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R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 1 Members of the I.O.M.M.M. 9 th February 2005 19.00 hours. Lecture by C I.

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Presentation on theme: "R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 1 Members of the I.O.M.M.M. 9 th February 2005 19.00 hours. Lecture by C I."— Presentation transcript:

1 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 1 Members of the I.O.M.M.M. 9 th February hours. Lecture by C I Wilson B.Sc., F.I.Q. Member of the Resource Use Institute Renewable Energy and Minerals Consultant

2 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 2 Green Aggregate, Rock Caverns, Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development. By C I Wilson B.Sc., F.I.Q. Member of the Resource Use Institute

3 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 3 Definition of Greenagg  Greenagg ( green aggregate ) is defined as construction aggregate won in an environmentally acceptable manner from approved hard rock reserves.These reserves must be capable of forming hidden Rock Caverns designed to have a long term sustainable use eg. for the storage of renewable energy in pumped storage schemes.  Greenagg will have additional environmental benefits in reducing carbon dioxide emmissions by increasing the efficency of renewable energy generation by reducing the problem of intermittent generation.  Greenagg should be looked at as a new form of construction aggregate.It differs from Recycled or Conventionally won aggregates in that its winning creates a long term sustainable energy after use and at the same time minimises environmental impacts.

4 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 4 Executive Summary  Synergistic development of Scottish renewable energy and mineral resources through new concept of ‘Green Aggregate’.  Development of unlined rock caverns for pumped storage systems.  Code of Practice: negotiated by local communities as lead player and other stakeholders.  Enabling local communities to develop their local economy through financial inputs and marine infrastructure development.  Long-term aim of developing renewable, resource centred, local economies.

5 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 5 The lecture puts forward a new concept – ‘Green Aggregate’ - and how the concept can assist Scotland’s peripheral coastal communities to a sustainable future, whilst at the same time contributing to Europe’s future requirements for construction aggregates and renewable energy. ‘Green Aggregates’ are construction aggregates that are won by creating Rock Caverns inside Scotland’s World Class Mineral resources. ‘Green Aggregates’ minimise the environmental impacts caused by traditional open pit working. These impacts led the Scottish Executive and Environmental NGOs to oppose the proposed large quarry at Lingerbay in Harris on the grounds that the economic benefits were not outweighed by the damage to the environment. This decision effectively ruled out the development of Scotland’s World Class Mineral Resources unless an environmentally acceptable solution could be advanced. The rock caverns produced and their end uses are what makes ‘Green Aggregate’ sustainable and differentiates ‘Green Aggregate’ from both traditionally won aggregates and recycled aggregates. Executive Summary

6 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 6 Executive Summary - continued Green Aggregate working would create underground rock caverns for cost effective pumped storage schemes, which would be linked directly to the production of renewable electricity, thereby helping to solve the intermittency problems associated with renewable energy. ‘Green Aggregate’ would also allow the peripheral communities access to renewable energy, even if not grid connected. The hidden honeycombing of our Scottish hard rock reserves would not deprive future generations of access to construction aggregates, the reserves are so vast, but would bequeath to them ongoing sustainable electrical storage and renewable energy facilities. The ‘Green’ jobs created, along with new technology, would accord with the Scottish Executive’s objectives: A Smart, Successful Scotland; A Green Jobs Strategy; Efficient Renewable Energy; Local Resources development to benefit local communities. Green Aggregate working would create underground rock caverns for cost effective pumped storage schemes, which would be linked directly to the production of renewable electricity, thereby helping to solve the intermittency problems associated with renewable energy. ‘Green Aggregate’ would also allow the peripheral communities access to renewable energy, even if not grid connected. The hidden honeycombing of our Scottish hard rock reserves would not deprive future generations of access to construction aggregates, the reserves are so vast, but would bequeath to them ongoing sustainable electrical storage and renewable energy facilities. The ‘Green’ jobs created, along with new technology, would accord with the Scottish Executive’s objectives: A Smart, Successful Scotland; A Green Jobs Strategy; Efficient Renewable Energy; Local Resources development to benefit local communities.

7 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 7 Executive Summary - continued Financial inputs, from both royalties and community shareholdings, and access to the marine infrastructure would then allow the local communities to develop and manage their other renewable natural resources and assist them towards a sustainable future. The long-term aim is a thriving local economy centred on the sustainable working of local resource systems. Access by the community to renewable electricity will greatly assist this aim. The background to this new concept and the practical steps needed to make it possible will be considered and the present constraints outlined. Financial inputs, from both royalties and community shareholdings, and access to the marine infrastructure would then allow the local communities to develop and manage their other renewable natural resources and assist them towards a sustainable future. The long-term aim is a thriving local economy centred on the sustainable working of local resource systems. Access by the community to renewable electricity will greatly assist this aim. The background to this new concept and the practical steps needed to make it possible will be considered and the present constraints outlined.

8 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 8 A Strategy Evolves for Green Aggregates  Scotland : World-class mineral resources.  Traditional land-won quarrying by open-pit working unacceptable to the Scottish Executive.  Environmental impacts not outweighed by economic benefits.  Acceptable and agreed impact on the local environment.  Integrate renewable energy & minerals.  Environmentally sensitive and sustainable development.  Provide peripheral communities with a sustainable future. Norway Maps Norway Maps

9 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 9 Future Development  Scotland has World-class natural resources of renewable energy and coastal mineral resources.  Renewable energy has problems of intermittent generation and / or viable base load.  Solution is Rock Caverns to provide Energy Storage.  Green Aggregate would be produced and exported.  Need to be worked in an Environmentally acceptable manner.

10 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 10 Code of Practice Facilitated by Land Reform Legislation  Negotiated by the Local Community as lead stakeholder.  All stakeholders including Environmental NGOs.  Agree Terms & Conditions to be met by Developer(s)  Financial Benefit to Communities ⁻Direct Employment and Local Investment ⁻Negotiated Royalties and Potential Community shareholding  All Before Planning permission is applied for.

11 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 11 Rural Development Policy  Strategy meets objectives of Land Reform Legislation in that local communities will be empowered.  Green Aggregate provides Green Jobs.  Regeneration of Communities. ⁻Up to 200 well paid green jobs per site. ⁻Sustainable Development. ⁻Economic Growth in declining communities.

12 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 12 Community Benefits  Financial inputs from legally agreed code of practice.  Access to the development of marine infrastructure.  Local communities develop other renewable natural resources.  Progress towards a future hydrogen economy for both local use and export.

13 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 13 Renewable Energy Problems  Hard to store Electricity  Needs to be used at time of generation  Intermittent generation and demand  Limitations of existing grid  Environmental problems associated with wind-power

14 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 14 Pumped Storage  Ability to store energy until required.  Resource available at time of need.  Build up & storage during low demand.  Future Prospects ⁻Hydrogen Economy ⁻Energy Deficit in UK & Europe Cruachan Machine Hall

15 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 15 Pumped Storage : Cruachan

16 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 16 Glensanda Glory Hole – a future pumped storage scheme ?

17 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 17 The Key : Rock Caverns Hidden INSIDE mountains, Uses:  Store electrical power in the form of pumped storage.  Solves future problems of intermittent generation from renewable sources.  Coastal Surge Chambers for Wave-Power Generation.  Manufacture and store hydrogen.  Sinks for Carbon Sequestration.  Green Aggregate produced for the U.K. and European markets.

18 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 18 Pumped Storage: Energy Sources  Cheap Sustainable Energy Sources in peripheral areas.  Tidal, Offshore, Wind Generation.  High Availability.  ROC Applicability.  Research & Development Opportunities.  Construction Opportunities.  All contributing to and developing peripheral Communities.

19 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 19 Pumped Storage : Development  Link to cheap Renewable Electricity Source.  Electricity from renewable resources would be used to pump water from the lower cavern to the upper cavern.  Water would be released from the upper caverns, generating electricity to solve the problems of intermittent generation and variable base load.  Energy provided when required.

20 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 20 Long Term Energy  Surge Chambers for Wave-Power Generation.  Manufacture and storage of hydrogen.  The sequestration of carbon dioxide.  Export Technology Concept.  Energy Independent Communities without Fossil Fuel.

21 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 21 European Market  The European market for construction aggregates amounts to circa 2.7 billion tonnes per annum, worth over £25 billion.  This is a market almost ten times bigger than the yearly export sales of Scottish whisky.  Scotland is not able to access a larger share of this market as the current cost base of producing and delivering construction aggregates from Scotland is too high.  Support for ‘Green Aggregate’ could transform this situation.

22 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 22 Coastal Mineral Deposits : Geography  Situated in Environmentally Sensitive areas  High Scenic value  Deep Water  Opportunity for new sea routes

23 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 23 Green Aggregates & Energy : Synergy  Renewable Energy and Green Jobs : Flagship Policies for Scottish Executive.  Renewable Energy Developments. ⁻Need for Aggregates ⁻Supports Rural Development. ⁻Help U.K. meet Sustainable Energy targets.

24 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 24 Coastal Quarries : Objections Answered  Rock Caverns minimise environmental impacts. An environmental mitigation scheme would be agreed for each site.  Pollution from Quarry Dusts ⁻Dust is a marketable product ⁻Rock Fertiliser ⁻Construction materials  Lack of Deep Sea berths/Harbours at markets ⁻Floating Trans-shipment Terminals available for Bulk Carriers  Increased Road Transport at South East choke-points ⁻Use existing wharves for sea dredged aggregates

25 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 25 Competition from Norwegian Minerals Industry  5000 Employed in this sector  Mainly in Rural / Coastal Areas  Norwegian Export market = 4740 Million NKr  Norwegian Export market = £ Million

26 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 26 Dimension Stone Production

27 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 27 European Aggregate Market…For Norway!!!

28 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 28

29 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 29 Aggregate sales ……..Norway.

30 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 30 Coastal Quarries A Blot on the Landscape …. ?

31 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 31 Current Scottish Executive View  The Scottish Ministers did not think that the economic benefits outweighed the environmental damage and turned down the site proposed at Lingerbay in South Harris.  No further large Coastal Quarries will be permitted in Scotland unless they are worked in an environmentally acceptable manner.  The Scottish Executive believe there is no market now nor in the foreseeable future that would support any further workings of Scotland’s Coastal Minerals as construction aggregates.  England’s aggregate needs = environmental problems for Scotland’s Peripheral Communities.  No research to find solutions to the working of Scotland’s World Class Mineral Resources.

32 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 32 Comparison: North Sea Oil  Oilfields had been discovered in the North Sea but the cost of extraction was much higher than in Saudi Arabia.  The oil companies took a view to invest in winning North Sea Oil, even though the economics did not add up.  This decision was fully vindicated as O.P.E.C. raised the price of oil on repeated occasions

33 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 33 European Aggregates Industry  The same is true for the European market for construction aggregates.  Existing mineral reserves are being depleted and not being fully replaced with new reserves.  Tough Environmental Conditions under Planning Permissions.  Raises cost base for deposits.  Increasingly Viable Market.  Scotland’s reserves could be worked to produce ‘Green Aggregate’ to replace existing land won sources as these run out.

34 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 34 Coastal Quarries - U.K. Government Policy  O.D.P.M. recognition that Scotland has World-class resources of Hard Rock.  Environmental problems associated with large Coastal Quarries would limit their number and location.  Both the U.K. and the Norwegian Governments have endorsed the concept of large Coastal Quarries.  More than 10 have been developed around the world.  Scotland - One Coastal Quarry, Foster Yeoman’s Glensanda Quarry.  Over 180 well-paid jobs are being provided in a remote location.  Environmentally acceptable quarries could become a major Scottish export industry.

35 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 35 Employment in Norwegian Mineral Industry

36 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 36 Norway: Aggregate Export Values

37 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 37 Future Opportunities  Closed-loop pumped storage system to manufacture and store hydrogen.  Major benefits to non-grid connected peripheral communities.  By-pass a dependence on fossil fuels.  Allow the export of hydrogen.  Export of Green Aggregate.

38 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 38 Community Regeneration  Community gains long term viability/future.  Communities will have a lead role in development of the Code of Practice.  Resolution of issues at earliest stages of proposals.  Compatibility with Local Agenda 21.  Integration of Environmental, Social & economic policies.  Provision made to safeguard Local Culture and Heritage.  Community share in wealth generated.  Local Environmental Impact reduced within working agreements.  Provide Catalyst for further developments ⁻Improved local berths for fishermen ⁻New Sea routes / links to Europe

39 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 39 The Challenges  Convince Scottish Executive and Local Authorities of the value of this new concept – Green Aggregate and Rock Caverns for pumped storage.  Lobby European Union and U.K. Governments for support.  Local Community to take the lead role.  Put Fiscal Instruments in place to encourage early investment.  Encourage leading U.K. energy and minerals companies to work together.

40 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 40 Conclusions  Scotland has World-class natural resources of renewable energy and coastal mineral resources. Renewable energy has problems of intermittent generation and / or variable base load.  The working of a non-renewable mineral resource can pump-prime sustainable development.  Green Aggregates and Rock Caverns can provide an environmentally acceptable solution.  Scotland could become a World leader in developing Rock Caverns for pumped storage, surge chambers for wave-power, hydrogen manufacture and storage and their development as sinks for Carbon Sequestration.  Scotland could become a World leader in the production of ‘Green Aggregate’.

41 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 41 The Resource Use Institute, Devoted to the wise use of natural resources.  Founded in  Multi-disciplinary college of independent consultants.  Devoted to the sustainable management of physical resources.  Great emphasis on holistic thinking,  Integration between sectors of the economy.  Recycling of wastes.  Preservation of Communities and Cultural heritage.  Resource Use Institute -

42 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 42 The Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources.  Further background information to this lecture is to be found on the R.U.I. website where papers contributed to by C I Wilson are available. C I Wilson can be contacted on

43 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 43

44 R U I : Resource Use Institute Devoted to the wise use of natural resources 44


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