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©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications Trends for Research and Educational Optical Networks February 13, 2007 Tom McDermott Director, CTO Office, Fujitsu email@example.com
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 1 Trends Technology trends from 2.5G to 100G. Technology trends from single-carrier to DWDM. Trends in the migration from TDM to Packets. Conclusion for future Research & Education needs.
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 2 TDM History ~YearCommercial Introduction Key Technology 1982135 Mb/sMultimode fiber 1985565 Mb/s1310 FP laser, Singlemode fiber 19861 Gb/s1550 DFB laser 19912.5 Gb/sSONET 199510 Gb/sDispersion Compensation, Optical Amplifier, LiNbO 3 modulators. 2007 ?40 Gb/sPhase Shift Keying 2009-10 ? 100 Gb/sMulti-level? Coherent? Polarization Multiplexing?
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 3 TDM Going Forward ITU grid is aligned on 100 GHz spacing 50 GHz, 25 GHz sub channels are realizable. Constrains Potential higher-rate TDM solutions Channelized, Specified Channel Width. New 40 Gb/s modulation formats are spectrally efficient No excess bandwidth remaining. 100 Gb/s must either utilize more spectral bandwidth (lower efficiency) – wider band or multi-lambda, or Provide more effective utilization of spectral bandwidth (higher efficiency) – higher order modulation: Amplitude, Phase, Polarization, Trellis.
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 4 DATACLOCK PM /2 DATACLOCK RZ-DPSK RZ-DQPSK LiNbO3 Modulators for 40Gb/s 40 Gb/s low drive voltage modulators 40 Gb/s 1.8 V dual-drive with advanced electrode design Dual-drive for zero chirp C- and L-band operation 40 Gb/s compact modulators for new modulation formats New modulation formats: RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK Integration of phase- and intensity- modulators
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 5 Comparison of 40Gbit/s modulation Formats Medium Poor Good Poor Medium Good Medium Good Medium Good Very good Optical nonlinear tolerance Optical noise tolerance : advantage PMD tolerance : disadvantage NRZ Optical spectra Chromatic dispersion tolerance MZI out RZ-DPSK Tx out “1” Phase= “0” Phase= 0 OADM cascadability RZ-DQPSK MZI out Tx out 4 values are mapped to phase 0, /2, , 3 /2 Good in linear regime Medium Poor Very good Poor Duobinary Good Medium CS-RZ Frequency (GHz) 25ps 50ps
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 6 WDM History ~YearCommercial Introduction Key Technology 19872-wavelength1310 + 1550 coupler 1992-5CWDMThin film filter 1996DWDMFiber Bragg Grating (FBG) filter, Optical Amplifier 1999OXC2D MEMS Optical Switch 2001Dense DWDMArrayed Waveguide Grating Mux (AWG) 2004Re- configurable ROADM Wavelength Selective Switch (WSS)
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 7 Automatic Power Balancing Maintains equal channel output power in face of wavelength assignment/rearrangement/network failure Enables software provisionable wavelength add/drop/thru and reconfigure No manual adjustments anywhere All wavelength power levels equal Fujitsu patented technology Fujitsu Technology
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 8 40Gbps Transmission Considerations Today’s networks, deploying 2.5Gb/s and 10Gb/s rates extensively. Will migrate to 40Gb/s per wavelength for ; Higher rate client interfaces Overall capacity growth requirements Challenges OSNR requirement is more stringent at 40G than 10G: 6 dB Dispersion sensitivity increases: x 16 PMD sensitivity increases: x 4 Optical filtering effects due to OADM filters Power cut off distortion OADM filter passband 40G10G2.5G
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 9 Variable Dispersion Compensation for 40Gbps Chromatic dispersion in 40Gbps systems More severe dispersion tolerance ~ 50 ps/nm 1/16 of 10G systems Chromatic dispersion changes with temperature ~60 ps/nm @ 600 km, 50°C change Advantages of available Variable Dispersion Compensation Replaces “menu” of fixed DCM High tunable dispersion resolution: 1 ps/nm Large variable dispersion range: ± 800 ps/nm No penalty due to fiber nonlinear effect VIPA (Virtually Imaged Phased Array) based VDC 3-Dimensional mirror Collimating lens Line-focusing lens Glass plate Focusing lens Optical circulator X-axis D C >0 D C <0
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 10 Ethernet History ~YearCommercial Introduction Key Technology 198310-Base5Thick Cable AUI 199110-BaseTTwisted Pair, Hub 1990Switched Networks Bridge, Spanning Tree 1995100-BaseTDSP, Auto-negotiation, Switching 1998VLANsRouters, VLAN-switches, VLAN Trunks 19981 GbESilicon Ethernet Switches, Fabrics, Optical Interconnects 200210 GbELow-cost standardized Optical Interconnect (XFP et al.) 2002Ethernet WANEthernet over SONET, Metro Ethernet 2009 ?100 GbEOptical LAN Interconnect, WAN Support on Existing Spans
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 11 Ethernet Going Forward Ethernet will become pervasive Overlays on existing optical infrastructure (EoS, EoCu) Supporting new (eventually all?) types of services (real time, video, etc.) Some approaches to converge Packets and TDM in the Metro: Packet over Ethernet over SONET over WDM. TDM over Circuit Emulation Services over Packet over … These are not as efficient as mapping non-native formats. Muxponders, etc. provide efficient mapping Resulting network topology is usually point-to-point. Ring and multi-point are possible (but more difficult). Ethernet switching and aggregation is ultimately a better approach than fixed payload mappings.
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 12 Transponding DWDM So Alien Basic Transponding Simple but Inflexible Po DWDM So Alien Somewhat more Flexible Transponding Po Optical Switch Optical Switch TDM Switch Packet Switch
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 13 Switching DWDM So PoS Alien Adding Packet Services To Existing SONET Network DWDM Po CES Alien Adding TDM Services To Existing Packet Network Optical Switch Optical Switch TDM Switch Packet Switch TDM Switch Packet Switch
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 14 Probable Future Direction DWDM Native o Alien Most Flexible Approach, Yet efficient Mapping Client Optical Switch Dual-Mode Switch
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 15 Channel Compatibility Data Service rates will continue to increase. Existing systems are channelized. Research and Education environment generally needs flexibility: New experiments, new formats, new rates alongside existing equipment and formats. Compatibility with carrier systems for remote-location reach (GFP / VCAT etc.) Maximally-flexible equipment must accommodate intermixing of optical line formats an data rates. Otherwise existing systems need to be replaced for rate & format upgrades. Alien lambda support allows transparent transport (clear channel). Maximally-flexible equipment should accommodate both wavelengths and packets in flexible & switched architectures.
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 16 Control Plane A control plane allows setup and teardown of Optical and TDM paths through a network. GMPLS enabled network elements provide a method to simplify the establishment of these paths. A subset of options can be chosen for simple network topologies: RSVP-based signaling, Hard-state (explicit tear message required to delete a path), Bidirectional requests Centralized Path Computation Element (PCE) can advise on suitability of optical path. Well aligned for R & E environment needing path flexibility. LDP not normally needed in optical/SONET GMPLS Optical paths and SONET paths are very static. Can determine (assume) label values without the need to run a distribution protocol. Add IP/MPLS, LDP when packet switching is integrated into NE.
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 17 Conclusions R & E Networks 1. Should include compatibility for forward-looking rates and formats in today’s equipment and spans. 2. Should focus on simplification of node designs in the face of multiple types of traffic. 3. Should be more easily optimized for Ethernet services. 4. Should plan for switch fabrics with multiple capabilities.
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 18 FLASHWAVE ® 7500 ROADM One Platform - Three Powerful Configurations FLASHWAVE 7500 core 40 channels WSS ROADM, 8-degree Hubbing Best-in-Class transmission performance <= 24 nodes, <= 1000 km ring size, without OEO Active, non-banded Dynamic, self-tuning optical network Common Transponders and Software Perfect for metro & regional applications FLASHWAVE 7500 small system 32 Channel FOADM and ROADM 19” shelf; 19” & 23” rack mounted option <= 16 nodes, 800km ring size without OEO Active, non-banded, self-tuning Common Transponders and Software Compact, low cost Metro/Edge applications FLASHWAVE 7500 extension system Lower-cost, smaller capacity FLASHWAVE 7500 Extension Perfect for Pt - Pt spurs or extensions Combine with Passive Coupler and Amp where needed Common Optical Line Cards (ie Transponders) and OLC shelf Fully featured Cost optimized
©2007 Fujitsu Network Communications 19
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