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Social and ideological stereotypes in children’s toy advertisements in Greek television Maria Keramyda Preschool teacher, MA.

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Presentation on theme: "Social and ideological stereotypes in children’s toy advertisements in Greek television Maria Keramyda Preschool teacher, MA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social and ideological stereotypes in children’s toy advertisements in Greek television Maria Keramyda Preschool teacher, MA

2 Exploration of the use of gendered codes, dominant ideologies and stereotypes in children’s toy advertisements Production of an inter-scientific analysis model for the purposes of children’s TV advertisements Sample: 147 children’s toy advertisements Methodology Tools: Semiotic analysis Discriptive statistics Discussion Aim

3 Exploration of the use of gendered codes, dominant ideologies and stereotypes in children’s toy advertisements Production of an inter-scientific analysis model for the purposes of children’s TV advertisements Sample: 147 children’s toy advertisements Methodology Tools: Semiotic analysis Discriptive statistics Discussion Aim

4 Research aims ώς αναπαρίσταται το φύλο στην παιδική διαφήμιση; How are races represented in children’s toy advertisements? How is childhood represented in children’s toy advertisements? How are toys represented in children’s advertisements? Could the model proposed be a teaching tool for visual literacy? meanings televisionreceiver sign advertise ment toy

5 Ideologies Stereotypes

6 The sample 147 children’s toy TV advertisements Recording period: 22/12/ /01/06 TV stations Μega, ΑΝΤ1, Alter, Star, Alpha, Macedonia, ΝΕΤ Advertisements as a sign

7 Methodological tools Discriptive statistics Semiotic analysis

8 Table 1. Technical and material documentation of advertisements The table consists of 18 fields: Α. S/N: serial number of the advertisement B. Name of product: the name of the product is being recorded in Greek or English, exactly as it appears on the advertisement C. Time: the period of broadcast is being recorded (Christmas, Easter holidays, end or beginning of school year) D. Duration: the duration in seconds is being recorded E. Space: the space where the plot of the advertisement is taking place is being recorded. Five sub-categories were identified

9 F. Oral signifieds: the speech of the narrator or the speaker is being recorded G. Written text: the written text which is being displayed on the TV screen while the advertisement is being broadcasted H. Musical signifieds: Lyrics: we record whether the music contains lyrics or not Type of music: the type of music used in the advertisement is being recorded. In this field thirteen sub-categories were identified I. Colour (dominant): As dominant colour is defined the one which is being displayed more often in the advertisement and therefore gets impressed in our minds after the broadcast. Thirteen sub-categories were identified

10 J. Animation: the presence or absence of animated figures, cartoons and extracts of animated films is being recorded K. Self-presentation: we record whether the product is self-presented or presented by others L. Presenter: as presenters we define the subjects which take part in the advertisement as consumers and/or narrators. Eight sub- categories were identified M. Narrator: as narrators we define the subjects which take part in the advertisement as consumers and narrators. Six sub-categories were identified

11 N. Action: the actions, occupations, activities of the subjects are being recorded. O. Voice-over: the “invisible” speaker’s sex is being recorded. Four sub-categories were identified P. Voice over (dialogue): we record whether the voice-over contains a dialogue or not (speakers talking one after the other, not to each other). Q. Company: the name of the manufacture company is being recorded. Thirteen companies were identified R. Webpage: we record whether the written text contains a webpage address or not.

12 Table 2: Technical and material documentation of toys The table consists of 9 fields: A. S/N: serial number of the advertisement B. Name of product: the name of the product is being recorded in Greek or English, exactly as it appears on the advertisement C. Receiver’s sex: we record the sex of the receiver to whom the toy/game is addressed. Three sub- categories were identified D. Receiver’s age: we record the age of the receiver to whom the toy is addressed. Since in the advertisements there are no specific references to age, we classified the toys in three sub-categories according to the age of the presenters E. Number of players: we record the number of players, according to the information provided by the advertisement. Three sub-categories were identified

13 F. Type of toy/game: we identified twenty sub- categories, which resulted from the semiotic description of the dominant signifiers and signifieds G. Signifiers: in this field we describe all the objects/items of which the toy/game constitutes in pro-iconographic and iconographic terms. H. Material: we record the material of the toy/game. Five sub-categories were identified: I. Signifieds: we detect the meanings/concepts presented through the toys/games and form seven sub-categories/representations: J. Codes: we detect the codes, the communicative context within signifiers and signifieds relate and give meaning

14 Advertisements’ distribution according to receiver’s sex Girls and boys Boys Girls

15 Receiver’s age and gender Girls & boysGirls Boys Preschool Elementary Both Pre school Elementary

16 Type of toy and receiver’s gender Boys Girls Girls & boys One player Mixed Group/ table game Group/ table game Group/ table game

17 Type of toy and receiver’s age Preschool Elemen tary Mixed One player Mixed Group/table game

18 Races’ representation Black White Asians Native Americans

19 The advertisement Spiderman Flip ‘n Trap Playset

20 Semiotic analysis of the advertisement Spiderman Flip ‘n Trap Playset advertisement toy Space: Indoor/ animation Type of toy: action figoure Receiver: boys Colour: red, blue Music: rock Signifieds: representations of conflict Codes: gendered, war Speaker: man Presenters : 2 boys Narrator: boy

21 Baby amore gendered/ class family Little People Village Educational/technological intercultural Bodily/commodity Professional/social Spiderman war/ athletic

22 Bipolar schemes masculinefeminine cool colourswarm colours Rock musicPop music groupOne player Western/EuropeanOther


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