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1 GSM Mobility Management Originals by: Rashmi Nigalye, Mouloud Rahmani, Aruna Vegesana, Garima Mittal, Fall 2001 Prof. M. Veeraraghavan, Polytechnic University,

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Presentation on theme: "1 GSM Mobility Management Originals by: Rashmi Nigalye, Mouloud Rahmani, Aruna Vegesana, Garima Mittal, Fall 2001 Prof. M. Veeraraghavan, Polytechnic University,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 GSM Mobility Management Originals by: Rashmi Nigalye, Mouloud Rahmani, Aruna Vegesana, Garima Mittal, Fall 2001 Prof. M. Veeraraghavan, Polytechnic University, New York GSM architecture overview –Network layout –Protocols –Addresses & identifiers Location management –Call delivery + location update –Security Handover management

2 2 GSM network layout GSM Network (PLMN) MSC region Location area BSC Location area BTS PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network MSC: Mobile Switching Center BTS: Base Transceiver Station BSC: Base Station Controller

3 3 GSM network layout BSC MSC BSC BTS EIR HLR AUC VLR BTS Um A Abis E B,C OMC GMSC PSTN ISDN

4 4 GSM MAP protocol GSM MAP similar to IS41 MAP MAP uses Transactions Capabilities Part (TCAP) of the SS7 stack MAP functions: –Updating of location information in VLRs –Storing routing information in HLRs –Updating and supplementing user profiles in HLRs –Handoff of connections between MSCs

5 5 What is a location area (LA)? A powered-on mobile is informed of an incoming call by a paging message sent over the PAGCH channel of a cell One extreme is to page every cell in the network for each call - a waste of radio bandwidth Other extreme is to have a mobile send location updates at the cell level. Paging cut to 1 cell, but large number of location updating messages. Hence, in GSM, cells are grouped into Location Areas – updates sent only when LA is changed; paging message sent to all cells in last known LA

6 6 Addresses and Identifiers International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) –It is similar to a serial number. It is allocated by equipment manufacturer, registered by network, and stored in EIR International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) MCCMNCMSIN MCC: Country Code MNC: Mobile Network Code MSIN: Mobile Subscriber Identification Number When subscribing for service with a network, subscriber receives (IMSI) and stores it in the SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) card. The HLR can be identified by a VLR/MSC from the IMSI.

7 7 Addresses and Identifiers Mobile Subscriber ISDN (MSISDN) –The “real telephone number”: assigned to the SIM –The SIM can have several MSISDN numbers for selection of different services like voice, data, fax CCNDCSN NDC: National Destination Code (NDC identifies operator); SN: Subscriber Number; CC: Country Code; Digits following NDC identifies the HLR

8 8 Addresses and Identifiers Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) –It is temporary location dependent ISDN number –It is assigned by local VLR to each MS in its area. CCNDCSN

9 9 Addresses and identifiers Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) –It is an alias of the IMSI and is used in its place for privacy. –It is used to avoid sending IMSI on the radio path. –It is an temporary identity that is allocated to an MS by the VLR at inter-VLR registration, and can be changed by the VLR –TMSI is stored in MS SIM card and in VLR.

10 10 TMSI, IMSI, MSRN and MSISDN Unlike MSISDN, IMSI is not known to the GSM user. The CC of MSISDN translates to an MCC of IMSI as follows, e.g, Denmark CC: 45 MCC: 238 TMSI is used instead of IMSI during location update to protect privacy. As user moves, TMSI is used to send location update. Thus a third party snooping on the wireless link cannot track a user as he/she moves. MSRN is the routing number that identifies the current location of the called MS. –MSRN is temporary network identity assigned to a mobile subscriber. –MSRN identifies the serving MSC/VLR. –MSRN is used for call delivery (calls incoming to an MS). MSISDN is the dialed number to reach a GSM user

11 11 Addresses and Identifiers Location Area ID (LAI) –CC: Country Code, MNC:Mobile Network Code, LAC: Location Area Code –LAI is broadcast regularly by Base Station on BCCH –Each cell is identified uniquely as belonging to an LA by its LAI CCMNCLAC

12 12 Location management Set of procedures to: –track a mobile user –find the mobile user to deliver it calls Current location of MS maintained by 2-level hierarchical strategy with HLRs and VLRs.

13 13 Ways to obtain MSRN 1.Obtaining at location update – MSRN for the MS is assigned at the time of each location update, and is stored in the HLR. This way the HLR is in a position to immediately supply the routing info (MSRN) needed to switch a call through to the local MSC. 2.Obtaining on a per call basis – This case requires that the HLR has at least an identification for the currently responsible VLR. When routing info is requested from the HLR, it first has to obtain the MSRN from the VLR. This MSRN is assigned on a per call basis, i.e. each call involves a new MSRN assignment

14 14 Routing information: case when MSRN is selected per call by VLR/MSC If MSRN is allocated to each subscriber visiting at an MSC, then the number of MSRNs required is large. If instead, an MSRN is allocated only when a call is to be established, then the number of MSRNs is roughly equal to number of circuits at MSC – a much smaller number – hence MSRNs typically allocated per call by VLR/MSC MSISDN GMSC HLR MSISDN  MSC/VLR  MSRN  IMSI MSRN  MSISDN  IMSI, VLR number MSRN

15 15 Call routing to a mobile station: case when HLR returns MSRN GMSC BSC EIR HLR AUC VLR MSC BTS LA 1 LA 2 ISDN 1 MS 1 MSISDN 6 TMSI 4 MSRN 3 MSRN 2 MSISDN 7 TMSI 7 TMSI 7 TMSI 8 TMSI 5 MSRN MSC

16 16 Messages exchanged: call delivery PSTN GMSC HLR VLR Target MSC Originating Switch GMSC HLR VLR Target MSC 1. ISUP IAM 2. MAP_SEND_ROUTING_INFO 3. MAP_PROVIDE_ROAMING_NUMBER 4. MAP_PROVIDE_ROAMING_NUMBER_ack 5. MAP_SEND_ROUTING_INFO_ack 6. ISUP IAM

17 17 Find operation in GSM ISDN switch recognizes from the MSISDN that the call subscriber is a mobile subscriber. Therefore, forward the call to the GMSC of the home PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) GMSC requests the current routing address (MSRN) from the HLR using MAP By way of MSRN the call is forwarded to the local MSC Local MSC determines the TMSI of the MS (by querying VLR) and initiates the paging procedure in the relevant LA After MS responds to the page the connection can be switched through.

18 18 GSM security Authentication What signed response (SRES) are you able to derive from the input challenge RAND by applying the A3 algorithm with your personal key Ki (Ki is per subscriber)? equal? RAND (128bit) SRES A3 algorithm Ki SRES A3 algorithm Ki MS RAND network

19 19 GSM security Encryption Digital technology – easy to encrypt voice data A5 derives a ciphering sequence of 114 bits for each burst independently XOR 114 bits of a radio burst with 114 bits of a ciphering sequence generated by A5 A5 algorithm Kc (64 bits) MS frame number (22 bits) A5 algorithm BTS Kc frame number S2(114) ciphering S2 deciphering S1 ciphering S1(114) deciphering

20 20 Key management Ciphering key Kc is generated using algorithm A8 in the same manner as SRES (from RAND and Ki) Each time a mobile station is authenticated the MS and network compute the ciphering key Kc by running algorithm A8 with the same inputs RAND and Ki as for SRES Ciphering with Kc applies only when the network knows the identity of the subscriber it is talking to. –Bootstrap period during which network does not know who the subscriber is Up to and including the first message carrying the non- ambiguous subscriber identity is carried in the clear (unencrypted) –Protection: use TMSI instead of IMSI when possible – TMSI should be exchanged during protected signaling (ciphered) procedures

21 21 Location registration MS has to register with the PLMN to get communication services Registration is required for a change of PLMN MS has to report to current PLMN with its IMSI and receive new TMSI by executing Location Registration process. The TMSI is stored in SIM, so that even after power on or off, there is only normal Location Update. If the MS recognizes by reading the LAI broadcast on BCCH that it is in new LA, it performs Location Update to update the HLR records. Location update procedure could also be performed periodically, independent of the MS movement. The difference in Location Registration and Location Update is that in location update the MS has already been assigned a TMSI.

22 22 Location registration MSBSS/MSCVLRHLRAUC IMSI Ki A3 & A8 = Generate TMSI Loc.Upd.Req (IMSI,LAI) Upd Loc.Area (IMSI,LAI) Aut.Par.Req Auth.Info.Req (IMSI) (RAND) Authenticate (IMSI,Kc, RAND,SRES) Aut. Info. (IMSI) (RAND) Authentic. Req(IMSI,Kc, RAND,SRES) Auth.Info Auth.Resp. (SRES) Auth.Resp Update Location (IMSI,MSRN) SRES RANDKi Kc SRES Contd...

23 23 (…contd) Location registration. MSBSS/MSC VLR HLRAUC A5 Generate TMSI (Kc) Start Ciph. Ciph.Mod.Com. Message M Kc Kc(M) Ins.Subsc.Data (IMSI) Forw. New TMSI (TMSI) Subs.Dat.Ins.Ack Loc.Upd.Accept (IMSI) Loc.Upd.Accept Ciph.Mod. Kc(M) A5 Kc(M) Kc M TMSI Realloc.Ack TMSI Realloc.Cmd. TMSI.Ack Loc.Upd.Accept can be combined New TMSI is received by MS (TMSI Reallocation) in ciphering mode.

24 24 Location update MSBSS/MSCVLRHLRAUC IMSI, TMSI Ki, Kc, LAI Start ciphering. Authentication Loc.Upd.Req (TMSI,LAI) Update Loc.Area (TMSI,LAI) Update Location (IMSI,MSRN) Generate TMSI Start ciphering (Kc) IMSI Insert Subscriber. data Subs. Data Insert Ack (contd..)

25 25 (..contd) Location update. MSBSS/MSC VLR HLRAUC (IMSI) Auth.Info.Req (IMSI,Kc, RAND,SRES) Auth.Info Start ciphering. Forward new TMSI Auth. Para. Req Loc. Upd. Acept TMSI Ack TMSI Reallocation Complete TMSI Realloc. Cmd. (TMSI) Auth. Info. (IMSI,Kc, RAND,SRES) (IMSI) Loc. Upd. Acept

26 26 Types of handover (same as “handoff”) There are four different types of handover in the GSM system. Handover involves transferring a call between: –Channels (time slots) in the same cell –Cells (Base Transceiver Stations) under the control of the same Base Station Controller (BSC), –Cells under the control of different BSCs, but belonging to the same Mobile services Switching Center (MSC), and –Cells under the control of different MSCs.

27 27 Attributes of radio-link handover Hard handover MAHO Backward COS selection scheme: static –Cross-over switch: anchor switch

28 28 Handover (MAHO) Handovers are initiated by the BSS/MSC (as a means of traffic load balancing). During its idle time slots, the mobile scans the Broadcast Control Channel of up to 16 neighboring cells, and forms a list of the six best candidates for possible handover, based on the received signal strength. This information is passed to the BSC and MSC, at least once per second, and is used by the handover algorithm.

29 29 Handover procedures in GSM BSC MSC-A BSC MSC-B BTS 1 BTS 3 BTS 2 BSC MSC-C BTS 3 Connection route

30 30 Inter MSC basic handover MS/BSS 1 MSC-A Handover required HA Indication MSC-B VLR-B Radio chan. Ack Handover report MS/BSS 2 Allocate Handover number RLC ANS REL End Signal HB Indication HB Confirm Handover report Perform Handover IAM ACM Send End Signal End of Call

31 31 Subsequent handover from MSC-B to MSC-A MS/BSS 1 MSC-A HB Indication HB Confirm MSC-B VLR-B Subseq. Handover Acknowledge MS/BSS 2 RLC REL End Signal HA Required HA Indication Handover report Perform subsequent Handover End of Call

32 32 Subsequent handover from MSC-B to MSC-C MSC-A MSC-C Perform Handover Radio chan. Ack. MSC-B Allocate Handover Number MS IAM ACM HA Request Perform subsequent Handover VLR-C Send Handover report HB Indication (Contd…)

33 33 (…contd) Subsequent handover from MSC-B to MSC-C MSC-A MSC-C Send End Signal Handoff Report MSC-B MS REL RLC HA Indication Perform subsequent Acknowledge HB Confirm ANS MSC-BVLR-B End Signal

34 34 Abbreviations ISC: International switching center OMC: Operations and maintenance center GMSC: Gateway switching center MSC: Mobile switching center VLR: Visitor location register HLR: Home Location register EIR: Equipment Identification register AUC: Authentication center BSC: Base station controller BTS: Base transceiver station MS: Mobile subscriber TMSI: Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity IMSI: International Mobile Subscriber Identity

35 35 References The GSM Sytem for Mobile communications by Mouly & Pautet Wireless and Mobile Network Architectures by Yi-Bing Lin & Imrich Chlamtac Wireless Personal Communications Systems by Dr. Goodman GSM Switching, Services and Protocols by Jorg Eberspacher and Hans-Jorg Vogel


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