Presentation on theme: "1 Accessing the Internet with Windows XP. 2 This lesson will cover: How the Internet Works Your connection to the ‘net The “World Wide Web” E-Mail Newsgroups."— Presentation transcript:
2 This lesson will cover: How the Internet Works Your connection to the ‘net The “World Wide Web” E-Mail Newsgroups Internet Tools Web Browsers Search Engines FTP Using Internet Explorer …the final facts from Chapters 8 and 9…. Accessing the Internet with Windows XP
3 Before we really get started with the details you may want to go over a Glossary of Internet and Web Jargon courtesy of the UC Berkeley Library… Glossary of Internet and Web Jargon The Internet is a worldwide computer network. Actually it is a loose collection of networks. There is no central control all the computers and sub-networks are linked together on a voluntary basis.Internet These computers use the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) as the method of connecting to each other and transferring information. TCP/IP is actually a “suite” of software programs that ensure traffic flows freely and efficiently on the ‘net.TCP/IP More…What is the Internet?
4 Click this link for a A Brief History of the Internet courtesy of the The Internet SOCiety (ISOC)…A Brief History of the Internet More…What is the Internet? In 1969 four host computers were connected together to form ARPANET, this would later become the Internet as we know it. The first connections were between: Stanford Research Institute UCLA UC Santa Barbara University of Utah Although this project was highly motivated by the US Department of Defense, several separate networks were created by the Department of Energy, NASA and the National Science Foundation. These networks were unconnected…for a while…
5 More…What is the Internet? …ARPANET grew into the Internet by connecting to other networks as technology advanced. The development of networking protocols like TCP/IP and Ethernet allowed greater connectability of diverse systems. Finally the growth of Local Area Networks (LAN) and the widespread use of PCs forced new growth, until in 1996 there were over 50,000 networks interconnected on the Internet. Originally the main concern of the Department of Defense was the “survivability” of the network…could it withstand a major attack and still operate effectively…
8 A Internet request sent by a user out over the network can travel many different paths. When the request is issued it first goes to a server that determines the address of the remote server and then it goes to a router thatrouter “routes” it to the destination. The routing can include visits to other routers that will reroute the request according to the current traffic and “state” of the Internet. A simple message being sent across the city could theoretically travel around the country or even the world before it reaches its destination.
10 Your Connection to the Internet In the beginning, there was generally no access to other networks (including the Internet), with the exception of premium priced connections to databases and research facilities. Online services and Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) became popular in the 1980s. This was before most computer users had heard of the Internet. Some of the pioneering online services were GEnie, CompuServe and Delphi. In 1992 Delphi was the first of these services to offer its users access to the Internet.
11 Internet Service Providers An Internet Service Provider or ISP, is a business that provides its clients with access to the Internet. For a fee, ISPs give a user an account on a server that is connected to the Internet and a method of connecting to the ISP’s local POP. The account usually includes an e-mail account and many times, disk space for a Web site. There are several types of access (or connections) provided by ISPs: Dial-up Cable DSL, ADSL, xDSL and ISDN Satellite …and Direct network connections - ISPs also provide connections to organizations by connecting their LANs directly to the Internet.
12 Your Connection to the Internet ISPs provide a local Point of Presence (POP) through which the user can connect. If the user has dial-up service they would dial in to a modem pool at the POP, otherwise the connection is generally seamless. An ISP also needs an ISP, so they purchase access through a company that controls a Network Access Points (NAPs).
13 The Internet Servers on the Internet can provide the following services to the users that logon to them:logon FTP - The File Transfer Protocol is an efficient way to send or receive files from another computer.File Transfer Protocol E-mail - Provides electronic mail services which include mailing lists (listservs®) and discussion groups.listservs Newsgroups - These are organized “discussion” forums, sometimes called USENET, and are very narrowly classified by subject, such as rec.photo.equipment.35mm, or microsoft.public.windowsxp.general. World Wide Web - Servers that use the HTTP to exchange files are part of the largest group users on the Internet. These computers “serve” HTML files, which are rendered as “web” pages on the users local computer.HTTP HTML
14 The Web The World Wide Web is a collection of computers connected via the Internet that support the use of documents written in HyperText Markup Language (HTML).HTML The “web” uses the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) as the standard for the formatting and transmission of these documents.HTTP Not every server on the ‘net uses HTTP, and therefore is not part of the Web.
15 The Web Since the World Wide Web supports documents that are formatted using HTML, you need to use a special application known as a “Web Browser” to open and view them. Most modern browsers also include the capability to “play” multimedia files such as video and audio. Retrieving files via FTP and accessing e-mail servers is another feature that has been added, but are really not web functions.Web BrowserFTPe-mail The browser works by downloading (or retrieving from the remote server) a file and then rendering it according to the HTML specifications…downloading
16 The Web When you use a web browser to access a page on the web, you are actually asking a remote server to send you a file. This is done by issuing a command via the browser to “get” a specific file, as in: http://www.microsoft.com/ms.htm This is address is actually called the URL, or Uniform Resource Locator. It is the location of a file on a Microsoft server.URL This is the file name “ms.htm”
20 Electronic Mail…or E-mail E-mail refers to the transmission of messages over a computer network. Although these messages were text only messages during the infancy of the Internet, they now can be sent in HTML with audio, video or other multimedia presentations attached. Some systems remain text-only mail systems, but the move is to multimedia messaging.textmultimedia E-mail is sent and received using specific e-mail protocols and software. Although most all browsers include e-mail capabilities many people still rely on single purpose mail programs, like Pine, Eudora and Pegasus.protocolsPineEudora
21 Electronic Mail…or E-mail To use e-mail you need to have an account on an e-mail server. This is usually done through your Internet Service Provider (ISP).Internet Service Provider A Webmail account can be had and accessed without having an account with an ISP. They are e-mail accounts that can accessed from any computer that can access the web. Hotmail or Yahoo!mail are two examples of Webmail.HotmailYahoo!mail Now a word about Spam, its not just a “pork product”…its also e-junk mail. Spampork product
22 E-mail Basics…Microsoft Outlook A hyperlink… Folder list… The E-mail body The E-mail Inbox of Outlook lists the received mail along with the Sender’s name, Subject and the date of receipt
23 E-mail Basics…Pine, on SacLink This is Pine running on SacLink…it is a text based e-mail program. The window is actually QVT Term, a program that allows a Windows computer to connect to different systems, like Unix or mainframe computers. The mail header The E-mail body You navigate by selecting options from here…like “m” for the Main menu.
24 Internet Newsgroups An Internet newsgroup is a specific type of online forum or discussion group. Newsgroups use a different application level protocol, the Network News Transfer Protocol, or NNTP to deliver its data to users. These groups are sometimes called USENET. They are like private e-mail lists that maintain the e- mails or “posted” messages in the order that they were sent and answered. This arrangement is called message threading.newsgroupNetwork News Transfer Protocol USENETthreading. By using a newsgroup you can follow the messages of others, which is called lurking; or you can participate in the action by posting questions, comments or answers to other messages.lurking
25 Internet Newsgroups Newsgroups are an excellent way to connect with people that have the same interests, hobbies and problems. They are good for getting answers to technical questions on many subjects, as they generally deal with very narrow subjects. When using a newsgroup you should be careful about posting your e-mail address (or any contact information for that matter)…in fact, many people use a phony address like email@example.com. This is because spammers also lurk among the newsgroups looking for addresses that they can use or sell.spammers
26 Internet Newsgroups Newsgroups are accessed on the Internet by using a program called a newsreader. Most modern browsers include news reading capabilities in their software.newsreader The following slide shows Microsoft’s Internet Explorer 6 in its newsreading mode. There are, however, many more single purpose readers that incorporate added features, including enhanced security. Use this link to see a large list of newsreader programs on CNET.newsreader programs on CNET
27 The text of the selected “post”… Using Internet Explorer 6 to “read” Newsgroups The current Newsgroup …and the number of messages posted to it. The listing of posted messages
28 Internet Tools Internet tools are programs that make accessing the Internet the joy that it is. They include: Web browsers E-Mail Clients FTP and other file transfer tools Newsreaders Internet Agents (search and indexing tools) Internet and network configuration utilities These tools are usually bundled into modern operating systems, browsers or e-mail programs, so the “average” Internet user will probably only use these tools to access the Internet. Examples of these categories are on the next slide…
29 Internet Tools Web browser Opera E-Mail clients Eudora FTP Applications CuteFTP Newsreaders Xnews Telnet Applications NetTerm Internet agents Webferret Specialized tools Gopher Internet / Networking utilities Links (and ratings) of more Internet tools can be found at: http://cws.Internet.com/Internet.html
30 Internet Tools This screen capture shows an Internet “tool”, QVT/Term, as it displays the Pine e-mail program’s main menu. QVT/Term is a program that emulates the screen of another computer system, such as a Unix machine, or a mainframe as if you were another terminal on the system. This is a connection to SacLink…Unixmainframeterminal Pine is also a “tool”…
32 Web Browsers Web browsers were already defined…but to reinforce this: A web browser is a program that locates a web page by using an URL and displays it. The browser reads and translates HTML formatted files. Modern web browsers are bundled with many other capabilities including FTP, e-mail and newsreading. The 3 most popular web browsers are: Microsoft Internet Explorer Netscape Navigator Opera
33 And, let’s not forget the new kid in the hood… Mozilla…best of all its FREE from mozilla.org
34 Address box- enter the URL here… Main Window – the HTML page is displayed here… Anatomy of a Web Browser… Toolbar and Menu…including back, forward, home and reload commands Address box- the current URL is also displayed here…
35 Search Engines A search engine is a program that presents the results of a search based on the criteria entered and the methodology of the program. Each search engine uses different ways to locate the results of your request. This means that not only are the programs written differently, but they also search different databases.search engine That’s right, these engines do not actually search the entire Internet each time you enter a new search criteria, but instead they look through their own (or another company’s) pre- indexed database of web pages and links. There are many search engines available on the Internet, for example…
37 Search Engines To use a search engine you need to enter a query. A query or a search criterion is a way of describing the web page or information that you want to find. For example, if you want information on “big red rabbits”, you might enter big red rabbits into the query text box on the engine’s page.search engine query The queries can be quite long and can use numerous “operators” to show the relationship of the words you enter to each other. Or, they can be as simple as one word, for example… …if you want information on MIS 1abc you would do as shown on the next slide…
38 Search Engines The search criteria or query…we want to find web pages that are related to MIS 1abc The Google search engine URL
39 Search Engines The Google search engine URL now includes the “query string” These are the related pages found by the Google search engine. There are more, scroll down to see the entire results. The original query…
40 Search Engines The next four slides show some intermediate to advanced query string methods. They are useful when you need to narrow your search. Many times a search will “return” thousands of results, making it impossible to look at them all. Using the techniques on the following slides you can reduce this number and get accurate results. Like most programs there usually is an online help or “tips” link. The number of links found as a result of the query…132,000 Search engine help, or tips link…
41 Search Engine Query Operators These operators are supported by most all search engines… OperatorExampleResults AND gardening AND vegetables Pages that include both gardening and vegetables. By default, most engines return results that include all of your search terms. Therefore, it is not generally necessary to include "and" between terms. OR whales OR cetaceans Pages that include either of the words, whales OR those containing cetaceans OR those containing both whales and cetaceans. NOT science NOT fiction Pages that include science but NOT fiction. " "1996 World Series Champions" Pages containing the phrase "1996 World Series Champions". + +San +Francisco +restaurants Pages that contain all of the words. Note that this is not the same as "San +Francisco +restaurants" - +bill +clinton -monica - lewinsky Pages that contain the words bill and clinton, but not containing either monica or lewinsky.
42 More Query Operators These operators Not supported by all search engines… OperatorExampleResults ( ) Homer NOT (Simpson OR Alaska) Pages containing Homer but NOT Homer Simpson or Homer, Alaska. Parentheses simplify the creation of complex queries. * chemi* Pages containing words that begin with 'chemi' (e.g. chemical, chemistry, chemist). The * (asterisk) can be used to replace multiple characters. % Gene%logy Pages that contain words beginning with 'gene' and ending with 'logy', separated by a single letter (e.g. genealogy and genealogy). Useful for commonly misspelled words. _ run_way The underscore sometimes works as the % sign as noted above. The resulting pages would contain both "runway" and "runaway". ** Fly** Pages containing fly, flew, flown, and flying, and so on. Use a double asterisk (**) to look for all forms of a word.
43 CharacterWindows Shortcut keys é Alt-0233 Ç Alt-0199 æ Alt-0230 Ñ Alt-0209 ® Alt+0174 Ø Alt+0216 ¿ Alt+0191 Using Non-English or Special Characters… Special non-English characters can be, and should be, inserted into all queries when possible. These characters can be substituted with wildcard characters, such as *, % and _, but the accuracy of the results may be greatly diminished. Windows users can access these characters by using the “Character Map” or using the system's shortcut keys.characterswildcard
44 Using the Character Map… The Windows Character Map tool can be used to find the key strokes needed to enter to display foreign or “special” characters. It is usually found on the: Accessories > System Tools Program menu. The shortcut keystrokes are shown here. Select a character in the upper window. The current font is displayed here.
45 There are several "rules" that apply to almost all search engine query syntax regardless of the stated method of reading the entry: All letters, regardless of how you type them, will generally be understood as lower case. There is no need to use special characters to search for plurals; a search for the word “car” will also return "cars". Unfortunately the search word “cow” will not usually return “cattle”. By default most search engines return results that include all of your search terms, it is not necessary to include AND between terms. However, some engines such as WebCrawler perform OR searching by default as opposed to the AND default.WebCrawler General Search Engine Query Rules Tips for getting the most out of search engines can be found here: http://searchenginewatch.com/facts/index.html
46 FTP…Internet File Transfers The File Transfer Protocol is simply the protocol used on the Internet for sending files from one computer to another. It can be as “simple” as the command line program that comes with Windows XP… …or you can… The command ftp starts the program, and help displays help…transferring files like this takes a bit of skill because you need to access remote computers and navigate through their file systems, and it is all done by typing in commands like ls for a directory listing… Entering the command “bye” closes the session…
47 WS_FTP is a Windows program that takes the work out of sending and receiving files on the Internet…this program can be used for free by students and is available from ZDNet…click the “About WS_FTP” window below to go to the download site…the next 2 slides show a few of the features of WS_FTP Limited Edition (the free version)… WS_FTP…
48 WS_FTP… With an anonymous login you need only use a “dummy” password…many systems ask for your e-mail address, but you need not use your real one… Enter the address of the host you want to open a session with…the user name anonymous is a universal id that will gain access to many “public” computers. anonymous
49 WS_FTP… You are now browsing the /pub directory of the host computer cdrom.com Transferring files is now as easy as highlighting the filename(s) and clicking the appropriate arrow…the left arrow moves a file from the right pane (the remote computer) to the left pane (your computer)…and visa versa.
50 Using Internet Explorer Internet Explorer (IE) is Microsoft’s web browser it comes with Windows XP, and many of the previous versions of Windows…the About window below is shown below… Note that the next slides will demonstrate IE using version 6.
51 Internet Explorer is installed by default on Windows XP and can be accessed by clicking on the IE desktop icon or the Pinned List entry on the Start Menu...
52 Remember: your menus will probably look slightly different... From the All Programs command on the Start Menu select Internet Explorer...the item is placed by itself on the menu during the Windows XP installation
53 IE opens from the desktop icon or the sub-menu item using the default address: http://www.msn.com/ http://www.msn.com/ …this “start page” can be changed to any web page. For a better look let’s maximize the window…and move to the IE homepage
54 Site search tool Site navigation menus Menu and Toolbars HyperlinksHyperlinks, many of the graphics on web pages are links, too The current web address or URLURL
55 And still more Hyperlinks. You can almost always tell a link because your mouse cursor changes from an arrow to a pointing finger when you move over a link. These images may not look exactly like your cursor if it has been customized, but it will always change over a hyperlink. Another hint is a pop-up window that may appear like:Hyperlinks More site navigation menus The current web address, URL or in this case the actual query string passed to the Microsoft server…URL
56 To change IE’s options, open the Internet Options window by selecting Tools and then Internet Options…from the main menu. This window can also be accessed from the Control Panel. Explaining all the available options and settings that can be configured from this window would take a while and many items are not meant for beginners to fool with… You can, however, easily change the startup page here. To see the other settings click through the tabs…for instance, click Connections…
57 …the Connections tab is where you setup or reconfigure your Internet connection settings. You can have multiple connections listed here. …the LAN Settings button not only configures network connections, but also cable modem and other high speed connections.
58 Some of the menu and toolbar items are meant to help you move through the web… Refresh or Reload – downloads the current web page to get the most recent files …some pages need to be manually updated occasionally..this will do it! Stops the current activity, such as a page or file download. Move back to the Home page as set in the Internet Options Search using the default search page, MSN… Go Back a page… Go Forward a page… Display the Favorites list
59 …the View menu provides ways quickly to change the look of IE by adding or removing features such as the Status bar and the Toolbars. It also gives access to the View Source command which displays the source code of the currently displayed page.
60 …the Favorites menu presents a listing of what some call bookmarks. Microsoft calls them favorites and places them under this menu item. The Organize command allows you to create new folders and move and delete the entries as you wish.bookmarks
61 …the Tools menu accesses the Internet Options… window. It also opens an e-mail reader when you select Mail and News, then Read Mail.
62 …the Tools menu also opens the Internet Explorer newsgroup (or simply news) reader. The default newsreader is also from Outlook Express…the program opened by this menu item can be changed on the Internet Options window, Programs tab.
63 …IE help is available in various ways from the Help menu. Select Contents and Index to open the Help Viewer with IE help displayed as shown below… Or you can press F1.
64 Using Internet Explorer Now for a few more tips, and then you can try out IE on your own…the only way to learn to use this complex software is by working with it. To copy images from a website…this isn’t stealing…I don’t think? 1.Right click on the image you want to copy 2.Select Save Picture As…from the pop-up menu 3.Select a destination and a filename…It is best NOT to change the file extension, as it is based on the file type and changing it could make it hard to open…or find for that matter! 4.Click the Save button and you are done.
65 …right-clicking on an image displays a pop-up menu from which you accomplish several tasks... …select Save Picture As…to save an image. …select Save Target As…to save the “linked” object, such as a file or another webpage. …select Copy…to place a copy of the image in the clipboard that can then be pasted into another document.clipboard pasted
66 …some web sites, however, aren’t happy to share their components. Right clicking on the image on The Pool of Tears image on this web page displays a message instead of a menu…sorry.
67 …right-clicking on an URL in the Address box, displays a pop-up menu that offers the options to Cut, Copy, Paste or Delete the entry...URL …this method would be a way to copy an URL to use in a paper or some other academic endeavor like homework...