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Review: Grammar  Different kinds of "grammar" Definitions Types  Different approaches to defining content  Grammar should not be seen as totally independent.

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Presentation on theme: "Review: Grammar  Different kinds of "grammar" Definitions Types  Different approaches to defining content  Grammar should not be seen as totally independent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Review: Grammar  Different kinds of "grammar" Definitions Types  Different approaches to defining content  Grammar should not be seen as totally independent from other linguistic knowledge  We should understand how we think people LEARN grammar  We should think about different ways to TEACH it Nation, Paul & Paul Meara Vocabulary. In Norbert Schmitt, editor An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, pp London: Hodder Education, Chapter 3, p. 49.

2 Receptive and Productive Vocabulary

3 How many words in this sentence? I've heard two-thirds of the people have two cars in their family in the United States.

4 Issues in Counting Words Tokens Types Word families Lemmas MWUs Nation, Paul & Paul Meara Vocabulary. In Norbert Schmitt, editor An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, pp London: Hodder Education, Chapter 3, pp

5 Findings from Vocabulary Studies The very wide spread of frequencies, with some items occurring many many times and some occurring only once. The relatively small number of words needed to cover a very large proportion of the tokens in a text. The very large number of low frequency items that account for a very small proportion of the tokens in a text. Nation, Paul & Paul Meara Vocabulary. In Norbert Schmitt, editor An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, pp London: Hodder Education, Chapter 3, p. 36.

6 Summary of Literature Review of Vocabulary Studies 1. Vocabulary is an important component of a second language, and is especially important in reading (Huang, 2004; Nation, 2001, Qian, 2002). 2. Textbooks in English are widely used in fields across the university curriculum in EFL and ESL contexts (Evans & Green, 2007; Nurweni & Read, 1999; Ward, 2001). 3. Students at almost every level of proficiency tested display limited vocabulary knowledge (Cheng, 2009; Clark & Ishida, 2005; Jiang, 2004). Wang, Yi-Ya Engineering and Management Freshmen’s Academic Vocabulary Size. Unpublished MA thesis, National First University of Science and Technology. Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

7 Summary of Literature Review of Vocabulary Studies 4. The vocabulary size of most students appears to range from fair to very poor, regardless of whether general vocabulary or academic vocabulary is examined (Huang, 2004; Lin, 2003; Ward, 2009; Yang 2002). 5 Every researcher proposes suggestions for improving the situation (Mudraya, 2006; Nurweni & Read, 1999; Wu, 2009; Yang, 2002). 6. EFL/ESL professionals and content area instructors are not doing enough to solve the problem—if, in fact, they are trying to solve the problem (Clark & Ishida, 2005; Gifford & Gore, 2008; Santos, 2003). Wang, Yi-Ya Engineering and Management Freshmen’s Academic Vocabulary Size. Unpublished MA thesis, National First University of Science and Technology. Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

8 Priorities in Vocabulary Learning 1. High Frequency 2. Academic 3. Technical / Specialized 4. Low Frequency Nation, I.S.P Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 14.

9 Learning Vocabulary Approaches 1. From meaning-focused input (listening and reading) 2. From meaning-focused output (speaking and writing) 3. From deliberate vocabulary learning 4. Developing fluency with vocabulary across the four skills Nation, Paul & Paul Meara Vocabulary. In Norbert Schmitt, editor An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, pp London: Hodder Education, Chapter 3, pp

10 Learning Vocabulary with Word Cards 1. Retrieve rather than recognize 2. Use appropriately sized groups of cards 3. Space the repetitions 4. Repeat the words aloud or to yourself 5. Process the words thoughtfully 6. Avoid interference 7. Avoid a serial learning effect 8. Use context where this helps Nation, Paul & Paul Meara Vocabulary. In Norbert Schmitt, editor An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, pp London: Hodder Education, Chapter 3, p. 40.

11 Developing Fluency "Knowing vocabulary is important, but to use vocabulary well it needs to be available for fluent use. Developing fluency involves learning to make the best use of what is already known. Thus, fluency development activities should not involve unknown vocabulary. The conditions needed for fluency development involve a large quantity of familiar material, focus on the message and some pressure to perform at a higher-than-normal level." Nation, Paul & Paul Meara Vocabulary. In Norbert Schmitt, editor An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, pp London: Hodder Education, Chapter 3, pp

12 Strategies for Handling Unknown Vocabulary 1. Guessing from context 2. Learning from word cards 3. Using word parts 4. Dictionary use Nation, Paul & Paul Meara Vocabulary. In Norbert Schmitt, editor An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, pp London: Hodder Education, Chapter 3, p. 42.

13 Vocabulary Assessment Tests 1. Vocabulary Levels Test 2. Productive Levels Test 3. X_Lex (0-5000), Y_Lex ( ,000) 4. Vocabulary Dictation Test 5. Vocabulary Size Test Nation, Paul & Paul Meara Vocabulary. In Norbert Schmitt, editor An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd edition, pp London: Hodder Education, Chapter 3, pp

14 Importance of Large Vocabulary "The general point here is that the sheer size of English vocabulary has a very marked effect on the way we teach English, and severely constrains the level of achievement we expect of learners. Most people agree that fluent English speakers need very large vocabularies, that it makes sense to pace the learning of this vocabulary over a long time and that we should rely principally on the learners' own motivation to get them to these very high levels of vocabulary knowledge." Nation, Paul & Paul Meara Vocabulary. In Norbert Schmitt, editor An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, pp London: Arnold, Chapter 3, p. 51.


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