Presentation on theme: "D IFFERENTIATED I NSTRUCTION IN R EADING U NITS OF S TUDY Focus on Fiction Comprehension 1 Jeanne R. Dowdell."— Presentation transcript:
D IFFERENTIATED I NSTRUCTION IN R EADING U NITS OF S TUDY Focus on Fiction Comprehension 1 Jeanne R. Dowdell
A D ISTRAUGHT T EACHER -- A RE THERE TIMES YOU FEEL LIKE THIS ? 2 How can we, as teachers, use differentiated instruction without going crazy?
D IFFERENTIATED I NSTRUCTION What is differentiated instruction? Why use differentiated instruction? Why differentiate instruction in reading ? How do you differentiate instruction to improve reading comprehension ? 3
W HAT IS DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION ? “A differentiated classroom provides d ifferent avenues to a cquiring c ontent, to p rocessing or making sense of ideas, and to d eveloping products so that e ach student can learn effectively.” 4 (p. 1, Carol Ann Tomlinson, How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms, 2001.)
W HY DIFFERENTIATE INSTRUCTION ? Since its initial inception, differentiated instruction has been supported by a sizable body of research. * These research studies conclude that differentiated instruction produces positive affective outcomes for students with: 5 Increased levels of engagement Stronger motivation to learn Deeper understanding & meaningful achievement * See References.
W HY DIFFERENTIATE INSTRUCTION IN READING ? Improve student reading levels Better use of comprehension strategies Increase fluency and recall of text Develop positive reading attitudes 6
D IFFERENTIATED R EADING I NSTRUCTION IN A CTION 7
H OW DO YOU DIFFERENTIATE READING INSTRUCTION ? 8 1. Know the learner. 2. Determine the unit’s essential questions. 3. Use pre-, during, and post- assessments. 4. Create tiered tasks.
1. K NOW THE L EARNER Gardner’s Eight Intelligences Reading Interest Surveys Classroom Observations & Reading Logs 9
1. K NOW THE L EARNER : H OWARD G ARDNER ’ S M ULTIPLE I NTELLIGENCES 10 Verbal/Linguistic Logical/Mathematical Musical/Rhythmic Visual/Spatial Bodily/Kinesthetic Naturalist Intrapersonal Interpersonal I like to write. I like to solve problems. I like to make music. I like to build or draw. I like to perform. I like to investigate. I like to keep a journal. I like to work in groups.
1. K NOW THE L EARNER : R EADING S URVEYS 11 What kinds of books do you like to read? How do you choose something to read? How do you like to read? Realistic fiction Fantasy Historical fiction Mysteries Biographies True facts I listen to a friend. I look at the front cover. I read the first few pages. If it’s part of a series I like. I look to see how hard or easy it is. By myself With friends or in a group With kids who read about the same as I do
1. K NOW THE L EARNER : C LASSROOM O BSERVATIONS & R EADING L OGS What are your students … 12 o Reading during independent reading time? o Recording in their Readers’ Notebooks? o Borrowing from your classroom library?
2. D ETERMINE THE U NIT ’ S E SSENTIAL Q UESTIONS 13 The elements of fiction? Effective strategies to use? Making connections to the text? Themes or “big” ideas from the story?
3. U SE P RE -, D URING, AND P OST - A SSESSMENTS 14 Pre-Assessments Response Cards Mystery Masters Squaring Off “During” Sticky Tabs Design Delights Fist of Five Post-Assessments Reflection Lead-ins Authentic Tasks Bus Stop Centers Please see the handout “Pre-, During, and Post Assessment Possibilities” for descriptions of these assessments.
4. C REATE TIERED TASKS * 15 High Complexity EVALUATION What information would you use to support the view….? How would you compare …? SYNTHESIS What would happen if …? How could you change the plot ? Moderate Complexity ANALYSIS What inference can you make ….? What is the relationship between ….? APPLICATION How would you sequence the events? What would result if …? Low Complexity COMPREHENSION What is the main idea …? What can you say about …? KNOWLEDGE Who are the main characters? Can you list three …? * These suggestions are based on Bloom’s Taxonomy although other tiered tasks or questions may be used.
A M ODEL U NIT : A Y EAR OF M ISS A GNES BY K IRKPATRICK H ILL 16 It’s 1948 in Alaska. And Miss Agnes is the new teacher in a village where most of the adults and some of the children have had little schooling. How does one teacher change the thinking of an entire community? By introducing her students to the world outside Alaska. By telling them that they can do anything, such as go to college and become scientists, artists, or writers ….
1. K NOW THE L EARNER 17 Reading Interests Reading Aptitude Knowing the Reader Reading Attitude Survey (p. 25, Fiderer, 1995)* Reading Strategies Intermediate Survey (p. 45, Fiderer, 1995)* A M ODEL U NIT : A Y EAR OF M ISS A GNES *Fiderer, Practical Assessments for Literature-Based Reading Classrooms. See handouts for these surveys.
2. D ETERMINE THE U NIT ’ S E SSENTIAL Q UESTIONS 18 What personal connections can you make to the text? A M ODEL U NIT : A Y EAR OF M ISS A GNES What “big ideas” will you understand from the text? How can fiction help you understand another culture or time in history?
19 A M ODEL U NIT : A Y EAR OF M ISS A GNES 3. U SE PRE -, DURING, AND POST - ASSESSMENTS Pre-Assessment : Mystery Masters What would it be like to live in Alaska 60+ years ago? What would be good about being in a one-room class with students of all ages? How would this type of class help you learn? How would it be harder to learn? Pre-Assessment : Mystery Masters What would it be like to live in Alaska 60+ years ago? What would be good about being in a one-room class with students of all ages? How would this type of class help you learn? How would it be harder to learn?
20 High Complexity EVALUATION What other story does this story make you think about? What genre is this story? How do you know? SYNTHESIS What do you think happens to Fred when she grows up? “ … before, I never knew there was an everywhere.” Why did Fred say this? Moderate Complexity ANALYSIS How does the setting affect the characters? How does Fred change during the story? APPLICATION How would you sequence the important events? Describe one of the main characters. Low Complexity COMPREHENSION What is the main problem in A Year of Miss Agnes ? How is this problem solved? KNOWLEDGE What happens first in the story? How does the story end? Who are the main characters? A M ODEL U NIT : A Y EAR OF M ISS A GNES 3. U SE PRE -, DURING, AND POST - ASSESSMENTS “During” Assessment 4. Tiered Questions
21 Lessons from Miss Agnes What are the life lessons that Miss Agnes teaches her students? Something’s Fishy Conduct a survey of your school about who eats fish and what kinds they eat. Make a graph of the results. Sign Language Like Bokko in the story, how can you learn to communicate if you cannot hear or speak? Books about Each Other Miss Agnes writes books about her students. Interview a classmate so you can write a short biography about him/her. REQUIRED 1948 Alaska vs Your Town What are the similarities and differences between Alaska in 1948 and your town? We All Make a Difference Think about the ways Miss Agnes makes a difference. In what ways have you had an effect on people’s lives? Overcoming Obstacles In the story, Fred realizes that people can overcome their obstacles. Think about obstacles you wish to overcome in your life. Walk in Someone Else’s Shoes Explore how the character of Mamma in the story changes. Create snowshoes with details about how her attitude changes during the book. Miss Agnes’s Gifts Miss Agnes has a profound effect on her students. Make a present that contains all the “gifts” Miss Agnes gives to her students. A M ODEL U NIT : A Y EAR OF M ISS A GNES Post Assessments Student Choice Board
A ND FINALLY … S IR K EN R OBINSON ON EDUCATION, CREATIVITY, AND MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES Sir Ken Robinsons has published widely on creativity, innovation and culture. His 2001 book, Out of Our Minds: Learning to be Creative (Wiley-Capstone), was described by Director magazine as ‘a truly mind opening analysis of why we don’t get the best out of people at a time of punishing change.’ His lastest book, The Element: How Finding Your Passion Changes Everything, was published in January Robinson speaks to audiences throughout the world on the creative challenges facing business and education in the new global economies. He was knighted in June 2003 by Queen Elizabeth II for his achievements in creativity, education and the arts. In 2005 he was named as one of Time/Fortune/CNN’s ‘Principal Voices’. Click on the video to start.
R EFERENCES 23 Ellis, E., Gable, R.A., Gregg, M., Rock, M.L REACH: A Framework for Differentiating Classroom Instruction, Preventing School Failure, V52:2. Subban, P Differentiated Instruction: A research basis. International Education Journal, V7:7. Tomlinson, C.A. How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed Ability Classrooms Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Chapman, C. and King, R. Differentiated Assessment Strategies: One Tool Doesn’t Fit All Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Fiderer, A. Practical Assessments for Literature-Based Reading Classrooms New York, NY: Scholastic Professional Books. Chapman, C. and King, R. Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Teacher Breaking Down. The Faculty Lounge Differentiated Instruction to Meet the Needs of All Students. Classroom example Sir Ken Robinson. Edited version of lecture with a focus on multiple intelligences