widescreen version. Definitely use 250 when presented as an edition statement; use judgment in more ambiguous cases.

34 DVD Video: Sound Characteristics
Options for sound characteristics: Separate 500 note 500 Recorded in Dolby digital 5.0 surround and 2.0 stereo (1st film) and Dolby digital mono (2nd film). Combine sound details with 546 Language note 546 Soundtracks: English (stereo), French (mono). Combine sound details with 538 System requirements note 538 DVD; dual-layer; NTSC; region 1; wide screen presentation, enhanced for widescreen TVs; Dolby Digital surround 5.1. DVD Video: Sound Characteristics Depending on the situation, it may occasionally be clearer to include sound characteristics in a separate (500) note: 500 Recorded in Dolby digital 5.0 surround and 2.0 stereo (1st film) and Dolby digital mono (2nd film). Or to combine sound details with language notes (546): 546 Soundtracks: English (stereo), French (mono). Most commonly, though, sound characteristics will be in 538: DVD; dual-layer; NTSC; region 1; wide screen presentation, enhanced for widescreen TVs; Dolby Digital surround 5.1. In RDA, Sound Characteristic is RDA 3.16.

35 DVD Video: Sound Content
300 1 videodisc (119 min.) : $b DVD video, sound, black and white ; $c 4 3/4 in. + $e 1 booklet (4 pages : illustrations ; 18 cm) 538 DVD. 546 Silent film with Russian and English intertitles. 500 Originally produced as a silent motion picture in "This print has a musical soundtrack scored by N. Kruikov in 1951."-- Container. DVD Video: Sound Content A traditional source of confusion carries over from AACR2 to RDA: the distinction between “sound” and “silent” moving images. Under both AACR2 and RDA, the respective designations “indicate the presence or absence of a sound track.” At first glance, you’d think that the distinction would be fairly easy for most catalogers to make. But time and again, variations on the same question arise: If a videorecording of a film that was originally released as silent includes a sound track of music and/or sound effects, is that videorecording considered to be “sound”? As I read both AACR2 and RDA, the presence of such a sound track renders that videorecording a sound resource rather than a silent resource. AACR2 7.5C3. Sound characteristics: “Give sd. (sound) or si. (silent) to indicate the presence or absence of a sound track.” Sound Content RDA 7.18: “the presence of sound in a resource other than one that consists primarily of recorded sound.” RDA : “Moving image resources. For motion pictures and video recordings, record sound or silent to indicate the presence or absence of a sound track.” RDA Glossary: Sound: “Sound content for a resource that contains sound, other than one that consists primarily of recorded sound.” Silent: “Sound content for a motion picture or video recording that does not contain a sound track.” videodisc (119 min.) : $b DVD video, sound, black and white ; $c 4 3/4 in. + $e 1 booklet (4 pages : illustrations ; 18 cm) 538 DVD. 546 Silent film with Russian and English intertitles. 500 Originally produced as a silent motion picture in 1925. 500 "This print has a musical soundtrack scored by N. Kruikov in 1951."-- Container. The visual is from the famous Odessa Steps sequence in Sergei Eisenstein’s “Battleship Potemkin.”

36 DVD Video: Entity Attributes
340: Physical Medium $b: Dimensions 4 3/4 in. 344: Sound Characteristics $g: Configuration of playback channels stereo mono surround $h: Special playback characteristics Dolby Digital 5.1 DTS Digital Surround 345: Projection Characteristics of Moving Image $a: Presentation format Cinerama IMAX 3D 346: Video Characteristics $b: Broadcast standard NTSC PAL SECAM HDTV 347: Digital File Characteristics $a: File Type video file $b: Encoding format DVD video $e: Regional encoding region 1 all regions DVD Video: Entity Attributes As we noted earlier, neither the 538 field nor the 300 field allow for full differentiation of individual data elements through subfielding. RDA’s general direction is toward full differentiation of each separate data element. As a result, MARC 21 has defined new fields and subfields for many of the elements we’ve just looked at, looking forward to a Linked Data/post-MARC future. Field 340 has existed for a long time, but the remaining fields listed here are relatively new additions to MARC 21, inspired by RDA. 340: Physical Medium $b – Dimensions 4 3/4 in. Measurements of the material configuration (e.g., 35 mm. (film), 12 inch (phonograph disc), 4" x 6" (microfiche)). 344: Sound Characteristics $g - Configuration of playback channels stereo, mono, surround The number of sound channels used to make a recording (e.g., one channel for a monophonic recording, two channels for a stereophonic recording). $h - Special playback characteristics Dolby Digital 5.1; DTS Digital Surround An equalization system, noise reduction system, etc., used in making an audio recording. 345: Projection Characteristics of Moving Image $a - Presentation format Cinerama, IMAX, 3D The format used in the production of a projected image (e.g., Cinerama, IMAX). 346: Video Characteristics $b - Broadcast standard NTSC, PAL, SECAM, HDTV A system used to format a video resource for television broadcast. 347: Digital File Characteristics $a - File Type video file File type is a general type of data content encoded in a computer file. $b - Encoding format DVD video A schema, standard, etc., used to encode the digital content of a resource. $e - Regional encoding region 1; all regions A code identifying the region of the world for which a digital file has been encoded which may prevent the file from being played on a player from a different region. You may use these fields in both RDA and non-RDA records. For now, these fields will be largely redundant of 300, 538, and some 500 fields, but remember that they are looking forward to a post-MARC future. We’ll get more details on their proper use in upcoming “best practices” documents.

37 DVD Video: Type of Date and Dates
Different Date Sources: Video image (opening and/or closing credits) Disc label Container Accompanying material Different Bibliographic “Events”: Original production Release as motion picture Release as an earlier video format Release as a videodisc Copyrights of design or accompanying material DVD Video: Type of Date and Dates Dates are often the hardest piece of information to determine for cataloging of any type of material, including Visual Materials · The resource itself often has different sources for dates: Video image (opening and/or closing credits) Disc label Container Accompanying material · Associated with the item may be dates for different bibliographic “events”: Original production Release as motion picture Release as an earlier video format Release as a videodisc Copyrights of design or accompanying material We often find that video publishers redesign the container packaging, which results in a new copyright date on that packaging (these dates are sometimes marked as “Package Design,“ “Artwork,” or something like that). Generally, this date has no bibliographic significance and should usually be ignored except in the absence of another plausible date of publication. Think of it as the equivalent of a redesigned cover for a paperback book when the inside has not changed. On this DVD back of container, bottom left, it reads (in Swedish): “Förpackningsdesign © 2006 Universal Studios.” In this case, the disc reads: “Film © 2005 Universal Studios”, which may be a better date from which to infer a date of publication.

38 DVD Video: Type of Date and Dates
Dates from the chief/preferred source (title frames, disc label) are generally the most important, but other factors must be considered: Remember: No U.S. DVD Video can have a publication date earlier than 1997, Japanese DVD Videos 1996. Dates for DVD Videos earlier than that obviously cannot be considered “publication” dates. A later date from a unifying element such as container or accompanying material may be more important. Such a later date may be used to infer a date of publication as DVD Video. Account for other important dates in notes. DVD Video: Type of Date and Dates Dates from the chief/preferred source (title frames, disc label) are generally the most important, but other factors must be considered: Remember: No U.S. DVD Video can have a publication date earlier than 1997, Japanese DVD Videos 1996 Dates for DVD Videos earlier than that obviously cannot be considered “publication” dates, including but not limited to copyright dates of older films that appear in credits A later date from a unifying element such as container or accompanying material may be more important. Such a later date may be used to infer a date of publication as DVD Video; in the complete absence of any other usable date, a package design date may be used to infer a date of publication. Account for other important dates in notes.

39 DVD Video: Type of Date and Dates
Relatively unadorned DVD Video releases of the original motion picture: Type of Date/Publication Status (008/06, DtSt): p Date 1 (008/07-10): publication date of the DVD Video Date 2 (008/11-14): date of the original theatrical release DVD Video releases with substantial new or extra material: Type of Date/Publication Status (008/06, DtSt): s Date 2 (008/11-14): blank Such substantial new or extra material might include: Documentary material (“making-of”, interviews, biographies, audio commentary tracks, etc.). Multiple versions or cuts included in the resource (director’s cut, alternate endings, restored scenes, both widescreen and pan-and-scan) . Use judgment about what and how much new material qualifies as substantial. Always include a note about date of original release in either case: Originally released as a motion picture in 1999. DVD Video: Type of Date and Dates We’ve mentioned the large capacity of DVD Videos for material in addition to, say, just the original theatrical film. The presence or absence of such extra materials will help determine how we code the Type of Date/Publication Status (008/06, DtSt) and the Date 1 (008/07-10) and Date 2 (008/11-14) fixed fields. This has been the practice since the first availability of DVDs; the forthcoming “best practices” will tell us whether to continue treating videodiscs as such, but in the meantime, it’s still a good idea to continue these policies: Consider items that are relatively unadorned releases of the original motion picture, etc., to be Type of Date code “p” with Date 1 as the publication date of the DVD Video and the date of the original release in Date 2. Consider items with substantial new or extra material as Type of Date code “s”, that is, as entirely new works. Date 1 would be the publication date of the DVD Video, and Date 2 would remain blank. Such material might include: documentary material (“making-of”, interviews, biographies, etc.) trailers outtakes audio commentary tracks quizzes, games, trivia multiple versions or cuts included in the resource (director’s cut, alternate endings, restored scenes, both widescreen and pan-and-scan) Use judgment about what and how much new material qualifies as “substantial.” Include a note about date of original release in either case. Originally released as a motion picture in 1999.

40 DVD Video: Language Video Language Coding: Best Practices (2012)
Created by the OLAC Cataloging Policy Committee Video Language Coding Best Practices Task Force task force members: Kelley McGrath, Chair Cindy Badilla-Melendez Susan Leister Katia Strieck Carolyn Walden 2012 task force members: Karen Gorss Benko Irina Stanishevskaya Video Language Coding: Best Practices (2012) 008/35-37 (Language). 041 (Language Code). 546 (Language Note). Coded language data should support retrieval: Of the language(s) of the main work(s) on the item rather than the language(s) of supplementary and bonus materials. Based on language(s) in which the item is usable rather than all language(s) that might be found in the item. Users most interested in: Spoken , sung, or signed language of main content. Written language of main content (including subtitles, captions, and intertitles). Original language of the work. DVD Video: Language If you’re lucky and have led a clean, kind, and magnanimous life, every videodisc you ever catalog will have only one language associated with it. You can code the 008/35-37 (Lang) and maybe make a simple 546 Language note, and be done with it. Most of us, sadly, have strayed from the straight and narrow and will be eternally confronted with DVD Videos, Blu-ray Discs, and other resources that take full advantage of the myriad language options that their large capacities allow. Language data appear in coded form in the 008/35-37 (Lang) and field 041, and in textual form usually in field 546 (although depending upon the circumstances, language information may appear elsewhere also, such as 500 or 505 fields). In 2007, OLAC’s CAPC issued the OLAC CAPC Video Language Coding Best Practices Task Force Draft Recommendations devoted entirely to language data. In 2012, a revised version of the document -- Video Language Coding: Best Practices (http://olacinc.org/drupal/capc_files/VideoLangCoding pdf) -- was released, taking into account various changes to the 041 field that OLAC had proposed and that had been implemented in the meantime. Each of the other CAPC documents we’ve mentioned today (especially the DVD/Blu-ray guide) deals with language, as well. An entire workshop could be devoted solely to the many language aspects associated with moving images. Today we will deal with only a few. The “Best Practices” document tried to rationalize the coding and description of language data, acknowledging that not every last detail that may be described in notes about the languages associated with a resource needs to be coded. Three of its five major premises read: (3) Coded language data should support the retrieval of the language(s) of the main work(s) on the item rather than the language(s) of supplementary and bonus materials. (4) Coded language data should support retrieval based on language(s) in which the item is usable rather than all language(s) that might be found in the item. (5) For moving image materials, patrons are most interested in retrieving, limiting, and sorting by the following types of language information: Spoken, sung, or signed language of the main content. Written language of the main content (including subtitles, captions, and intertitles). The original language of the work.

41 DVD Video: Language Elements Recommended for Coding:
008/35-37 (Lang): Spoken, sung, and signed languages. 041 $a: Spoken, sung , and signed languages. 041 $h: Original languages of main work(s). 041 $j: Written languages, including subtitles, captions, and intertitles. Data Recommended Not to Code: Packaging language(s) (disc or tape label, container, disc menu). Special feature language information (audio commentary tracks on DVDs, spoken and written languages on special features). Credits. Accompanying material (e.g. guides, booklets). DVD Video: Language Elements Recommended for Coding: 008/35-37 (Lang): Spoken, sung, and signed languages. 041 $a: Spoken, sung , and signed languages. 041 $h: Original languages of main work(s). 041 $j: Written languages, including subtitles, captions, and intertitles. To each of the mentions of “signed languages” above, I would also add “audio enhanced/described languages,” about which more in a few moments. Data Recommended Not to Code : Packaging language(s) (disc or tape label, container, disc menu) Special feature language information (audio commentary tracks on DVDs, spoken and written languages on special features) Credits Accompanying material (e.g. guides, booklets) By the way, that’s a depiction of the Tower of Babel on the right.

42 DVD Video: Language Publishers often provide:
Data chart/grid on back of container Option menu when disc begins 008/35-37 (Lang): eng eng $a fre $j eng $j fre $h eng English or French soundtracks with optional English or French subtitles; closed-captioned in English. DVD Video: Language On videodiscs, language options of many types are often helpfully spelled out in a chart or grid provided by the publisher, usually on the back of the container. Publishers also usually provide a menu when you view the disc. Sometimes the information on the container and the information in the menu even agree. Sometimes one or the other or both are even correct. It’s best not to take any of the language options as truth without checking them out in reality, if that’s possible. Try to be as accurate, concise, and clear in your description of the available options as you can in a 546 or other appropriate note. To assist both users and other catalogers, you might also note any discrepancies between what the publisher says and what is reality. 008/35-37: eng Main content is English. eng $a fre $j eng $j fre $h eng First Indicator “1” because translation is involved. Subfields $a for the two spoken language options (English, French). Subfields $j for subtitled languages (English, French) and captioned language (English). Note that there is no redundancy in the coding but that some detail is lost. Subfield $h for the original language 546 English or French soundtracks with optional English or French subtitles; closed-captioned in English.

43 DVD Video: Language Captions traditionally:
Were accessible only with special equipment; with DVDs, it’s now usually just another menu choice. Were intended for those unable to hear the audio; now also commonly used in noisy places such as bars and restaurants. Included non-textual data: identification of speakers, indications of laughter, applause, nonverbal sounds, sound effects. Tended toward verbatim transcription; often using rolling text bars, non- proportional fonts against black background, usually the same language as that being spoken. DVD Video: Language Closed Captioning and subtitling are some of the more interesting language aspects of moving image materials. Let’s talk a bit about the differences. Closed Captions and subtitles have TRADITIONALLY had different technologies and different intentions. With the advent of DVDs especially, the array of captioning and subtitling possibilities have blossomed, and these differences have blurred but may still be useful in telling the difference. Captions traditionally: Were accessible only with special equipment; with DVDs, it’s now usually just another menu choice Were intended for those unable to hear the audio; now also commonly used in noisy places such as bars and restaurants Included non-textual data: identification of speakers, indications of laughter, applause, nonverbal sounds, sound effects, etc. Tended toward verbatim transcription; often using rolling text bars, non-proportional fonts against black background, usually the same language as that being spoken The “Closed” in Closed Captioning referred to the fact that it once required special decoding equipment for the captions to be seen; that is no longer the case. Closed Captioning is usually indicated either with those words or some graphic symbol. Among the common symbols are: “CC” symbol “Accented TV” symbol National Film Board of Canada’s stylized ear with diagonal line through it

44 DVD Video: Language Subtitles traditionally:
Were accessible without special equipment; with DVDs, they are now usually just another menu choice. Were intended for those who can hear the audio but may not understand the language being spoken. Did not include non-textual data. Tended toward a condensed essence of text; not usually a word- for-word translation. DVD Video: Language Subtitles traditionally: Were accessible without special equipment; with DVDs, they are now usually just another menu choice. Were intended for those who can hear the audio but may not understand the language being spoken. Did not include non-textual data (such as indications of the presence of music, laughter, applause, sound effects, etc.) because those could be heard. Tended toward a condensed essence of the text; not usually a word-for-word verbatim translation; often leaving obvious passages (yes/no exchanges, shouts of a character’s name, etc.) untranslated. The image is from “Masculine-Feminine” (1966) by Jean-Luc Godard; that’s Jean-Pierre Léaud on the left, who played Antoine Doinel in all those Truffaut movies, and actress-singer Chantal Goya on the right.

45 DVD Video: Language SDH: “Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing”
Combines features of traditional captions and traditional subtitles: Usually in proportional fonts and displayed (without black bars) in a fashion similar to traditional subtitles. Hides less of the video image than captioning did with the black bars. Includes non-textual cues and identification of speakers. Subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH). DVD Video: Language SDH: “Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing” The phrase, the “SDH” abbreviation, and the SDH logo are all more recent innovations, introduced in the DVD era. SDH combines features of traditional captions and traditional subtitles: Usually in proportional fonts and displayed (without black bars) in a fashion similar to traditional subtitles. Hides less of the video image than captioning did with the black bars. Includes non-textual cues and identification of speakers. Subtitles for the deaf and hard of hearing (SDH).

46 DVD Video: Language Audio Enhancement: Audio description of videos for the visually impaired. Scenery Action Costumes Gestures Other visual elements Voiceovers that do not interfere with existing dialog. Audio-described. DVD Video: Language Moving from the hearing impaired to the visually impaired, Audio Enhancement is the generic term for audio description of videos for the visually impaired. Important visual elements such as scenery, action, costumes, gestures, and other visual elements are described in a voiceover so as not to interfere with existing dialog. With DVD and Blu-ray Disc technologies, this audio enhancement can simply be yet another language choice. Audio-described. On the top right is one of the logos for “Descriptive Video Service,” although there are other similar services. On the bottom right is the more general logo for “audio description.”

47 028 40 547 0264 $b Sony Music Entertainment
DVD Video: 028 Field Publisher Number: Field 028 028 First Indicator: 4: Videorecording Number No standards for publisher’s numbers: Any format (alpha-numeric). Any length. $b Sony Music Entertainment DVD Video: 028 Field Videorecording numbers go in field 028, with first indicator 4. No standards for publisher’s numbers Any format (alpha-numeric) Any length 028 tries to satisfy two often contradictory roles Indexable access point Note and/or added entry generator Notes can be explicitly input in 500 Indexing must take precedence when there is conflict; note generation is bonus to be used only when results are clear and descriptively correct · 028 field familiar to those who catalog Scores and Sound Recordings · Second indicator structure remains the same for generating notes and/or added entries ·Videorecording numbers are indexed in Publisher Number (mn: and mn= in Connexion) and Standard Number (sn: and sn=) indexes. From DVD container, note Videorecording Number on spine, as example. Video publisher name in subfield $b. $b Sony Music Entertainment

48 DVD Video: 037 Field Source of Acquisition: Field 037
Prior to Format Integration, videorecording numbers were placed in 037. Now use field 037 only for numbers such as distributor’s stock numbers. $b Wal- Mart DVD Video: 037 Field · Prior to Format Integration in the mid-1990s, videorecording numbers were placed in 037, “Source of Acquisition” · Now use field 037 only for numbers such as distributor’s stock numbers Stock numbers are not permanently associated with the resource, but include numbers found on distributor’s stickers, in distributor’s catalogs, etc.

49 DVD Video: 020 Field ISBN-13: 978-0-9815714-3-0 ISBN-10: 0-9815714-3-3
International Standard Book Number: Field 020 ISBN-10: Ten digits in four elements separated by hyphens. ISBN-13: Thirteen digits in five elements separated by hyphens. ISBNs regularly applied to videos: Often labeled as ISBNs, but not always. ISBN-13s have 978 or through 9799 as first digits. DVD Video: 020 Field ISBNs (International Standard Book Numbers): In spite of their formal name, ISBNs are regularly applied to videos. Often labeled as ISBNs, but not always. ISBN and ISBN-13: Both go in field 020 ISBN-10: Ten digits in four elements separated by hyphens ISBN-13: Thirteen digits in five elements separated by hyphens ISBN-13s begin with 978 or 9791 through 9799 as first digits. All numbers in field 020 are entered without hyphens or spaces.

50 DVD Video: 024 Field 024: Other Standard Identifier
First Indicator: Type of Standard Number or Code. 1: Universal Product Code (UPC). 3: International Article Number (EAN). 7: Source specified in subfield $2. 8: Unspecified type of standard number or code. DVD Video: 024 Field Under RDA, Identifiers for the Manifestation are a CORE element. Those that fit under field 028 were generally those with “no prescribed display format,” whereas most of those that go in 024 do have a prescribed display format. RDA : “If there is a specified display format for the identifier for the manifestation (e.g., ISBN, ISSN, URN), record it using that format.” 024: Other Standard Identifier Standard number or code published on an item which cannot be accommodated in another field (e.g., field 020 (International Standard Book Number), 022 (International Standard Serial Number) , and 027 (Standard Technical Report Number)). The type of standard number or code is identified in the first indicator position or in subfield $2 (Source of number or code). First Indicator: Type of Standard Number or Code. 1: Universal Product Code (UPC). 3: International Article Number (EAN). 7: Source specified in subfield $2. 8: Unspecified type of standard number or code. There are other codes not included here because they are unlikely to ever be associated with a Videorecording. (1: ISRC for recorded music; 2: ISMN only for notated music; 4: SICI for serials.) We’ll take a look at some of the codes that may be associated with videorecordings.

51 DVD Video: 024 Field Universal Product Code: Field 024: First Indicator 1 UPC: Twelve digits: Includes as the first digit, “Number System Character” (NSC), which may appear outside and to the left of the bar code symbol. Includes as the final (twelfth) character, the check digit, which may appear at the bottom right outside the bar code symbol. DVD Video: 024 Field Universal Product Code (UPC) goes in field 024, with first indicator “1” UPC has 12 digits: Includes as the first digit, the “Number System Character,” (NSC), which may appear outside and to the left of the bar code symbol. Includes as the final (twelfth) character, the check digit, which may appear at the bottom right outside the bar code symbol.

52 DVD Video: 024 Field International Article Number (EAN): First Indicator 3 EAN: Thirteen digits Includes left-hand digit, often outside of bar code symbol. EANs that are not ISBN-13s should continue to be coded in field 024, first indicator “3”. ISBN-13s have 978 or through 9799 as first digits DVD Video: 024 Field International Article Number (EAN): Field 024, First Indicator 3 EAN: Thirteen digits. Includes left-hand digit, often outside of bar code symbol You may well wonder why the “International Article Number” is known as the “EAN.” In its early days, it was called the “European Article Number” and that abbreviation stuck. Other 13-digit standard numbers are unlikely to appear on Videorecordings: ISBN-13s begin with the digits 978 or 9791 through 9799”. New-style ISMNs begin with 9790 and are thirteen-digits long, but should appear only on notated music publications.

53 DVD Video: 024 Field First Indicator 7 when source is specified in subfield $2: doi: Digital Object Identifier. gtin-14: Global Trade Identification Number 14. Standard Identifier Source Codes (http://www.loc.gov/standards/sou rcelist/standard-identifier.html). DVD Video: 024 Field First Indicator 7 when source is specified in subfield $2: Standard Identifier Source Codes (http://www.loc.gov/standards/sourcelist/standard-identifier.html). These are only a few of the possible types of codes you might find associated with a videorecording: doi: Digital Object Identifier. a character string (a "digital identifier") used to uniquely identify an object such as an electronic document. Metadata about the object is stored in association with the DOI name and this metadata may include a location, such as a URL, where the object can be found. gtin-14: Global Trade Identification Number 14. Fourteen-digit standard number called Global Trade Item Numbers (GTIN-14); these currently often look much like UPCs with two zeros in front. $2 gtin-14

54 DVD Video: 024 Field Any supplemental codes are placed in subfield $d.
All numbers in field 024 are entered without hyphens or spaces. $d 12345 DVD Video: 024 Field · Any supplemental codes are placed in subfield $d. Supplemental codes appear as an additional bar code to the right of the main bar code. This second bar code, which is usually not as tall as the primary bar code, is used to encode additional information, often related to price. · All numbers are entered without hyphens or spaces.

55 DVD Video: Enhanced DVD
Enhanced DVDs contain additional materials that require the use of a computer, such as: Games Links to online resources Calculators Screensavers Educational resources Add Computer File 006, Computer File 007, and 538 field for Enhanced DVD aspects. DVD Video: Enhanced DVD Enhanced DVDs contain additional materials that require the use of a computer, such as: Games Links to online resources Calculators Screensavers Educational resources Add Computer File 006, Computer File 007, and 538 System Requirements field for Enhanced DVD aspects

56 DVD Video: Enhanced DVD
Computer File 006 Field: 006/00 Form of material (Type): m (Computer file/Electronic resource) 006/09 Type of computer file (File): m (Combination), or as appropriate Computer File 007 Field: 007/00 (Subfield $a): Category of material c = Electronic resource 007/01 (subfield $b): Specific material designation o = Optical disc 007/03 (Subfield $d): Color c = Multicolored (or as appropriate) 007/04 (Subfield $e): Dimensions g = 4 ¾ inches or 12 cm. 007/05 (Subfield $f): Sound a = Sound (or as appropriate) DVD-ROM equipped computer needed to access printable lesson plans, instructor guides, and student handouts. DVD Video: Enhanced DVD Computer File 006 Field 006/00 Form of material (Type): m (Computer file/Electronic resource) 006/09 Type of computer file (File): m (Combination), or as appropriate Because the videorecording aspect is given prominence in the Leader and 008, the secondary aspect of electronic resource is accounted for in 006. Computer File 007 Field 007/00 (Subfield $a): Category of material c = Electronic resource 007/01 (subfield $b): Specific material designation o = Optical disc 007/03 (Subfield $d): Color c = Multicolored (or as appropriate) 007/04 (Subfield $e): Dimensions g = 4 ¾ inches or 12 cm. 007/05 (Subfield $f): Sound a = Sound (or as appropriate) You may omit the optional subfields $g, $h, $i, $j, $k, and $l. Any equipment or software needed for the computer elements of the Enhanced DVD are either added to an existing 538 or added as an additional 538 field, whichever makes more sense. DVD-ROM equipped computer needed to access printable lesson plans, instructor guides, and student handouts. If the computer-related materials are significant, they can be enumerated, as here in the 538, or may be noted separately in a 500 note.

57 Blu-ray Disc: History “Blu-ray disc” name is combination of “blue-violet laser” and “optical ray” Tangible medium for videorecordings Grooveless Laser-read 4 3/4 inch (12 cm) diameter Look exactly like audio CDs, CD-ROMs, DVDs High definition video medium with five times the capacity of DVDs Blu-ray Disc: History Name is combination of “blue-violet laser” and “optical ray.” Advanced high density version of DVD technology that uses blue-violet laser for smaller pits and tighter tracks than DVD. Tangible medium for videorecordings Grooveless Laser-read (blue-violet laser) 4 3/4 inch (12 cm) diameter Look exactly like audio CDs, CD-ROMs, DVDs High definition video medium with five times the capacity of DVDs

58 Blu-ray Disc: History Blu-ray Disc technology developed by Sony/Philips in February 2002: Had been in competition with Toshiba’s HD DVD (“HD” for both High Definition and “High Density”), which was developed in March 2003. HD DVD had lower capacity and data transfer rate. HD DVD had less support among major film studios. HD DVD had less support among manufacturers. HD DVD was discontinued in February in favor of Blu-ray technology. Blu-ray Disc: History Blu-ray Disc technology developed by Sony/Philips in February 2002. Had been in competition with Toshiba’s HD DVD (“HD” for both High Definition and “High Density”), which was developed in March 2003. Both Blu-ray and HD DVD technologies grew out of earlier DVD technology and did not become commercially available until 2006, but: HD DVD had lower capacity and data transfer rate HD DVD had less support among major film studios HD DVD had less support among manufacturers HD DVD lost out to Blu-ray when HD DVD was discontinued in February 2008. That’s the HD DVD logo on the right.

59 Blu-ray Disc: History First Blu-ray Disc titles introduced commercially on June 20, 2006. No Blu-ray Disc can have a publication date earlier than Also various kinds of recordable Blu-ray formats available. May be write-once or re- writable. Blu-ray Disc: History First Blu-ray Disc titles introduced commercially on 2006 June 20, so -- No Blu-ray Disc can have a publication date earlier than 2006 Use the same Type of Date and Dates guidelines as for DVD Video, with the extra consideration of no Blu-ray Disc publication before 2006. Also various kinds of recordable Blu-ray formats available. May be write-once or re-writable

60 Blu-ray Disc: Video 007 Field
007/04 (Subfield $e): Videorecording format s = Blu-ray Disc Blu-ray Disc: Video 007 Field Most things are exactly the same as for DVDs except for obvious substitutions where needed: Sources of Information, Fixed Field coding, AACR2 GMD and RDA Content/Media/Carrier, Physical description, most of the system details (538) including color broadcast system and aspect ratio, sound characteristics, dates (including the 2006 date of first availability for Blu-ray discs already mentioned), languages. In the Videorecording 007 field, the 007/04 (subfield $e), Videorecording Format is coded “s” for Blu-ray Disc (rather than “v” for DVDs). The other difference is in the Regional Encoding.

61 Blu-ray Disc: Regional Encoding
Regional restrictions indicated by code letter or number superimposed on globe: Region A (Orange): North America, South America, Central America, Japan, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia. Region B (Yellow): Europe, Greenland, French territories, Middle East, Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Region C (Purple): India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Mainland China, Pakistan, Russia, Central and South Asia. Blu-ray Disc: Regional Encoding Many Blu-ray Discs (and players) include an indication that they will play only in a certain region or regions. This is represented by the region letters or numbers superimposed on a world globe. Region A (Orange): North America, South America, Central America, Japan, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea, Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia Region B (Yellow): Europe, Greenland, French territories, Middle East, Africa, Australia, and New Zealand Region C (Purple): India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Mainland China, Pakistan, Russia, Central and South Asia As with DVDs, there are also Region-Free, all-region, or multi-region Blu-ray Discs. Use field 538 and 347 subfield $e to record any such regional restrictions.

62 Streaming Media: History
Internet data transfer technique that allows the user immediately to hear audio files, and to hear and see video files, without lengthy download times before playback. The host or source "streams" small packets of information over the Internet to the user, who can access the content as it is received. Those temporary files are gone once the playback is complete. Streaming Media: History An Internet data transfer technique that allows the user immediately to hear audio files, and to hear and see video files, without lengthy download times before playback. The host or source "streams" small packets of information over the Internet to the user, who can access the content as it is received. Those temporary files are not stored on your computer once the playback is complete. Minimizes time required for listening/viewing Minimizes need for data storage space Allows access of live events in real time On the right are the logos for several common media players that can deal with streaming media.

63 Streaming Media: History
Streaming technology developed during the mid-1990s but initially had extremely limited availability: RealPlayer (RealAudio Player) introduced in April 1995 supported streaming media. Predecessor of Windows Media Player first supported streaming technology in May 1996. Apple’s QuickTime 4.0, released in June 1999, was the first version to support streaming technology. iTunes player, released in January 2001, supported streaming technology. For most practical purposes, what we know today as streaming media became available to the general market in 1999. It would be extremely rare for any streaming audio file or streaming video file to have a publication date earlier than 1999. Streaming Media: History Streaming technology developed during the mid-1990s ( ), but initially had extremely limited availability. The first version of RealPlayer, then known as RealAudio Player, was introduced in April 1995 and supported streaming media. What is now known as Windows Media Player first supported streaming in May 1996. Apple’s QuickTime 4.0, released on June 8, 1999, was the first version to support streaming technology. The first version of the iTunes player, released in January 2001, supported streaming. For most practical purposes, what we know today as streaming media became widely available to the general market in 1999, so -- It would be extremely rare for any streaming audio file or streaming video file to have a publication date earlier than 1999

64 Streaming Media: What It’s Not
Streaming files should not be confused with “steaming files,” which would be hot to the touch. Hence, the practice of “burning” CDs. Streaming Media: What It’s Not Streaming files should not be confused with “steaming files,” which would be hot to the touch. Hence, the practice of “burning” CDs.

65 Streaming Media: What It’s Not
Streaming media will never be on a tangible medium (such as disc, cassette, etc.). To distinguish different types of remotely-accessed resources, non-streaming files are generally those downloaded from the Internet to reside on a local hard drive. Some characteristics of non-streaming media: File is downloaded in its entirety. Playback cannot begin until complete file is downloaded to local system or device. Playback is not in “real time.” Playback does not require a persistent connection to a remote server. User has access to downloaded content after its initial playback. User will often have ability to manipulate or edit content, “burn” it onto a tangible medium, etc. Streaming Media: What It’s Not But seriously folks, the obvious exclusion from the category of streaming media is any file distributed on a tangible medium (such as disc, cassette, etc.). As to remotely-accessed resources, non-streaming files are generally those downloaded from the Internet to reside on a local hard drive. Some characteristics of non-streaming media: File is downloaded in its entirety Playback cannot begin until complete file is downloaded to local system or device Playback is not in “real time” Playback does not require a persistent connection to a remote server User has access to downloaded content after its initial playback User will often have ability to manipulate or edit content, “burn” it onto a tangible medium, etc.

66 Streaming Media: Following the PCC
AACR2 Provider-Neutral E-Monograph MARC Record Guide ents/PN-Guide.pdf BIBCO Standard Record Metadata Application Profiles (BSR MAPs) maps.html BIBCO Standard Record (BSR) Supplemental Requirements for Remote & Direct Access Electronic Monographic Resources ents/BSR_ER_SUPP pdf RDA Provider-Neutral E-Resource MARC Record Guide: P-N/RDA version ments/PN-RDA-Combined.docx PCC RDA BIBCO Standard Record (BSR) Metadata Application Profile ments/PCC-RDA-BSR.pdf PCC RDA BSR MAP Supplemental Requirements for the Digital Aspects of Formats Included as part of PCC RDA BSR MAP document, above Streaming Media: Following the PCC Several moves by the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) have made the distinction between streaming and non-streaming/downloadable media much less vexing for catalogers, whether you catalog under AACR2 or under RDA. OCLC strongly recommends that all users follow the P-N guidelines, not just PCC participants. First, on 2009 August 1, the PCC’s “Provider-Neutral E-Monograph MARC Record Guide” went into effect for textual electronic resources. Since that time, it has been expanded to cover all monographic electronic resources, not just textual resources, and there is now a Provider-Neutral RDA version as well. The AACR2 version is at top, left, the RDA version top right. The Provider-Neutral (P-N) Guides are organized in MARC 21 field order. Second, on 2010 October 1, the PCC’s set of “BIBCO Standard Record” guidelines, known as the BSRs, replaced the old BIBCO Full and Core level record standards. The BSRs define a “floor” record, emphasizing access points over sometimes redundant descriptive data. The BSR “Metadata Application Profiles” (MAPs) provide catalogers with a set of mandatory elements and mandatory if applicable elements appropriate to all bibliographic formats. These elements have been determined to support the FRBR user needs to Find, Identify, Select, and Obtain resources. Since that time, the RDA version of the MAPs has also been made available. The AACR2 version the second bullet on the left, the RDA version the second bullet on the right. The AACR2 BSR MAPs are in separate documents by bibliographic format and are in MARC 21 field order. The RDA MAP is a consolidated document organized in RDA instruction number order. Although no one is saying that you must change your cataloging practices to conform to the BSRs, they can be helpful in simplifying how you treat electronic resources. In particular, you should be aware of the “BIBCO Standard Record (BSR) Supplemental Requirements for Remote & Direct Access Electronic Monographic Resources: Metadata Application Profiles (MAPs) ” (http://www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/bibco/documents/BSR_ER_SUPP pdf) for AACR2. The RDA equivalent has been included in the PCC RDA BSR MAP document.

67 Streaming Media: Following the PCC
AACR2 1 online resource (1 video file (30 min.)) : $b sd., col. with b&w sequences $3 1 streaming video file (stereo.) $u $3 1 streaming video file (5.1 surround, closed captions) $u … RDA 1 online resource (1 video file, 30 min.) : $b sound, color with black and white sequences $3 1 streaming video file (stereo) $u $3 1 streaming video file (5.1 surround, closed captions) $u … Streaming Media: Following the PCC Following the P-N guidelines plus the BIBCO Standard Record documents, you would always describe the general resource in the 300 and include such details as whether the resource was downloadable or streaming, any differences in bandwidth, and any differences in file type in the subfield $3 of the appropriate corresponding 856 field. The 300 field would be reserved for information that is applicable to all electronic manifestations of the resource with the same content (such as the fact that it is an online resource, a video file, its duration, and so on. Under AACR2 for video files, specify the number of files using an appropriate term in accord with AACR2 9.5B3. For example: 1 online resource (1 video file). As noted toward the beginning of this session, the OLAC “Best Practices for Cataloging Streaming Media” (http://olacinc.org/drupal/capc_files/streamingmedia.pdf) is in the process of being revised for RDA. Because I am an advisor to the task force, I have seen some of their work in progress and know some of the directions in which they are heading. What I say here about streaming media reflects that, although the document and its suggestions are still subject to changes. Among its recommendations is the following: “If the resource solely consists of streaming online files and is not likely to also become issued as downloadable online files, you may apply the option in RDA for using the common usage terms “streaming audio file” or “streaming video file” as the type of carrier. Use judgment about whether to apply this option.” At some point, we may have coordination among the BIBCO, MLA, and OLAC guidelines regarding streaming media and Provider Neutral practices. Right now, we’re looking at sometimes contradictory recommendations, so you may want to review them all (when they are available) and decide what works best for you and your users. AACR2 online resource (1 video file (30 min.)) : $b sd., col. with b&w sequences $3 1 streaming video file (stereo.) $u ... $3 1 streaming video file (5.1 surround, closed captions) $u … Note: Abbreviations in AACR2, including “stereo.” No 300 subfield $c. RDA online resource (1 video file, 30 min.) : $b sound, color with black and white sequences $3 1 streaming video file (stereo) $u Note: In RDA, abbreviations for duration (hr., min., sec.) are still used; “mono and “stereo” are no longer considered abbreviations. No 300 subfield $c for online resources.

68 Streaming Video: Fixed Field Coding
Type (Type of Record: Leader/06; VIS 006/00): g (Projected Medium) TMat (Type of Material: VIS 008/33; VIS 006/16): v (Videorecording) Computer File 006: 006/00 Form of material (Type): m (Computer file/Electronic resource) 006/06 Form of item (Form): o (Online) 006/09 Type of computer file (File): c (Representational) Streaming Video: Fixed Field Coding Type (Type of Record; Leader/06; VIS 006/00): g (Projected Medium) TMat (Type of Material; VIS 008/33; VIS 006/16): v (Videorecording) Computer File 006 006/00 Form of material (Type): m (Computer file/Electronic resource) 006/06 Form of item (Form): o (Online) 006/09 Type of computer file (File): c (Representational) Fixed field coding remains the same whether RDA or AACR2.

69 Streaming Video: GMD Versus Content/Media/Carrier
RDA 336 two-dimensional moving image $b tdi $2 rdacontent 337 computer $b c $2 rdamedia 338 online resource $b cr $2 rdacarrier AACR2 245 GMD: $h [electronic resource] Streaming Video: GMD Versus Content/Media/Carrier What was expressed in AACR2 cataloging by the one-dimensional General Material Designation is expressed in RDA cataloging by the three-dimensional 33X fields, which allow more specificity. Although a GMD CANNOT be included on an RDA record, the 33X fields may be included in any record, regardless of whether it is cataloged according to RDA. RDA 336 two-dimensional moving image $b tdi $2 rdacontent computer $b c $2 rdamedia online resource $b cr $2 rdacarrier AACR2 GMD: $h [electronic resource]

70 Streaming Video: Video 007 Field
007/00 (Subfield $a): Category of material v = Videorecording 007/01 (subfield $b): Specific material designation z = Other 007/03 (Subfield $d): Color b = Black and white c = Multicolored 007/04 (Subfield $e): Videorecording format 007/05 (Subfield $f): Sound on medium or separate a = Sound on medium 007/06 (Subfield $g): Medium for sound z = Other 007/07 (Subfield $h): Dimensions u = Unknown 007/08 (Subfield $i): Configuration of playback channels k = Mixed m = Monaural q = Quadraphonic, multichannel, or surround s = Stereophonic u = Unknown (not stated) Streaming Video: Video 007 Field Field 007, which records certain physical characteristics in coded form, was originally designed for machine manipulation and implemented in its current form in 1981. 007/00 (Subfield $a): Category of material v = Videorecording 007/01 (subfield $b): Specific material designation z = Other 007/03 (Subfield $d): Color b = Black and white c = Multicolored 007/04 (Subfield $e): Videorecording format 007/05 (Subfield $f): Sound on medium or separate a = Sound on medium 007/06 (Subfield $g): Medium for sound 007/07 (Subfield $h): Dimensions u = Unknown 007/08 (Subfield $i): Configuration of playback channels k = Mixed m = Monaural q = Quadraphonic, multichannel, or surround s = Stereophonic u = Unknown (not stated) Base coding on a clear indication on the resource itself

71 Streaming Video: Electronic Resource 007 Field
007/00 (Subfield $a): Category of material c = Electronic resource 007/01 (subfield $b): Specific material designation r = Remote 007/03 (Subfield $d): Color b = Black and white c = Multicolored 007/04 (Subfield $e): Dimensions n = Not applicable 007/05 (Subfield $f): Sound a = Sound Streaming Video: Electronic Resource 007 Field 007/00 (Subfield $a): Category of material c = Electronic resource 007/01 (subfield $b): Specific material designation r = Remote 007/03 (Subfield $d): Color b = Black and white c = Multicolored 007/04 (Subfield $e): Dimensions n = Not applicable 007/05 (Subfield $f): Sound a = Sound You may omit the optional subfields $g, $h, $i, $j, $k, and $l.

72 Dark Knight of the Cataloging Soul: Videorecordings and RDA
Thanks for your kind attention. Jay Weitz Dark Knight of the Cataloging Soul: Videorecordings and RDA Thanks for your kind attention. Jay Weitz


Download ppt "Dark Knight of the Cataloging Soul: Videorecordings and RDA"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google