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Road Safety Audits: An Overview 2015 Team Conference Henry Brown, P.E. Research Engineer University of Missouri March 11, 2015 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Road Safety Audits: An Overview 2015 Team Conference Henry Brown, P.E. Research Engineer University of Missouri March 11, 2015 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Road Safety Audits: An Overview 2015 Team Conference Henry Brown, P.E. Research Engineer University of Missouri March 11,

2 Acknowledgements Craig Allred (FHWA) John Miller (MoDOT) Dana Ternus (NW Missouri Regional Council of Governments) Charlie Nemmers, Carlos Sun, and Praveen Edara (University of Missouri) 2

3 Presentation Outline Overview of RSAs Procedures for RSAs RSA Case Studies 3

4 Basic Concepts What is a road safety audit? Why do we need RSAs? When do we conduct RSAs? 4

5 What is an RSA? Formal safety performance examination Existing or Future Road Segment or Intersection Independent, multidisciplinary team 5

6 A road safety audit also… considers the safety of all road users considers interactions at the borders or limits of the project examines the interaction of project elements may proactively consider mitigation measures 6

7 … a simple standards check for adherence to design guidelines. … an opportunity to redesign the project. A road safety audit is NOT… 7

8 Why do we need RSA? Road Environment Factors (28%) Vehicle Factors (8%) Human Factors (95%) 4% 24% 67% 4% TYPICAL REPORTED CRASH CAUSES 8

9 Why do we need RSAs? Relatively few road-related safety issues are identified in collision reports. Road designs need to anticipate and accommodate common driver errors. Easier to design and build safer roads than to modify some entrenched driver behaviors. 9

10 Reduce the number and severity of crashes Promote awareness of safe practices Process to identify and address problems Considers human factors and multimodal issues Low cost RSA Benefits 10

11 When do we conduct RSAs? pre-construction: – planning / feasibility – preliminary (draft) design – detailed design construction: – work zones – pre-opening post-construction/operational: – existing roads 11

12 When do we conduct RSAs? 12

13 The Eight Step RSA Process Procedures 13

14 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Start-up meeting 4 Field reviews 5 Analysis & Report 6 Present findings 7 Prepare response 8 Implement findings Responsibilities RSA Team Design Team / Project Owner 14

15 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present findings 7 Prepare response 8 Implement findings Responsibilities RSA Team Design Team / Project Owner 1 Identify project 1 Identify project 15

16 Step 1 Step 1 In-service projectDesign stage project Step 1: Identify the Project 16

17 High-crash sites High-profile sites Changed traffic characteristics Step 1 Step 1 Candidates for In-service RSAs 17

18 Make structural changes on paper instead of in concrete. Optimize crash and conflict prevention. RSAs: Design Stage Step 1 Step 1 18

19 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present findings 7 Prepare response 8 Implement findings Responsibilities RSA Team Design Team / Project Owner 2 Select RSA team 2 Select RSA team 19

20 Independent Experienced Multi-disciplinary Step 2 Step 2 Select RSA Team 20

21 Operations Step 2 Step 2 Geometric Road users/human factors Select the RSA Team: Core Skills 21

22 Interdisciplinary RSA Team: Composition and Size local agency staff exchange staff from another local agency consultants combination of above Step 2 Step 2 22

23 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present findings 7 Prepare response 8 Implement findings Responsibilities RSA Team Design Team / Project Owner 3 Start-up meeting 3 Start-up meeting 23

24 Crash history Traffic volumes Aerial photographs Design drawings Background reports Design criteria Step 3 Step 3 The Start-up Meeting: Provide Project Information 24

25 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present findings 7 Prepare response 8 Implement findings Responsibilities RSA Team Design Team / Project Owner 4 Field reviews 4 Field reviews 25

26 Review available crash data Arrange transportation Designate a secretary and photographer Step 4 Step 4 Perform Field Review: Preparation for the Field Review 26

27 Step 4 Step 4 Perform Field Review: Common Items to Look For Sight distance obstructions Pedestrian and cyclist conflicts Visual clutter 27

28 Step 4 Step 4 Perform Field Review: Common Items to Look For Roadside Hazards Driveway Issues 28

29  Peak and off-peak traffic periods  Dry and wet weather conditions  Day and night conditions Step 4 Step 4 Perform Field Review: Variable Conditions to Observe 29

30 Perform Field Review: Identify Safety Issues Safety analysis considers three elements concurrently: geometry operations user characteristics and interactions Step 4 Step 4 30

31 Identify Safety Issues: Geometry Use of design standards and guidelines: a sound starting point cumulative effect of minimum/ maximum values supplement with human factors analysis and project-specific concerns (such as maintenance concerns) Step 4 Step 4 31

32 curve radius sight distance + curve + gradient hazard in clear zone Identify Safety Issues: Geometry Step 4 Step 4 32

33 Identify Safety Issues: Operations congestion and delay signal operation operating speeds turning movements queueing driveways Step 4 Step 4 33

34 34 Identify Safety Issues: User Characteristics and Interactions school buses farm vehicles trucks cyclists school children driver age Step 4 Step 4

35 Step 4 Step 4 Perform Field Review: Checklists and prompt lists: may provide structure to the site visit remind the team what to look for, and help ensure that nothing is missed 35

36 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present findings 7 Prepare response 8 Implement findings Responsibilities RSA Team Design Team / Project Owner 5 Analysis & Report 5 Analysis & Report 36

37 Prioritize Safety Issues may be based on crash frequency and severity: crash history (audits of existing roads) expected crashes (design stage audits) – qualitative estimate of risk – quantitative estimate of risk Step 5 Step 5 37

38 Short term solutions include: maintenance, vegetation, changing signage or pavement markings, Enforcement & Education Long term solutions include: flattening a curve or modifying a roadway’s vertical alignment, Enforcement & Education Step 5 Step 5 Mitigate Safety Concerns: Suggestions Appropriate to Project Stage 38

39 Early design stage: alignment changes Later design stage: signing improvements Step 5 Step 5 Mitigate Safety Concerns: Design-Stage 39

40 40

41 Roundabouts 41

42 Roundabouts “If the politicians really go ahead with this, they’ll pay at the ballot box,” driver Turner Lane warned. “What goes around comes around.” (Winnipeg Sun: April 1, 2013) 42

43 Short Range Paint, Signage Mid-Range Contour Bank Long-Range Realign Skewed Intersection Step 5 Step 5 Suggested Countermeasures 43

44  Summarizes the project  Identifies team  Documents site visits  Documents results  Identifies and prioritizes safety concerns  May include suggestions for improvements Step 5 Step 5 The RSA Findings: Formal Report 44

45 Step 5 Step 5 The RSA Findings: Formal Report 45

46 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present findings 7 Prepare response 8 Implement findings Responsibilities RSA Team Design Team / Project Owner 6 Present findings 6 Present findings 46

47 Discussion of safety concerns Clarify findings and suggestions Assist project owner in making best choices Step 6 Step 6 The RSA Findings Presentation 47

48 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present findings 7 Prepare response 8 Implement findings Responsibilities RSA Team Design Team / Project Owner 7 Prepare response 7 Prepare response 48

49 Inadequate Response “We will not realign the intersection at Jefferson Road. We do not feel that it is needed.” Step 7 Step 7 Responses 49

50 1 Identify project 2 Select RSA team 3 Start-up meeting 4 Perform field reviews under various conditions 5 Conduct audit analysis and prepare report of findings 6 Present findings 7 Prepare response 8 Implement findings Responsibilities RSA Team Design Team / Project Owner 8 Implement findings 8 Implement findings 50

51 Implementation - may depend on policy, manpower, and/or funding. Step 8 Step 8 Step 8: Implementation of Improvements 51

52 Pre-construction RSAs: Changes to design drawings Post-construction RSAs : Incorporate improvements in operating budgets or maintenance programs Step 8 Step 8 Implementation of Improvements 52

53 Examples: What to Look For 53

54 Sight Distance SR42 Before 54

55 Sight Distance SR42 Before 55

56 Sight Distance SR42 After 56

57 Sight Distance SR56 Before 57

58 Sight Distance SR56 After 58

59 Sight Distance 59

60 Sight Distance 60

61 Roadside Safety 61

62 62

63 63

64 64

65 65

66 66

67 67

68 Photos: Craig Allred (FHWA) 68

69 69

70 70

71 71

72 72

73 73

74 74

75 75 Pavement Considerations

76 76

77 77 Drainage

78 78

79 Pavement Markings and Signs 79

80 80

81 81

82 82

83 83

84 84

85 85

86 86

87 BEFORE AFTER 87

88 88

89 89

90 Signalization 90

91 91

92 Operations 92

93 Pedestrians 93

94 94

95 RSA Case Studies 95

96 Case Study 1: US 36 at S. Mitchell Avenue, Chillicothe, Missouri Chillicothe 96

97 US 36 at S. Mitchell Avenue: Overview 97

98 US 36 at S. Mitchell Avenue: RSA Team Mo-Kan Regional Council MoDOT City of Chillicothe Green Hills RPC Delaware Valley RPC Chillicothe Police Department Missouri Highway Patrol Northwest Missouri Regional Council of Governments 98

99 US 36 at S. Mitchell Avenue: Statistics 21 Reported Crashes Fatalities AADT – US 36: 4,300 vpd – Mitchell Ave.: 1,000 vpd Speed Limit – US 36: 65 mph – Mitchell Ave.: 35 mph 99

100 US 36 at S. Mitchell Avenue: Sight Distance 100

101 US 36 at S. Mitchell Avenue: Signs 101

102 US 36 at S. Mitchell Avenue: Operations 102

103 US 36 at S. Mitchell Avenue: Suggested Improvements Increase Size of Essential Signs Relocate Industrial Park Sign Paint Yield Line, Stop Bar, Turn Arrows Increase Lighting Add Intersection Ahead Signs Reconfigure Intersection Extend Turn Lanes Re-route Truck Traffic to US 65 Interchange 103

104 US 36 at S. Mitchell Avenue: Suggested Pavement Markings 104

105 Case Study 2: Bullhead Parkway, Bullhead City, Arizona miles 4-lane divided highway AADT 10,000 to 15,000 vpd 50 mph speed limit 17 intersections (4 signalized) (FHWA 2012)

106 Bullhead Parkway RSA: Examples of Implemented Countermeasures 106 Update Pavement Markings Install RPMs on Inside Edge Lines and Lane Lines Extend Right Turn Lanes Install Two-Direction Arrow Signs at T-Intersections Install Guardrail for Embankments Improve Grading at Median Drainage Structures (FHWA 2012)

107 Bullhead Parkway RSA: Crash Reductions 107 (FHWA 2012) 54% Total Crashes 50% Injury Crashes 30% Intersection- Related Crashes

108 Case Study 3: Work Zone RSA I-275 Tampa, Florida 108 Two Interchanges Positive Elements – Good delineation – Signal Backplates – Repeat Exit Notification Suggestions – Adding Signing – Crosswalks – Align Signal Heads – Signal Timing (FHWA 2013)

109 Case Study 4: Design Visualization Burma Road, Rhode Island 109 New Corridor Used 3D Model Recommended Roundabout Over Signalized Intersection Other Suggestions – Lighting – Large turn radius for trucks – Extend left turn lanes (FHWA 2011)

110 Case Study 5: Safe Routes to School Albany, Georgia 110 Suggestions – Sidewalks around school grounds – Upgrade signs and markings – H.A.W.K. Signal (FHWA 2010 & 2011, National Center for Safe Routes to School, 2008)

111 Additional Resources NCHRP Synthesis 336: Road Safety Audits (TRB) Road Safety Audit Guidelines (FHWA) FHWA Website: Bicycle Road Safety Audit Guidelines and Prompt Lists (FHWA) RSA Newsletter (FHWA) 111

112 Questions? E2509 Lafferre Hall Columbia, MO


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