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Nondisjunction disordersAnd other abnormal chromosome events
Human male karyotype, written as 46 XY
Human female karyotype, written as 46 XX
No abnormal appearance/behavior fertileJacob’s syndrome XYY No abnormal appearance/behavior fertile
Jacob’s Syndrome 1 in 1,800 births 47 chromosomes XYY only 47XYY#23 Trisomy Nondisjunction
Jacob’s Syndrome Normal physically Normal mentallyIncrease in testosterone Perhaps more aggressive Normal lifespan
Klinefelter’s SyndromeXXY, male
Klinefelter’s Syndrome1 in 1,100 births 47 chromosomes XXY only 47, XXY #23 Trisomy Nondisjunction
Klinefelter’s SyndromeScarce beard Longer fingers and arms Sterile Delicate skin Low mental ability Normal lifespan
Patau syndrome 47, XX, +13
Patau’s Trisomy Syndrome1 in 14,000 births 47 chromosomes XY or XX 47, +13 #13 Trisomy Nondisjunction
Patau’s Trisomy SyndromeSmall head Small or missing eyes Heart defects Extra fingers Abnormal genitalia Mentally retarded Cleft palate Most die a few weeks after birth
Down Syndrome 47, XY, +21
Down Syndrome 1 in 1,250 births 47 chromosomes XY or XX#21 Trisomy Nondisjunction
Down Syndrome Short, broad hands Stubby fingers Rough skinImpotency in males Mentally retarded Small round face Protruding tongue Short lifespan
Edwards Syndrome 47, XY, +18
Edward’s Trisomy Syndrome1 in 4,400 births 47 chromosomes XX=80% XY=20% #18 Trisomy Nondisjunction
Edward’s Trisomy SyndromeSmall head Mentally retarded Internal organ abnormalities 90% die before 5 months of age
Turners Syndrome 45, X
Turners Syndrome 96-98% do not survive to birth No menstruationNo breast development No hips Broad shoulders and neck
Trisomy 16, monosomy X 46, X, +16 Not viable beyond 1st trimester
Trisomy X 47 XXX symptoms 1/1000healthy and fertile - cannot be distinguished from normal female except by karyotype
Robertsonian Translocation 13-14Several types, with varying results.
Wolf Hirshhorn Syndrome4p- Very rare. Affected children are small, with microcephaly and abnormal facies. There are cardiac, renal, and genital abnormalities. Most are stillborn or die in infancy.
5p- site Cri-du-chat Syndrome Moon-shaped face Heart diseaseMentally retarded Malformed larynx Normal lifespan
Aniridia-Wilms Tumor Syndrome1 in 50,000,000 births 46 chromosomes XY or XX #11 Deletion of upper arm
Aniridia-Wilms Tumor SyndromeMentally retarded Growth retarded Blindness Tumors on kidneys Short lifespan
Thirteen Q Deletion Syndrome1 in 500,000 births 46 chromosomes XY or XX #13 Deletion of lower arm
Thirteen Q Deletion SyndromeMentally retarded Deformed face No thumbs Heart disease Short lifespan
Prader-Willi Syndrome1 in 5,000,000 births 46 chromosomes XY=97% XX=3% #15 Deletion of lower arm
Prader-Willi SyndromeSmall bird-like head Mentally retarded Respiratory problems Obesity Short lifespan
Eighteen Q Deletion Syndrome1 in 10,000,000 births 46 chromosomes XY or XX #18 Deletion of lower arm
Eighteen Q Deletion SyndromeMentally retarded Heart disease Abnormal hands and feet Large eyes Large ears Normal lifespan
Cat-Eye Syndrome 1 in 1,000,000 births 46 chromosomes XY or XX#22 Deletion of bottom arm
Cat-Eye Syndrome Fused fingers and toes Mentally retarded Small jawHeart problems Normal lifespan
Four-Ring Syndrome 1 in 10,000,000 births 46 chromosomes XY or XX#4 Inversion
Four-Ring Syndrome Cleft palate Club feet Testes don’t descendShort lifespan
Triple X Syndrome 1 in 2,500 births 47 chromosomes XXX only#23 Trisomy Nondisjunction
Triple X Syndrome Normally physically Normal mentally Fertile
Nondisjunction disorders And other abnormal chromosome events.
Turners Syndrome 1 in 5,000 births 45 chromosomes X only #23 Monosomy Nondisjunction.
Chromosomal Mutations & their effects
Genetic Mutations. Remember! XX = Female XY = Male Normal # of Chromosomes in Humans = 46 (2 Sex Chromosomes and 44 Body Chromosomes)
What do you notice most about this baby?. Human Genetic Chromosomal Mutations.
Chromosomal Disorders Modified by D. Dailey Hewitt- Trussville High School.
Mutations. 2 Mutation = change in genetic material Gene mutation = changes in a single gene Chromosomal mutation = changes in whole chromosomes.
Chromosomal Disorders. What are chromosomes? Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, with one chromosome from each parent. The chromosomes are coiled up.
Chromosomal Disorders. Amniocentesis Single Chromosome Disorders 1.Deletion Genetic material is missing 2. Duplication Genetic material is present twice.
Human Heredity. There are traits that are controlled by one gene with 2 alleles. Often, one is dominant and the other is recessive Example: widow’s peaks.
Errors in Meiosis. Non-disjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes, or sister chromatids, to separate during meiosis. Nondisjunction may occur.
Nondisjunction Disorders. Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) 47, XX, +21 / 47, XY, +21 the result of an extra copy of chromosome 21 characteristic facial features,
Karyotypes and Sex- Linked Traits. Diagnose the karyotypes in the back of the room at your table. Make sure to include: Case number Boy or girl Number.
Abnormal Meiosis: Nondisjunction.
Down Syndrome (trisomy 21)
Chromosomal Abnormalities You’ve seen the genes! Now you’ll see the chromosomes! Oh What Fun!
MISTAKES IN MEIOSIS: GENETIC DISORDERS
Human Karyotypes Human Karyotypes. Normal Female: 46, XX.
Genetic Disorders Autosomal and Sex-linked. HOW DO WE GET GENETIC DISORDERS? Nondisjunction – failure of chromosomes to separate during cell division.
Human Chromosomal Disorders. Human disorders due to chromosome alterations in autosomes (Chromosomes 1-22). No monosomies survive There only 3 trisomies.
KARYOTYPING AND NON-DISJUNCTION. What is karyotyping? A method of identification of chromosomes Pictures of chromosomes are taken as the cell undergoes.
Ch. 14 The Human Genome.
Karyotypes A karyotype is a map of an individual’s chromosomes. Karyotypes are normally used if a chromosomal genetic disorder is suspected in an individual.
Occurs when chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis EITHER Homologues chromosomes during anaphase I OR Sister chromatids during anaphase.
Karyotypes resulting in birth defects
Genetic Disorders Discussion
Cell Division Meiosis Cell Division Meiosis Abnormal Meiosis.
Chromosomal Disorders (Syndromes) ************************
Abnormal Meiosis: Genetic Disorders. Review: Human Chromosomes There are 46 chromosomes (23 homologous pairs) in each somatic cell 22 pairs of autosomes.
X Inactivation in Female Mammals During fetal development, one female X chromosome become inactive and lies along the inside of the nuclear membrane Which.
Karyotypes. Karyotypes DefinitionDefinition - A picture of chromosomes cut out and grouped together. Typical human karyotype: –46 total chromosomes –23.
Biology April 6, 2015 Copy and answer the following EQ into your spiral notebook. EQ: What does a karyotype show us? A karyotype is an actual photograph.
The Human Genome Karyotype: When chromosomes are photographed, then paired to observe size and number. Human Body Cell: Has 46 chromosomes, 2 of the 46.
Karyotypes Karyotype = A display (picture) of all the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. A display (picture) of all the chromosomes in the nucleus.
Karyotyping Does it all add up?. Karyotype: a picture of paired chromosomes Match chromosomes basted on: –Size; biggest pair is pair 1; smallest is pair.
Human Genetic Disorders
Sex Determination & Nondisjunction Disorders June 13, 2016.
Karyotyping Chromosomes are extracted from a cell, stained, photographed and paired for genetic analysis in the lab. Karyotypes are used to identify chromosomal.
Chromosome Mutations. What’s SUPPOSED to happen: Crossing over (Homologous chromosomes exchange genes) 2 divisions result in genetically unique cells.
Karyotype A chart of chromosome pairs arranged by length and location of the centromere.
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