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Chapter 5 Internal Memory. Semiconductor Memory Types Today’s technology: 1 Gigabit / sq in In R&D: 100 Gigabits / sq in.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Internal Memory. Semiconductor Memory Types Today’s technology: 1 Gigabit / sq in In R&D: 100 Gigabits / sq in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Internal Memory

2 Semiconductor Memory Types Today’s technology: 1 Gigabit / sq in In R&D: 100 Gigabits / sq in

3 Semiconductor Memory (SRAM)

4 Semiconductor Memory (DRAM) 16Mbit DRAM

5 Semiconductor memory (EPROM)

6 Static RAM (SRAM) Desired for main memory Used in cache Basically an array of flip-flops Simple to interface and control Fast Relatively low density - complex Relatively expensive

7 Static RAM model

8 1K X 4 SRAM (Part Number 2114N)

9

10

11 Memory Organization A 16Mbit chip can be organised as 1M of 16 bit words A bit per chip system has 16 lots of 1Mbit chip with bit 1 of each word in chip 1 and so on A 16Mbit chip can be organised as a 2048 x 2048 x 4bit array —Reduces number of address pins –Multiplex row address and column address –11 pins to address (2 11 =2048) –Adding one more pin doubles range of values so x4 capacity

12 Memory Design – 1K x 4 A[00:09]   D[03:00] Addr Block Select 

13 Memory Design – 1K x 8 A[00:09]    D[07:04] A[00:09]    D[03:00] Addr Block Select => D[07:04] D[03:00]

14 Memory Design - 2k x 8 D[07:04] D[03:00] Block 00 Block 01

15 Memory Design - 4k x 8 D[07:04] D[03:00] Block 00 Block 01 Block 10 Block 11

16 2 2 x 3 Memory address decoder word selectword WE address write enable input bits output bits

17 2 BIT Decoder (2 to 4)

18 2 to 4 Bit Decoder

19 3 to 8 Bit Decoder

20 2 to 1 MUX

21 4 to 1 MUX

22 8 to 1 MUX

23 16 to 1 MUX ?

24 Register

25 2 2 x 3 Memory address decoder word selectword WE address write enable input bits output bits

26 2 4 x 8 Memory ?

27 Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Used in main memory Bits stored as charge in capacitors Essentially analog device Charges leak Need refreshing even when powered Need refresh circuits Higher density (more bits per chip) Slower than Static RAM Less expensive

28 Dynamic RAM model

29 Read Only Memory (ROM) Permanent storage —Nonvolatile Microprogramming (will address later) Library subroutines Systems programs (BIOS) Function tables Controllers

30 Types of ROM ROM: Written during manufacture — Very expensive for small runs PROM: Programmable (once) —Needs special equipment to program Read “mostly” —EPROM: Erasable Programmable –Erased by UV (All of chip!) —Flash memory –Whole blocks of memory stored/changed electrically —EEPROM: Electrically Erasable –Takes much longer to write than read (lower density)

31 EPROM

32 Semiconductor Memory 16Mbit DRAM

33 256kByte Module Organisation (256K x 1)

34 Typical 16 Mb DRAM (4M x 4)

35 1MByte Module Organization (1Meg x 8 bits)

36 Refreshing Refresh circuit is included on the chip Count through rows Read & Write back Chip must be disabled during refresh Takes time Occurs asynchronously Slows down apparent performance

37 Improvements in memory RAM – continually gets denser. DRAM – Several improvements: SDRAM – synchronous DRAM DDR-SDRAM - doubles transfer speed RDRAM – asynchronous one transfer per clock cycle

38 Comparison of improved DRAM Conventional DRAM – 40 to 100 MB/S transfer rate?

39 Synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) Access is synchronized with an external clock Address is presented to RAM RAM finds data (CPU waits in conventional DRAM) Since SDRAM moves data in time with system clock, CPU knows when data will be ready CPU does not have to wait, it can do something else Burst mode allows SDRAM to set up stream of data and fire it out in block DDR-SDRAM sends data twice per clock cycle (leading & trailing edge)

40 SDRAM Read Timing

41 SDRAM

42 DDR SDRAM SDRAM can only send data once per clock Double-data-rate SDRAM can send data twice per clock cycle —Rising edge and falling edge

43 RAMBUS Adopted by Intel for Pentium & Itanium Main competitor to SDRAM Separate bus (hence the name RAMBUS) — maximum 12 centimeter length bus ! Bus addresses up to 320 RDRAM chips — at 1.6Gbps Asynchronous block protocol — Precise control signal timing — 480ns access time

44 RAMBUS Diagram


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