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Cognitive Psychology II - Memory The Big Picture Memory as Information Processing Stages and Events of Memory Effortful Memory -When we are trying to learn.

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Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Psychology II - Memory The Big Picture Memory as Information Processing Stages and Events of Memory Effortful Memory -When we are trying to learn."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cognitive Psychology II - Memory The Big Picture Memory as Information Processing Stages and Events of Memory Effortful Memory -When we are trying to learn and remember Memory Without Awareness - When we remember things we do not realize we remember The Fragility of Memory - Our memories are often a distorted view of reality

2 Stages of Memory

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4 Effortful Memory How much do we retain? Not much for long in short-term memory

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6 How much do we retain? Not much for long in short-term memory We forget much of what we learn Effortful Memory (cont.)

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8 How much do we retain? Not much for long in short-term memory We forget much of what we learn We can relearn it fairly quickly however Effortful Memory (cont.)

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10 How much do we retain? Not much for long in short-term memory We forget much of what we learn We can relearn it fairly quickly however Cues that influence memory Semantic cues are helpful Effortful Memory (cont.)

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12 How much do we retain? Not much for long in short-term memory We forget much of what we learn We can relearn it fairly quickly however Cues that influence memory Semantic cues are helpful Cues related to the self are even better Context effects increase memory - mood and place of learning as memory cues Effortful Memory (cont.)

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14 Interference in Memory - Learning names and learning Spanish after learning French

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16 Strategies to Improve Memory Mnemonics Chunking Effortful Memory (cont.)

17 Memory Without Awareness Research with Amnesiacs Procedural memory Despite having no knowledge that they have learned, people can learn It doesn’t only happen with amnesiacs - the famous names study

18 Clinical Psychology I - Psychological Disorders Anxiety Disorders Mood Disorders Psychotic Disorders Dissociative Disorders Personality Disorders

19 Anxiety Disorders Phobias

20 Anxiety Disorders Phobias Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Panic Disorder Panic Attacks

21 Anxiety Disorders Phobias Generalized Anxiety Disorder/Panic Disorder Panic Attacks Agoraphobia Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Repetitive Thoughts Repetitive Behaviours

22 Common Obsessions and Compulsions

23 Explaining Anxiety Disorders Psychoanalytic Perspective Little Hans as an example Learning Perspective Little Albert as an example The Social Cognitive Perspective Observational Learning The Biological Perspective Why do phobias fall into natural categories

24 Phobias and Scary Things

25 Mood Disorders Major Affective Disorder poor appetite insomnia feelings of worthlessness loss of interest in others

26 Mood Disorders Major Affective Disorder poor appetite insomnia feelings of worthlessness loss of interest in others Bipolar Disorder High and Lows Lows like Major Depression Highs they have euphoria, grandiosity, agitation, and pressured speech

27 Gender Differences in Depression

28 Explanations of Mood Disorders Psychoanalytic Anger Inward Biological Genetic Influences Brain Neurotransmitters Social-Cognitive Attributions for failure as stable, global, internal Vicious cycle of negative moods and thoughts

29 Vicious Cycle of Depression

30 Psychotic Disorders - Schizophrenia Disorganize Thinking Delusions Disturbed Perceptions Auditory hallucinations Inappropriate Emotions and Actions Social Withdrawal Types of Schizophrenia Positive Symptoms Negative Symptoms

31 Types of Schizophrenia

32 Explanations of Schizophrenia Psychoanalytic - Overflowing of the irrational unconscious Biological Genetic Influences Brain Neurotransmitters Social Cognitive - the stress diathesis model

33 Dissociative Disorders Fugue - A person disappears and becomes someone else Dissociative Identity Disorder - (a.k.a. Multiple Personality Disorder) - Several distinct ‘persons’ that share the same body

34 Explanations of Dissociative Disorders It is real Distinct brain activity with different personalities It is a way to cope with anxiety Psychoanalytic, learning theorists fit here May be the result of severe abuse as a child It is not real Social phenomena perhaps created by hypnosis in therapy 2 cases per decade ; 20,000 cases in the 1980s

35 Personality Disorders Antisocial Personality Disorder Not aroused or upset by acts that are immoral and hurt others Several famous criminals fit this profile

36 Personality Disorders Antisocial Personality Disorder Not aroused or upset by acts that are immoral and hurt others Several famous criminals fit this profile Histrionic, Narcissistic and Borderline Personality Disorder - impulsive, dramatic, and defensive style Avoidant Personality Disorder - high anxiety causes social withdrawal Schizoid Personality Disorder - eccentric behaviour and social withdrawal


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