Presentation on theme: "Unit 5 Choose to Be Alone on Purpose. Background Information （ 1 ） Henry David Thoreau (12 July 1817 – 6 May 1862 ） was an American author, naturalist,"— Presentation transcript:
Unit 5 Choose to Be Alone on Purpose
Background Information （ 1 ） Henry David Thoreau (12 July 1817 – 6 May 1862 ） was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, development critic, philosopher, and abolitionist who is best known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state. Thoreau's books, articles, essays, journals, and poetry total over 20 volumes.
Background Information （ 1 ） Among his lasting contributions were his writings on natural history and philosophy, where he anticipated the methods and findings of ecology and environmental history, two sources of modern day environmentalism. He was a lifelong abolitionist, delivering lectures that attacked the Fugitive Slave Law while praising the writings of Wendell Phillips and defending the abolitionist John Brown. Thoreau’s philosophy of nonviolent resistance influenced the political thoughts and actions of such later figures as Leo Tolstoy, Mahatma Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, Jr.
Background Information （ 2 ） John Milton II (9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674) was an English poet, author, polemicist and civil servant for the Commonwealth of England. He is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost and for his treatise condemning censorship, Areopagitica.poetauthorpolemicistCommonwealth of Englandepic poem Paradise LostAreopagitica Milton was writing at a time of religious and political flux in England. His poetry and prose reflect deep convictions, often reacting to contemporary circumstances, but it is not always easy to locate the writer in an obvious religious category.
Background Information （ 2 ） His views may be described as broadly Protestant, and he was an accomplished, scholarly man of letters, polemical writer and an official in the government of Oliver Cromwell. ProtestantOliver Cromwell After his death, Milton became the subject of partisan biographies, such as those by Edward Phillips and John Toland, and a hostile account by Anthony à Wood. Samuel Johnson described him as "an acrimonious and surly republican"; but William Hayley's 1796 biography called him the "greatest English author", at a time when his reputation was particularly in play.Edward PhillipsJohn TolandAnthony à WoodSamuel JohnsonWilliam Hayley
Background Information （ 3 ） William Wordsworth was an English poet ( ). Orphaned at 13, Wordsworth attended Cambridge Univ., but remained rootless until 1795, when a legacy made possible a reunion with his sister. He became friends with Colerdige, with whom he wrote Lyrical Ballads, which launched the English Romantic Movement. His poetry is perhaps most original in its vision and creative imagination. In 1843, he became England’s poet laureate. He is regarded s the central figure in the initiation of English Romanticism.
Text Structure Analysis: Part One (Para 1-2): Living alone– a common social phenomenon Part Two (Para 3-10): Who are often living alone? Part Three (Para 11-13): The comments on the phenomenon of solitude Part Four (Para 14-16): Conclusion.
As a sort of US national disease, lots of people are living alone, some divorced, some widowed and some never yet committed. But to be alone on purpose is of American hero. Solitude is liked by poets and philosophers for inspiration, and improved by being voluntary. Although those living with others may enjoy temporary solitude, those living in solitude may suffer from the need to talk, thus behaving strangely and talking at length to themselves or to their pets. The best cure for this is to stay rational, settle down and find grace and pleasure in one’s own condition Summary of the Text
by count cast out solitary set forth dictate soak choke at length seal up Words and Expressions
1. by count: by calculating the number of units in a group (Para 1) By our count, that’s the fifth cake you’ve eaten. 我们数了一下，这是你吃的第五块蛋糕。 By my count, there are 270 people present. 有 270 人出席，我统计了一下。
2. cast out: get rid of (Para 2) The poor fellow was cast out by the landlady when his last penny had gone. 那个可怜的人花掉最后一个便士之后，就被房东 太太赶了出去。 He was cast out of his home at the age of 14. 他在 14 岁时被家里赶了出来。
3. solitary: alone, with no other people or things around (Para 2) The young man is solitary by nature. 这个年轻人生性就相当孤僻。 The solitary boat looked tiny in the sea. 孤舟在大海上显得渺小。
4. set forth: start a journey; present sth. or make it known (Para 4) They set forth on their hike immediately after breakfast. 他们早饭后马上起程开始徒步旅行。 The president set forth his views in a television broadcast. 在他的前言中这位作者写出了这本书的理由。
5. dictate: say words aloud for sb. Else to write down; tell sb. what to do (Para 6) He dictated a letter to his secretary. 他向秘书口授了一封信。 Conscience dictates truthfulness. 良心促使人吐真言。
6. soak: remain in liquid; enter through the small opening of a surface (Para 11) What I need is soaking in a hot tub. 我所需要的是泡在热浴缸里。 The ink had soaked through the thin paper onto the picture beneath. 墨水渗透到这张薄纸下面的图片上去了。
7. choke: become or make sb. Become unable to speak; stop breathing (Para 12) Anger choked his words. 他气得说不出话来。 She almost choked to death in the thick fumes. 她差点被浓烟呛死。
8. at length: taking a long time, fully; after a long time, eventually (Para 13) He went at great length about his various illnesses. 他唠唠叨叨地讲起了他得的各种疾病。 “ I’m still not sure,” he said at length. “ 我还是不肯定， ” 他终于说了。
9. seal up: close a container tightly or fit a crack (Para 15) Make sure the parcel of examinaiton scripts is properly sealed up. 确保装试卷的袋子密封好了。 He sealed up a drawer so that it cannot be opened. 他封住抽屉使它不能打开。
Questions for discussion 1. Why is loneliness called a national disease in the U.S.? 2. How will temporary absence of friends and acquaintances affect a person? 3. How is a solitary man advised to enjoy his life ？ 4. What can be inferred from the passage about the author’s attitudes towards ordianry people’s condition of living alone?
Writing 四级考试作文及范文 It Pays to Be Honest 1. 当前社会上存在许多不诚实的现象。 2. 诚实利人利己，做人应该诚实。
Writing It Pays to Be Honest In our everyday life, we often hear of stories of people being cheated by dishonest people. For example, consumers go to buy a chicken and come back with a chicken whose stomach is filled with sand. Besides, many people have had the experience of being overcharged for a certain service or being charged for some service which they have never enjoyed.
Writing Such instances are so common in our current society that people have come the conclusion that there are few honest people nowadays. However, people should realize that being honest is both beneficial to others and to themselves as well. In Nanjing, recently the story of a tax driver has been told by many people. This driver has always been kind and honest to his passengers and his fellow drivers. People like him very much and feel secure to travel in his car.
One day, the mother of the taxi driver suddenly fell ill and had to be sent to the hospital at once. Just at this critical moment, a car stopped on the roadside and the driver helped his mother into his car. His mother arrived in the hospital in time and soon recovered. From his own experiences, the taxi driver often says to people that it pays to be honest. If everyone is honest, how wonderful our society will be! Writing