DEFINING THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN OF READING The attitudes, beliefs, and values one has about reading, which ultimately influence one’s reading engagement, motivation, and habits.
WHY STUDY THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN OF READING? Recreational reading (reading for fun) has steadily declined in nearly ever age group for the last 20 years 65% of college freshmen read for pleasure less than an hour per week or not at all By the time these freshmen become college seniors, one in three students read nothing at all for pleasure in a given week. National Endowment for the Arts (2007)
WHY STUDY THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN (CONT.) Approximately 50% of preservice teachers are unenthusiastic readers (Applegate & Applegate, 2004; Nathanson, et al., 2008) Teachers’ enthusiasm for reading and books facilitates students’ interests as well. (Routman, 2002; Atwell, 2007) Teachers’ book recommendations are one of the greatest contributors to students’ text choices for recreational reading. (Miller, 2009)
GOAL OF RESEARCH IN THIS FIELD Short-term: Improve preservice teachers’ relationships with reading such that they become avid, enthusiastic readers. Long-term: Improve elementary, middle, and high school level students’ engagement in recreational reading through meaningful interactions with teachers who are passionate about reading.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS Q1: What are instructors’ perceptions of their students’ affective domains of reading? Q2: How do instructors’ perceptions influence their instructional decisions in a children’s literature course?
CONTEXTS | CHILDREN’S LITERATURE COURSES SITE A: Urban, 4-year, NCATE Accredited, English Department SITE B: Semi-Rural, 2-year, English Department SITE C: Suburban, 4-year, NCATE Accredited, Education Department
DESIGN | MIXED METHODS 1.Quantitative Survey Rating Scale of Preservice Teacher Affective Domain (Adult Motivation for Reading Scale, Schutte & Malouff, 2007) 2.Interviews with Instructors (Round 1) 3.Observation (Children’s Literature course sessions) 4.Artifacts 5.Interviews with Instructors (Round 2)
DATA COLLECTION Interviews Observation Artifacts Quantitative Survey Rating Scale (AMRS) 2 each, semi-structured Artifact elicitation 118 hours 15 weeks Syllabi, handouts, course readings, student work samples, quizzes/exams Students’ scores, possible range of 21-105
PARTICIPANTS | CHILDREN’S LIT. INSTRUCTORS SITE A – ALICE : Experienced with the course MA Creative Writing/Drama Incorporated visual arts, film, and drama Weekly 3 hour sessions, 15 weeks Instructional Style: Lecture, instructor read aloud, small group presentations, whole and small group discussions, small group literature sharing, in-class multiple choice and short answer quizzes Materials used: course packet of articles/selected works, some self- selected literature
PARTICIPANTS | CHILDREN’S LIT. INSTRUCTORS SITE B – BRIAN : Minimal experience with the course (1 st time with PSTs) MA English: Composition Incorporated current events and film Weekly 3 hour sessions, 15 weeks Instructional Style: Lecture, whole group discussion, student presentations of literature, essays, literature analysis Materials used: comprehensive textbook, some self-selected literature
PARTICIPANTS | CHILDREN’S LIT. INSTRUCTORS SITE C – CHRIS : Somewhat experienced with the course Ph.D. Research Methods: Reading Incorporated elementary teaching methods, activities, strategies Weekly 3 hour sessions, 15 weeks Instructional Style: Minimal lecture, instructor and student read alouds, silent reading, whole and small group literature discussions (book clubs), small group literature sharing and sorting, elementary level practicum Materials used: brief textbook, supplementary text focused on read aloud techniques, much self-selected children’s and adolescent literature
FINDINGS INSTRUCTORS’ PERCEPTIONS | INFLUENCE ON INSTRUCTION
BELIEF 1| AFFECTIVE DOMAINS VARY “In this class, I find that a lot of them are just discovering that they can enjoy reading...And it’s (building a passion for reading) so different, it’s just so individual.” ~Alice, Site A “You could tell from the discussions which of them were really into this stuff and which weren’t.” ~Brian, Site B “I view reading as an individual journey for students.” ~Chris, Site C
BELIEF 2| IT’S A JOB, AN OBLIGATION “They read boring stuff for school because they’re made to...” ~Alice, Site A “It’s possible that there are those that really don’t like to read, but they do it because it’s class and that’s what they’re going to do, so they do it.” ~Brian, Site B “Yeah, this to me...all these answers explain the hectic nature of college expectations, and the reason I say that is because they’ve told me that... ~Chris, Site C
BELIEF 3| TEACHERS SHOULD BE READERS “They (elementary teachers) are the source of literacy. How the teachers teach reading and how much reading they have is the center of how literate the kids will be in other grades and when they’re an adult.” ~Alice, Site A “Teachers that are passionate about reading, they’re going to be more likely to pass along that passion to their students...their students will see it in them…I think in academic fields, I think you’re short-changing yourself and your students if you don’t have that love of reading.” ~Brian, Site B “You know, teachers as a model of reading is critical…What will you do to make sure those, your beliefs and your understanding of your beliefs, support your students?”~Chris, Site C
BELIEF 4| THEIR AFFECTIVE DOMAINS WILL IMPROVE “It seems like this class changes people’s, the students’, attitudes to reading a lot. It seems like they enjoy reading a lot more.” ~Alice, Site A “The hope is that that will rub off a bit, and others will see, ‘Wow, they’re really into that,’ you know, lead by example kind of thing. You hope as a teacher that your own passion for those kinds of things will rub off.” ~Brian, Site B “My reaction (to the survey rating scale data) is that it’s going to change dramatically. The kids on that that are on the lower end are going to develop a sense of self efficacy as readers, and they’re going to see themselves as readers, the importance of reading and try to fit that into their definition of reading. I can almost guarantee it.” ~Chris, Site C
BELIEF 5| EVERY STUDENT CAN BECOME A READER Alice also felt strongly that there’s the potential for everyone to become a reader, quoting children’s author, Philip Pullman, “...put the right book into the hands of the right child at the right time,”~Alice, Site A “I really believe that everybody has the potential to love reading. It just has to hit them at the right time...it just takes whatever connects with you...know your audience and find something that fits them...and I think pretty much teachers at all levels, I think teachers even at my level can do that, which is part of the reason I like to teach children’s literature.” ~Brian, Site B “So they’re in such a safe environment in our class, which they’ve expressed, that they are very willing to go places that they know are going to be difficult, so they’re willing to challenge themselves, so they’re willing to say they’d like to go here...”~Chris, Site C
INFLUENCE ON INSTRUCTION Four Aspects of Courses Influenced by Instructors Understanding Their Students’ Affective Domains
1 ST ASPECT OF COURSE| INTERACTIONS WITH STUDENTS Alice | Site A Leader Entertaining, Casual Tone Brian | Site B Facilitator Students’ voices prioritized Chris | Site C Facilitator and Participant Individual and Small Group Interaction
2 ND ASPECT OF COURSE| SELECTION AND USE OF REQUIRED READING Alice | Site A Wide variety, primarily instructor selected Selections made for quality, interest, and connection to students’ current lives Brian | Site B Self-selection of children’s literature seen as most valuable Comprehensive textbook seen as resource to provide background knowledge Chris | Site C Self-selection of wide variety of children’s and adolescent literature Concise text used as an accessible resource
3 RD ASPECT OF COURSE| ASSIGNMENTS AND ASSESSMENTS Alice | Site A Self-selection of texts for reading log Student sharing of favorite texts Bounded student choice in novel selection, format of group presentation, and final paper topic Self reflection of experience in the course Brian | Site B Weekly presentations of self-selected texts Chris | Site C Self-selection of wide variety of children’s and adolescent literature for read alouds, silent reading, and book club Variety of forms of assessment including collaborative and performance based
4 TH ASPECT OF COURSE| IN-CLASS ACTIVITIES Alice | Site A Small group read aloud Student choice to work individually, with partner, or small group Current popular movie clips used for demonstration and literary analysis Brian | Site B Child panel discussing likes and dislikes Whole group and small group discussion of genres Field trip to movie Chris | Site C Many opportunities for read aloud practice in pairs, small group, then whole group (final exam) Text sorting in small groups Silent reading Varied student- centered responses to reading
CREATING THE ENVIRONMENT Building up a “club” All are welcome here It’s not your “fault” Build a sense of community through sharing and acceptance of personal reading journeys Use assignments and activities to help students understand their own personal histories with reading and others’ Reading autobiographies Skits/role plays
SHARING OUR READING SELVES Model reading habits I’ve got to share this with you… I found this great book… Does anyone know about…? Expose them to the literary culture www.goodreads.com www.audible.com http://bookpage.com
EXPANDING AWARENESS OF TEXTS Bring in LOTS of literature Connect literature to current lives Help them determine “the good, the bad, and the ugly” Honor “old favorites” while encouraging knowledge of the new Careful of assumptions Level the playing field
PROVIDING CHOICES Facilitate informed decisions Database of Award-Winning Children’s Literature http://www.dawcl.com Self-selection of Texts Topics Grouping Format (projects/assignments)
JUST THE BEGINNING Lingering Questions | Future Research
LINGERING QUESTIONS | TEACHER EDUCATION How might applying intentional affective instruction in other teacher preparation courses influence preservice teachers’ affective domains of reading, particularly in content areas? How long do the positive effects of intentional affective instruction last? Do student teachers maintain a consistent positive affective domain following experiences with intentional affective instruction? Increase? Decrease?
LINGERING QUESTIONS | TEACHER-STUDENT CONNECTIONS How might teachers’ affective domains influence their ability to implement intentional affective instructional practices in the K- 12 classroom? How might teachers’ affective domains influence their students’ affective domains? Which aspects of intentional affective instruction are most effective for improving elementary, middle, and high school readers’ affective domains?
FUTURE RESEARCH Needs to take into account changing definitions of literacy due to advancements in technology Needs to support teacher-student & student-student relationships Needs to result in solutions that increase literacy engagement and motivation in striving readers Reluctant (aliterate) Urban English Language Learners Special Needs
REFERENCES Applegate, A.J., & Applegate, M.D. (2004). The Peter effect: Reading habits and attitudes of preservice teachers. The Reading Teacher, 57 (6), 554-563 Atwell, N. (2007). The reading zone: How to help kids become skilled, passionate, habitual, critical readers. New York: Scholastic. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications Inc. Davis-Duerr, J. (2010). Qualitative and quantitative inquiry into the affective domain of preservice teachers enrolled in children’s literature courses.. Ed. D. Dissertation, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley. Iyengar, S. (2007). To Read or Not to Read: A Question of National Consequence Research Report #47. In S. Iyengar (Ed.), (pp. 98). Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts Office of Research and Analysis.
REFERENCES Merriam, S. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Miller, D. (2009). The Book Whisperer: Awakening the inner reader in every child. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Merriam, S. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Nathanson, S., Pruslow, J., & Levitt, R. (2008). The reading habits and literacy attitudes of inservice and prospective teachers: Results of a questionnaire survey. Journal of Teacher Education, 59(4), 313-321. Routman, R. (2002). Reading essentials: The specifics you need to teach reading well. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Schutte, N. S., & Malouff, J. M. (2007). Dimensions of reading motivation: Development of an adult reading motivation scale. Reading Psychology, 28, 469-489.