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1 Introduction to English Linguistics Kohn, Watts, Winkler SS05 Structure-VLS02
2 Introduction to English Linguistics Syntactic Structure: Words, Phrases, Clauses and Movements
3 Introduction to English Linguistics Model of Grammar in The Minimalist Program [Chomsky 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002] Lexicon Syntax syntactic structure PF component PF representation ≈ SPEECH SYSTEMS semantic component semantic representation ≈ THOUGHT SYSTEMS
4 Introduction to English Linguistics Environment (cf. Fodor 1983) Transducers AuditoryVisual Sensory other... Input Systems vertical faculties or „instincts“ Language Vision Audition Motor Processes Central Processes: Memory, Attention, Judgement, Thought, Beliefs, Fixation of Belief, Plans of Action horizontal faculty or „intellect“
5 Introduction to English Linguistics Structure of this Lecture 4.movements (continue next time) 1.the notion of syntactic structure 2.merger operations 3.tree diagrams Syntactic evidence for word classes
6 Introduction to English Linguistics Syntactic evidence for assigning words to categories: Q:What element can occur in the position of the dash? They have no --- [NOUNS] car / conscience / ideas
7 Introduction to English Linguistics They have no*went [verb] *for [preposition] *older[adjective] *readily [adverb] Def. Noun: the class of nouns is defined as the set of words which can terminate a sentence in the position marked --- in They have no ---.
8 Introduction to English Linguistics Claim: Different categories of words have different distributions. They occupy a different range of positions within phrases or sentences. Q:What element can occur in the position of the dash? They can --- stay / leave / hide / die / cry [VERB]
9 Introduction to English Linguistics Def. Verb: only a verb (in its infinitive/ base form) can occur in the position marked --- in the above sentence to form a complete (non-elliptical) sentence Other categories are ungrammatical: They can --- *gorgeous[adjective] *happily [adverb] *down[preposition] *door [noun]
10 Introduction to English Linguistics Def. Adjective: the only category of word which can occur in the position marked --- in the following sentence: They are very ---tall /pretty /kind /nice [ADJECTIVE] *slowly [adverb] *child[noun] *astonish [verb] *outside [preposition]
11 Introduction to English Linguistics Def. Preposition: they alone can be in- tensified by right in the sense of ‘completely’, or by straight in the sense of ‘directly’: Go right He went right He walked straight He fell straight up the ladder. inside. into a wall. down. [PREPOSITION]
12 Introduction to English Linguistics How would you classify better ? He is better at French than you. He speaks French better than you. He is more fluent/*more fluently at French … He speaks French more fluently/*more fluent … Substitution Test! ADJ ADV
13 Introduction to English Linguistics Def.:The substitution test is a technique to determine the category which a given expression belongs to. An expression belongs to a given type of category if it can be substituted (i.e. replaced) in the phrase or sentence in which it occurs by another expression which clearly belongs to the category in question. The Substitution Test:
14 Introduction to English Linguistics In determining the syntactic category of a given lexical item, morphological clues must be used in conjunction with syntactic tests, like the substitution test. We determined five major categories of English: N, V, P, A, Adv. Summary:
15 Introduction to English Linguistics They have an idea. What else do we need? They have this idea. They have two ideas. They have no idea. They have many ideas. They have one. Determiners (D) Quantifiers (Q) Proform
16 Introduction to English Linguistics "Our enemies are innovative and re- sourceful, and so are we. What else do we need? Pronouns (PRN): establish reference relations in discourse; Proforms: e.g. so; ellipsis; They never stop thinking about new ways to harm our country and our people, and neither do we." G. W. Bush — Washington, D.C., Aug. 5, 2004
17 Introduction to English Linguistics cf. Leave them / those kids alone! Hey! Teachers! Leave them kids alone! What can pronouns do? Minimalism: Personal pronouns are classi- fied as functors, like determiners. They do not have descriptive content. They simply encode sets of person, number, gender and case properties. Pronouns (PRN): traditionally,classified as N;
18 Introduction to English Linguistics Lexical categories (open class): have idiosyncratic descriptive content: N, V, P, A, Adv; Lexical vs. functional categories: Functional categories (closed class): serve primarily to carry information about the gramma- tical properties of expressions; e.g. information about number, gender, person, case. Determiners (D), Quantifiers (Q), Pronouns (PRN); Auxiliaries (AUX), Infinitival to (T), Complementizers (C);
19 Introduction to English Linguistics Def. AUXILIARIES have the function of marking grammatical properties associated with the relevant verb like tense, aspect, voice, mood or modality (i)perfective auxiliary: have (ii)imperfective/ progressive auxiliary: be (iii)tense (periphrastic) auxiliary: do (iv)modal auxiliaries: can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must What are Auxiliaries in English? What is the difference between auxiliaries vs. verbs?
20 Introduction to English Linguistics Auxiliaries have so-called NICE properties N egation: Aux are directly negated. Max didn ‘ t/couldn ‘ t see the car. vs. *saw not the car I nversion: Aux are directly inverted. Did/could Max see the car? vs. *saw Max the car? C ode: Aux can delete everything to its right; Bill saw the car but Max didn ‘ t? vs. *but Max saw not? E mphasis: Aux can be used for emphasis: Max DID see the car. vs. Max SAW the car. Plus TAGS
21 Introduction to English Linguistics Infinitive Particle to: Def.To: so called because the only comple- ment it will allow is one containing a V in the infinitive form. Similarities between inf-To and Aux: It ‘ s vital that John should show an interest. It ‘ s vital for John to show an interest. Jane wants to [go home]. Inf-To and Aux seem to occur in the same position in the sentence and require a V in its infinitive form.
22 Introduction to English Linguistics Ellipsis Test: Claim: Only inflectional or tensed elements (T) license VP-ellipsis. John doesn ‘ t want to do his linguistics homework, but he should [-------------]. John knows he should do his linguistics homework, but he doesn ‘ t want to [----------]. Auxiliaries and infinitival to are Ts.
23 Introduction to English Linguistics Republicans believe in an America run by the right people, their people, in a world in which we act unilaterally when we can [-----------], and cooperate when we have to [-----------]. (W. Clinton 26-07-04). Attested Example:
24 Introduction to English Linguistics Complementizers (C): Def.: a C is a word which is used to introduce complement clauses; I think [that you may be right] finite clause I wonder [if you can help me] finite clause - finite C: that (declarative), if (interrogative); e.g. that, if, for; I want [for you to receive the best training]. - infinite C: for (hypothetical, or irrealis)
25 Introduction to English Linguistics List of abbreviations: Labelled Bracketing: Lexical categories: N, V, A, P, Adv Functional categories: D, T, C, PRN, Q
26 Introduction to English Linguistics [ PRN ][ T ][ V ] [ T ] [ V ] [ Adv ] [ A ] Youdon'tseemtobetoo manyoftheshareholdersmay nowvoteagainstyourrevised takeoverbid. worriedaboutthepossibilitythat [ P ] [ D ] [N][N] [C][C] [Q ][Q ] [P][P] [D ][D ] [N ][N ] [T][T] [ Adv ] [V][V] [P][P] [ PRN ] [A ][A ] [N ][N ] [N ][N ]
27 Introduction to English Linguistics Feature Matrix of lexical elements +V-V +N A N -N V P V: undo, untie, unfold A:unafraid, unfriendly N:*unfear, *unfriend P:*uninside, *unby
28 Introduction to English Linguistics Feature matrix of lexical and functional elements -F +V-V AN +N VP -N +F DPRN AUXC/T
29 Introduction to English Linguistics Feature Matrix of lexical elements Generalization: Each functional category seems to be closely related to a corresponding lexical category: auxiliaries to verbs, pronouns to nouns, determiners to adjectives, and the complementizer for and the infinitive particle to to the corresponding prepositions. Definition: grammatical category: a set of elements which have the same value(s) for a given set of grammatical features.
30 Introduction to English Linguistics Midway Conclusion: Claim: word classes exist. 1.Syntactic Evidence - substitution test - distributional evidence - feature matrix
31 Introduction to English Linguistics The Notion of Syntactic Structure: 4.movements (next time) 1.phrases and constituents 2.merger operations 3.tree diagrams
32 Introduction to English Linguistics Phrases: SPEAKER A:What are you trying to do? SPEAKER B:Help you. Merger (or merging operation): An operation by which two constituents are combined together to form a single larger constituent.
33 Introduction to English Linguistics We are trying to help We are trying to help you The notion Head:The head of a phrase is the key word which determines the properties of the phrase. The head of the VP help you is help. The result of merging help and you in help you has verb-like rather than noun-like properties.
34 Introduction to English Linguistics Labelled Bracketing [ VP ][ V help] [ PRN you ] Labelled Tree Diagramm help V you PRN VP
35 Introduction to English Linguistics Technical term: Projection A projection is a constituent containing a head word. This is a term used to denote a specific grammatical function. A complement is an expression which is directly merged with (and hence is the sister of) a head word, thereby projecting the head into a larger structure of essentially the same kind. The PRN you is the complement of the V help. Technical term: Complement
36 Introduction to English Linguistics GOAL: -a theory of Universal Grammar -uncover general structural principles governing the formation of phrases and sentences Merger Hypothesis: All phrases are formed in essentially the same way as the phrase in the example help you namely by a binary (i.e. pairwise) merger operation which combines two constituents together to form a larger constituent.
37 Introduction to English Linguistics Phrases SPEAKER A:What was your intention? SPEAKER B:To help you. They ought [ to help you ] *They ought [ help you ] They should [ help you ] *They should [ to help you ] What kind of phrase is to help you? TP VP TP
38 Introduction to English Linguistics help V you PRN VP to T TP Tree Diagram: to help you
39 Introduction to English Linguistics SPEAKER A:What are you doing? SPEAKER B:Trying to help you. help V you PRN VP to T TP trying V VP
40 Introduction to English Linguistics Headedness Principle: Binarity Principle: Every syntactic structure is a projection of a head word. Every syntactic structure is binary-branching.
41 Introduction to English Linguistics Clauses: Major Question: How are clauses and sentences formed? Tree-Structure of a sentence in the 1960s: S-Analysis SPEAKER A:What are you doing? SPEAKER B:We are trying to help you.
42 Introduction to English Linguistics help V you PRN VP to T TP trying V VP are T We PRN S S-Analysis violates the: Headedness Principle Binarity Principle
43 Introduction to English Linguistics TP help V you PRN VP to T TP VP trying V are T T’T’ We PRN Tense Phrase/TP A:What are you doing? B1: *Are trying to help you. B2: We are trying to help you.
44 Introduction to English Linguistics Extended Projection Principle/EPP A finite tense constituent T must be extended into a TP projection containing a subject. EPP-Feature Requirement: Tense auxiliaries like are carry an EPP-feature which requires them to have an extended projection TP which has a subject. The EPP-Feature Requirement is syntactic and not semantic in nature. It was alleged that he lied under oath. There has been no trouble.
45 Introduction to English Linguistics Generalization: All heads can have more than one kind of projection. [ NP American ] She arrived at the solution [ AP quite [ A’ [ A independently ] [ PP of me ] ] ] He has gone [ PP straight [ P’ [ P to ] [ N bed ] ] ] caused considerable controversy [ N intervention][ N’ [ PP in Vietnam ] ]
46 Introduction to English Linguistics TP to P bed N P’ straight ADV PP VP gone V has T T’T’ He PRN He has gone straight to bed
47 Introduction to English Linguistics Clauses containing complementisers SPEAKER A:What are you saying? SPEAKER B:That we are trying to help you. S´/S-bar Analysis: (Bresnan 1970) are T we PRN S *S´ C that trying to help you VP
48 Introduction to English Linguistics TP help V you PRN VP to T TP VP trying V are T T’T’ we PRN That C CP Complementizer Phrase/ CP-Analysis
49 Introduction to English Linguistics G H I E F B C D A SYNTACTIC RELATIONS: phrase markers node terminal nodes nonterminal nodes containment relations mother daughter sister Definition of c(onstituent)-command: A constituent X c-commands its sister constituent Y and any constituent Z which is contained within Y.
50 Introduction to English Linguistics Structural binding restriction of anaphors by their antecedents: Anaphors: - reflexives He must feel proud of himself The president may blame himself *Supporters of the president may blame himself C-command condition on binding: An anaphor (reflexive and reciprocal) must be c-commanded by an appropriate antecedent. *She must feel proud of himself *Himself must feel proud of you
51 Introduction to English Linguistics TP VP blame V may T T’T’ DP PRN himself The D president N The president may blame himself
52 Introduction to English Linguistics of P president N *Supporters of the president may blame himself TP VP blame V may T PRN himself T´ DP PP the D NP Supporters N
53 Introduction to English Linguistics Binding Principles Principle A: an anaphor must be bound within its local domain Principle B: a (non-anaphoric) pronominal (expression) must be free within its local domain Principle C: an R-expression (i.e. referring noun expression) must be free within the overall structure containing it
54 Introduction to English Linguistics Analysis of the following minimal pair: a.The rumors about Fred have upset him b.*The rumors about Fred have upset himself rumors N Fred N VP upset V have T PRN him T´ PP NP about P TP DP The D *himself
55 Introduction to English Linguistics T´ will T I PRN TPTP V survive Bare Phrase Structure T will T I PRN T V survive I will survive
56 Assignments 1.Read Radford (2004), Chapter 6. 2.Do the following exercises of Chapter 2 in Radford (2004). Ex. 2.1: Analyze (1a, b, e, f; 2a, b, f; 3a, g); Ex. 2.2: Analyze (2, 3, 8); Ex. 3.1: Analyze (1-3); Ex. 3.2: Analyze (1-3); 3. Reread „Course Notes“ Introduction to English Linguistics
57 Introduction to English Linguistics He has become fond of Mary PP fond A AP VP become V has T T’T’ of P Mary N He PRN TPTP
58 Introduction to English Linguistics Evidence for this analysis: - comes from coordination data: - proforms - preposing
59 Introduction to English Linguistics (a)He has become fond [of Mary] and [of her sister] (b)He has become [fond of Mary] and [proud of her achievements] (c) He has [become fond of Mary] and [grown used to her mother] (d)He [has become fond of Mary] and [is hoping to marry her] Coordination test: Only constituents of the same type can be coordinated
60 Introduction to English Linguistics Proform Test Additional evidence in support of this analysis comes from the use of the proforms so/which in: (a)He is apparently fond of Mary, though nobody expected him to become so (b)If he has become fond of Mary (which he has), why doesn’t he ask her out?
61 Introduction to English Linguistics Preposing Test Mary, he (certainly) has become fond of ??Of Mary, he (certainly) has become fond Fond of Mary, he (certainly) has become Become fond of Mary, he (certainly) has *Has become fond of Mary, he certainly
62 Introduction to English Linguistics A: An anaphor (like himself) must be bound by (i.e. must refer to) a c-commanding constituent within the closest TP containing it B:A pronominal (like him) must not be bound by (i.e. must not refer to) any c-commanding constituent within the closest TP containing it C:An R-expression (i.e. a referring noun expression like John/the president) must not be coreferential to (i.e. must not refer to the same entity as) any c-commanding expression within the overall tree structure containing it
63 Introduction to English Linguistics Analysis of the following minimal pair: a.The rumors about Fred have upset him b.*The rumors about Fred have upset himself rumors N Fred N VP upset V have T PRN him T´ PP NP about P TP DP The D *himself
64 Introduction to English Linguistics Analysis of the following minimal pair: a.You mustn't talk to anyone. b.*You mustn't talk to someone. VP talk V mustn´t T PRN anyone T´ TP PRN You VP to P
65 Introduction to English Linguistics Constituent Tests Testing structure: - coordination test - substitution test - preposing test - sentence fragment test
66 Introduction to English Linguistics TP DP from P PP VP resigned V has T T’T’ DP the D board N The D chairman N Q: What is the structure of: The chairman has resigned from the board.
67 Introduction to English Linguistics [fond of cats] and [afraid of dogs] [slowly] but [surely] [to go] or [to stay] A: What does he do to keep fit? B: Run up the hill and up the mountain A: What did he do to clarify matters? B: *Ring up Sara and up Jane Constraint: Only constituents of the same type can be coordinated. Coordination Test:
68 Introduction to English Linguistics Coordination Test The chairman has resigned from [the board] The chairman has resigned [from the board] The chairman has [resigned from the board] The chairman [has resigned from the board] *The [chairman has resigned from the board] [The chairman has resigned from the board] and [the company] and [from the company] and [gone abroad] and [is living in Utopia] and [company has replaced him] and [the company has replaced him]
69 Introduction to English Linguistics Substitution Test Tests whether a given string of words can be replaced by a single proform. The press say that the chairman has resigned from the board, and so he has. The chairman has resigned from the board, and he is now working for a rival company.
70 Introduction to English Linguistics Preposing Test: tests whether a given expression is a maximal projection. The press said that the chairman would resign from the board, and resigned from the board he has. I will certainly try to give up smoking Give up smoking I will certainly try to *To give up smoking, I will certainly try Constraint: The smallest possible maximal projection is moved which contains the highlighted material.
71 Introduction to English Linguistics Nobody had expected that the FBA would assassinate the king of Ruritania *King of Ruritania, nobody had expected that the FBA would assassinate the The king of Ruritania, nobody had expected that the FBA would assassinate Functional Head Constraint/FHC The complement of a certain type of functional head F (such as a determiner) cannot be moved on its own (without also moving F). Further restrictions on Preposing:
72 Introduction to English Linguistics Surrender, I never will Surrender, he resolutely refused to Q: What is surrender? Definition of Maximal Projection: A maximal projection of a head H is the largest expression headed by H.