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Examining the Effectiveness of Specific Skill Instruction and Professional Development on the Acquisition of Reading Fluency and Comprehension in an Urban.

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Presentation on theme: "Examining the Effectiveness of Specific Skill Instruction and Professional Development on the Acquisition of Reading Fluency and Comprehension in an Urban."— Presentation transcript:

1 Examining the Effectiveness of Specific Skill Instruction and Professional Development on the Acquisition of Reading Fluency and Comprehension in an Urban Middle School North Miami Middle School Arnold R. Montgomery, Principal Dr. Alyssa Rosenblatt, Assistant Principal Reginald E. Lee, Teacher Leader Superintendent's Urban Principal Initiative

2 Abstract of the Study Situation: A large segment of the student population at North Miami Middle School demonstrates poor reading fluency and comprehension Situation: A large segment of the student population at North Miami Middle School demonstrates poor reading fluency and comprehension Intervention: A three-phase program was developed to help foster student achievement: Intervention: A three-phase program was developed to help foster student achievement: –Hands-on educator workshops to accelerate professional development –Introduction of research-based teaching strategies, which educators used in the classroom –Skill-specific tutoring for students Overall Findings: Student scores significantly increased when their educators attended professional development programming and the students simultaneously participated in the skill-specific tutoring Overall Findings: Student scores significantly increased when their educators attended professional development programming and the students simultaneously participated in the skill-specific tutoring

3 Introduction For a majority of students at North Miami Middle School, English is their second language. As a result of this language barrier and the fact that limited English- language reading materials are not available at home, they lack the fundamental skills needed for reading acquisition and development. For a majority of students at North Miami Middle School, English is their second language. As a result of this language barrier and the fact that limited English- language reading materials are not available at home, they lack the fundamental skills needed for reading acquisition and development. Using FCAT test results and diagnostic testing to introduce multiple skill-targeted reading strategies that increased overall reading fluency and comprehension. Using FCAT test results and diagnostic testing to introduce multiple skill-targeted reading strategies that increased overall reading fluency and comprehension. Teachers were offered professional development in these and other areas to enhance their teaching capabilities and foster student reading achievement. Teachers were offered professional development in these and other areas to enhance their teaching capabilities and foster student reading achievement. Student were given the opportunity to participate in skill- specific tutoring to enhance reading fluency and comprehension. Student were given the opportunity to participate in skill- specific tutoring to enhance reading fluency and comprehension.

4 Background North Miami Middle School (NMMS) has a diverse student population with vast differences in learning styles and stages. This school is unique when compared to others in the overall demographics and mobility index rate. North Miami Middle School (NMMS) has a diverse student population with vast differences in learning styles and stages. This school is unique when compared to others in the overall demographics and mobility index rate. NMMS Overview: NMMS Overview: –Services students in grades 6-8 –79 classroom teachers with an average of seven years teaching experience –85% of the students are Black/non-Hispanic –98% of the Black/non-Hispanic students are Haitian Creole –15% are Hispanic, White/non-Hispanic, and Asian/Indian Multiracial –9% are ESE, 10% are LEP, and 3% are Gifted –88.8 % of our students receive free or reduced lunch

5 Research Questions Will instruction in researched based teaching and learning strategies increase student reading fluency and comprehension? Will instruction in researched based teaching and learning strategies increase student reading fluency and comprehension? Will professional development programming for educators in specific reading strategies contribute to overall student achievement? Will professional development programming for educators in specific reading strategies contribute to overall student achievement? Will consistent participation by students in skill- specific tutoring groups increase reading fluency and comprehension? Will consistent participation by students in skill- specific tutoring groups increase reading fluency and comprehension?

6 Literature Review According to Joyce and Showers (2002), professional development that includes theory, demonstration, practice and peer coaching, results in a more successful transfer into classroom instruction. According to Joyce and Showers (2002), professional development that includes theory, demonstration, practice and peer coaching, results in a more successful transfer into classroom instruction. According to Wren (2003), good readers read quickly, effortlessly, and with automaticity. According to Wren (2003), good readers read quickly, effortlessly, and with automaticity. According to Chalmers (2003), “Reading fluency can significantly improve through implementation of various instructional strategies and methods of reading (Mastropieri et al., 1999; Richards, 2000), and by careful application and appropriate interventions, coupled with formative evaluations to measure effectiveness (CIERA, 1998; Stahl, 2000; Mastropieri et al., 1999).” According to Chalmers (2003), “Reading fluency can significantly improve through implementation of various instructional strategies and methods of reading (Mastropieri et al., 1999; Richards, 2000), and by careful application and appropriate interventions, coupled with formative evaluations to measure effectiveness (CIERA, 1998; Stahl, 2000; Mastropieri et al., 1999).” According to Williams (2003), Pressley, El-Dinary, Gaskins, Schuder, Bergman, Almasi, and Brown (1992) stated that the teacher is a potent ingredient in any instructional program and has demonstrated the feasibility of training teachers in strategy instruction. This type of training has been shown to lead not only to better teaching skills but also superior student reading achievement. According to Williams (2003), Pressley, El-Dinary, Gaskins, Schuder, Bergman, Almasi, and Brown (1992) stated that the teacher is a potent ingredient in any instructional program and has demonstrated the feasibility of training teachers in strategy instruction. This type of training has been shown to lead not only to better teaching skills but also superior student reading achievement.

7 Methodology/Intervention Determining Student Needs: FCAT results & diagnostic tests were used to: Determining Student Needs: FCAT results & diagnostic tests were used to: –Gauge school-wide reading strengths and weaknesses –Determine which skill sets specific students were lacking –Identify students appropriate for specific tutoring groups Creation of BITES (Bits of Information for Teacher Enhancement) program: Creation of BITES (Bits of Information for Teacher Enhancement) program: –A professional development model to enhance instructional delivery –Completely voluntary and occurred during the school day on planning periods –Comprised of 4’s W’s: Why? (theory) Why? (theory) Watch (demonstration-participant views the strategy being implemented in a model classroom) Watch (demonstration-participant views the strategy being implemented in a model classroom) Work (implementation-participant implements technique in their classroom and is observed by a facilitator or designee) Work (implementation-participant implements technique in their classroom and is observed by a facilitator or designee) Words (debrief and peer coaching by the facilitator or designee). Words (debrief and peer coaching by the facilitator or designee). Benchmark and Florida Oral Reading Fluency testing occurred to measure progress on comprehension benchmarks and oral fluency rates Benchmark and Florida Oral Reading Fluency testing occurred to measure progress on comprehension benchmarks and oral fluency rates Students were placed in skill-specific tutoring groups. As skills increased, students were transferred to other groups to address additional skill sets. Students were placed in skill-specific tutoring groups. As skills increased, students were transferred to other groups to address additional skill sets. Teacher surveys measured the effectiveness of the various school-wide reading strategies implemented at NMMS this school year. Teacher surveys measured the effectiveness of the various school-wide reading strategies implemented at NMMS this school year.

8 Data Collection Data was collected and evaluated by the Testing, Intervention, Evaluation, and Review (TIER) committee, using the Edusoft grading technology, PMRN, Survey Gold, and comprehensive logs. Data was collected and evaluated by the Testing, Intervention, Evaluation, and Review (TIER) committee, using the Edusoft grading technology, PMRN, Survey Gold, and comprehensive logs. Student Data: Student Data: –Students took Bridges to Literature pre- and post tests to compare comprehension scores –In-house benchmark tests were given bi-weekly for 18 weeks –Students took Florida Oral Reading Fluency tests quarterly to measure increases in reading fluency –Attendance and effort logs gauged student compliance and participation in tutoring groups Educator Data: Educator Data: –Professional development attendance logs were collected to monitor teacher attendance at BITEs –Teacher Surveys measured perception of effectiveness and value of various strategies and instructional programs

9 Bridges to Literature Comprehension Measurement Point Variance on Pre to Post Testing Results by Race

10 Percentage of Teachers who Ranked Teaching Techniques as Moderately or Highly Effective

11 Findings/Results The Bridges to Literature pre/post assessments indicated scores increased by an average of 0.06 points. The Bridges to Literature pre/post assessments indicated scores increased by an average of 0.06 points. –6th & 7th graders showed gains, while 8th graders decreased –Overall, female scores decreased while male scores increased On the quarterly FORF data, when comparing scores from the 1st to the 3rd assessment, scores increased moderately. Students showed a minimal regression from the 3rd to the 4th test administration; however, remarks from the TIER debriefing sessions noted student apathy toward testing overall. On the quarterly FORF data, when comparing scores from the 1st to the 3rd assessment, scores increased moderately. Students showed a minimal regression from the 3rd to the 4th test administration; however, remarks from the TIER debriefing sessions noted student apathy toward testing overall. In-house benchmark testing identified a school-wide trend: decreased scores on a particular bi-weekly test reflected lower scores across the grade level. In-house benchmark testing identified a school-wide trend: decreased scores on a particular bi-weekly test reflected lower scores across the grade level.

12 Finding/Results (cont.) Every teacher attended at least one BITE, and a minimum of one teacher from each department attended every BITE. Every teacher attended at least one BITE, and a minimum of one teacher from each department attended every BITE. 65% of the students targeted, attended their tutoring sessions regularly. 65% of the students targeted, attended their tutoring sessions regularly. 87% of the students who attended the tutoring sessions, actively participated. 87% of the students who attended the tutoring sessions, actively participated.

13 Conclusions The professional development program implemented at North Miami Middle had a positive effect on student reading fluency and comprehension. The professional development program implemented at North Miami Middle had a positive effect on student reading fluency and comprehension. –Positive student gains were most notable when their teachers attended at least four workshops. Although increases were found in student scores as a result of strategic-skills instruction, greater increases resulted from instructors who used strategies and techniques learned in the professional development program. Although increases were found in student scores as a result of strategic-skills instruction, greater increases resulted from instructors who used strategies and techniques learned in the professional development program. Student participation and attendance in tutoring sessions were significantly hindered by student truancy and suspensions. However, students who actively attended and participated, showed the greatest gains in reading comprehension and fluency. Student participation and attendance in tutoring sessions were significantly hindered by student truancy and suspensions. However, students who actively attended and participated, showed the greatest gains in reading comprehension and fluency. Reading strategies and programs found most effective will be continued into the next school year. Reading strategies and programs found most effective will be continued into the next school year.


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