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Lecture 7 FPGA technology. 2 Implementation Platform Comparison.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 7 FPGA technology. 2 Implementation Platform Comparison."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 7 FPGA technology

2 2 Implementation Platform Comparison

3 3 FPGA main components and features Logic block architecture Interconnect architecture Programming technology Power dissipation Reconfiguration model

4 4 FPGA model …….

5 5 Interconnect Network Topologies Island style Row-based Sea-of-gates Hierarchical One-dimensional structures

6 6 Island-Style Architecture

7 7 Row-Based Architecture

8 8 Sea-of-Gates Architecture

9 9 Hierarchical Architecture

10 10 One-Dimensional Architecture

11 11 Logic Cluster Parameters The size of (number of inputs to) a LUT. The number of CLBs in a cluster. The number of inputs to the cluster for use as inputs by the LUTs. The number of clock inputs to a cluster (for use by the registers).

12 12 Studies on the CLB structure Area optimal: 3-4 input LUTs For multiple output LUTs: Optimal area: 4 input LUTs Optimal delay: 5-6 input LUTs 4-input LUT clusters show 10% area efficiency in comparison to single 4-input LUTs

13 13 Programming Technology Volatile (SRAM) Irreversible (Antifuse) EPROM, EEPROM AND FLASH The programming technology affects the FPGA area

14 14 SRAM Programming Technology Configuration storage on SRAM cells Volatile (FPGA has to be reprogrammed on power-up) Large area (SRAM cells) Allows dynamic and partial reconfiguration

15 15 Antifuse Programming Technology Programming element is an antifuse (high impedance (open-circuit) on low voltage, low impedance (connection) on high voltage) Small area Non-volatile (no need for reprogramming on power-up) Irreversible (design errors cannot be corrected)

16 16 EPROM, EEPROM and Flash Programming Technology Non-volatile Reprogramming through exposure to ultraviolet light (EPROM) or electrical signals (EEPROM/Flash) Slower programming than SRAM

17 17 FPGA Power Consumption FPGA power dissipation components: Interconnection network Clock network Input/Output Logic block

18 18 FPGA Power Consumption Breakdown (XC4003)

19 19 Dynamic vs Static Power Consumption Dynamic power consumption is still dominant, even though the static power consumption component increases with the decrease in feature size.

20 20 Reconfiguration Models Static Reconfiguration Dynamic Reconfiguration Single Context Multi-Context Partial Reconfiguration Pipeline Reconfiguration

21 21 Static Reconfiguration Compile-time Reconfiguration Most common approach One configuration per application System must be halted and then restarted with new program

22 22 Dynamic Reconfiguration Run-time Reconfiguration Based on virtual hardware Trade-off between time and space

23 23 Single Context One configuration at a time Programming using a serial bitstream High overhead for small configuration changes Not suitable for run-time reconfiguration

24 24 Multi-Context Multiple memory bits for each programming bit location Multiplexed set of single context devices One context can be reprogrammed when another is active

25 25 Partial Reconfiguration Addresses used to specify the target location of the configuration data Undisturbed portions of the array can continue execution during reconfiguration Reduces the amount of data that must be transferred to the FPGA

26 26 Pipeline Reconfiguration Partial reconfiguration increments of pipeline stages Used in datapath-style computations

27 27 Run-Time Reconfiguration Algorithmic Reconfiguration Architectural Reconfiguration Functional Reconfiguration Fast Configuration Configuration Prefetching Configuration Compression Relocation and Defragmentation in Partially Reconfigurable Systems Configuration Caching

28 28 Algorithmic Reconfiguration Reconfigure the system with an algorithm which performs the same functionality but with different requirements Adapt dynamically to environment or operational changes

29 29 Architectural Reconfiguration Modify hardware topology by reallocating resources to computations

30 30 Functional Reconfiguration Execute different functions on the same resources Time-share resources across computational tasks

31 31 Fast Configuration Reconfigure the device as fast as possible in order to minimize reconfiguration overhead

32 32 Configuration Prefetching Loading a configuration onto a device in advance, in order to overlap reconfiguration with useful computation The challenge is to determine future configurations

33 33 Configuration Compression Minimize the data that must be loaded to the device in multi-context environment

34 34 Configuration Caching Reducing the amount of configuration data that must be transferred to the device The challenge is to determine which configuration to retain and which to flush

35 35 Commercial Fine-Grain Reconfigurable Architectures Xilinx Spartan-3 /Spartan-3L Virtex-4 Virtex-5 Altera Cyclone Cyclone II Stratix II /Stratix II GX Actel Fusion ProASIC3/ ProASICPLUS Axcelerator Varicore Atmel AT40K/AT40KLV AT6000 Quicklogic PolarPro Eclipse II Lattice LatticeECP2 LatticeXP

36 36 Xilinx Spartan-3 CLB Four slices Two logic function generators/slice Two storage elements/slice Interconnect Long lines (one out of every six CLBs) Hex lines (one out of every three CLBs) Double lines (every other CLB) Direct lines (each CLB with its neighbours) Advanced features BlockRAM Dedicated Multipliers Digital Clock Managers Configuration SRAM

37 37 Xilinx Spartan-3

38 38 Xilinx Virtex-4 Three variations (LX, FX, SX) CLB Four slices Two logic function generators/slice Two storage elements/slice Advanced features BlockRAM XtremeDSP slices Digital Clock Managers Additional features in the FX family 8–24 RocketIO Multi-Gigabit serial Transceivers One or Two PowerPC cores Two or Four Tri-MAC Cores Configuration SRAM

39 39 Xilinx Virtex-5 65 nm ExpressFabric 6-input LUTs Interconnect Diagonal symmetric interconnect Advanced features DCM and PLLs BlockRAM DSP48E slices Configuration SRAM Advanced Encryption Standard technology for bitstream protection

40 40 Altera Cyclone/Cyclone II Essentially the same architecture in 130 nm (Cyclone), and 90 nm (Cyclone II) LE (10 per LAB): 4-input LUT Register Carry chain MultiTrack Interconnect Row and column interconnects spanning fixed distances Advanced Features: Embedded Memory PLLs External RAM interfacing Embedded multipliers (Cyclone II only)

41 41 Cyclone Logic Element

42 42 Altera Stratix II/ Stratix II GX Adaptive Logic Modules: MultiTrack Interconnect Advanced Features: TriMatrix Memory

43 43 Adaptive Logic Module

44 44 Review Questions Can you partially reconfigure a single- context FPGA? How often do you need to reconfigure a SRAM configuration memory FPGA device? One design comprising 200 CLBs and one comprising 400 CLBs are to be downloaded on the same device, that doesn’t support dynamic reconfiguration. How big is the size of the second design bitstream in comparison to the first?

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