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1Faculty Advisors: Dr. Tena McNamara & Dr. Angela Anthony Effects of the Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program on Phonemic Awareness in Children who are Deaf or Hard of HearingBy: Brittany WallaceFaculty Advisors: Dr. Tena McNamara & Dr. Angela Anthony
2Review of LiteratureLiberman, Shankweiler, Fischer, and Carter (1974) defined phonemic awareness as the ability to focus on and manipulate individual phonemes in spoken wordsIsolation, identification, blending, segmentation, deletionRecent studies have found a strong correlation between the presence of phonemic awareness skills and early literacy skills (Ball & Blachman, 1991; Chall, 1996; Ehri et al, 2001; Trezek, Wang, & Paul, 2010)Successful readers are able to make associations between graphemes printed on the page and their corresponding sounds. The reader is then able to blend those sounds together, understand the word as a whole, and attach meaning in order to comprehend the text (Adams, 1990).Phonemic awareness skills are prerequisite to comprehension of text and decoding (Trezek et al., 2010)
3Review of LiteratureUnderstanding that letter symbols represent speech sounds, and the ability to understand the relationship between sound and letter sequences in words are the foundations for becoming an efficient, independent reader.Chall (1996) describes a six-stage model of reading development.Pre-Reading (6 months – 6 years)Initial Reading and Decoding (6 – 7 years)Confirmation and Theory (7 – 8 years)Reading for Learning (8 – 11 years)Multiple Viewpoints (high school)Construction and Reconstruction (post-high school)
4Review of Literature“Hearing impairment is a generic term referring to all types, causes, and degrees of hearing loss,” (Trezek et al., 2010)Degree determined by Pure Tone AverageChildren with hearing impairment may not acquire literacy skills at the same age, or same rate, as a typically developing child. However, it can be said that they still possess the capabilities to progress through the stages of reading development (Trezek, Wang, & Paul, 2010).Wolk and Allen (1984) found that the average high school graduate who is deaf reads at the fourth to fifth grade level. This study also found the growth in reading achievement of hearing impaired students was only one-third that of average hearing students.Children who are DHH struggle with specific components of language, particularly morphology and syntax (Trezek, Wang, & Paul, 2010).Do not receive sufficient auditory models during crucial language learning periodsStruggle to hear high frequency sounds which adversely affects language
5Review of LiteratureDescription of the LiPS-3 (Lindamood & Lindamood, 1998)Designed to target underlying sensory-cognitive functions of reading, spelling, and speechTargets skills and fosters understanding of phoneme characteristics in emergent-level readersIntroduces sounds in pairs or “brothers” based upon phoneme characteristics such as place, manner, and voicing.Tip Tappers, Tongue Scrapers, Lip Coolers, Tongue Coolers, Skinny Air, Fat Air, Fat-Pushed Air, Nose Sounds, Wind Sounds, and Lifters.Vowels introduced in groupings based on lip shape during productionSmile, Open, Round, SlidersHorizontal and vertical tracks of progression through program
6Review of Literature Research supporting LiPS-3 Several studies have confirmed the direct correlation between teaching phonemic awareness and increased reading abilities (McBride, 2006, Wang, Trezek, Luckner, & Paul, 2008, Nielsen & Luetke-Stahlman, 2002)What Works Clearinghouse (2010) concluded that the LiPS-3 has potentially positive effectsA study by McIntyre et al. (2008) found greatest gains in phonemic awareness and letter/sound correspondence for ‘at risk’ students whose teacher used the LiPS-3Results of a study by Colon (2006) revealed positive average gains by all students on all subtests following the integration of the LiPS-3 into the classroom curriculum.Pokorni et al. (2004) evaluated the efficacy of three phonemic awareness- based programs (Fast ForWord, Earobics, and LiPS-3) and found the LiPS- 3 to be more effective in improving participants’ ability to blend phonemes and significant gains in phonemic awareness.
7Research QuestionsIs the Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program – 3rd Edition (LiPS-3) an effective intervention program for improving phonemic awareness skills in children who are deaf or hard of hearing?Specifically, to what extent did phonemic awareness skills improve as a result of intervention using the LiPS-3?
8Participants Participant A 9-year, 10-month old female Congenital severe bilateral sensorineural hearing lossLoss ranging from dBSpeech Recognition Test scores of 60 dBUses bilateral, behind-the-ear hearing aidsSpeech and language difficulties consistent with hearing loss.Grade 1 reading level (Rigby PM Benchmark Kit)
9Participants Participant B 10-year, 2-month old male Moderate bilateral hearing lossUses bilateral, behind-the-ear hearing aidsSpeech and language difficulties consistent with hearing loss.Grade 1 reading level (Rigby PM Benchmark Kit)
10Methodology Research Design Pre- and Posttest Measures Multiple case studyPretest – posttest designIntervention and control phasesPre- and Posttest MeasuresPretest, midtest, posttestPhonological Awareness Test -2 (PAT-2)Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization test (LAC)
11Methodology Treatment Protocol Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program – 3rd Edition (LiPS-3)Direct instruction twice weekly for 40 minutes each session for a total of 7 weeksIntervention and control phasesAdditional practice and review materials provided to classroom teacher11 consonant pairs, 4 vowel formations
12LiPS-3 Consonants Vowels Lip Poppers /p, b/ Tip Tappers /t, d/ Tongue Scrapers /k, g/Lip Coolers /f, v/Tongue Coolers /;, ‘/Skinny Air /s, z/Fat Air /c, x/Fat-Pushed Air /., j/Nose Sounds /m, n, a/Wind Sounds /w, wh/Lifters /r, l/VowelsRound /u,7,o/Smile /I,8,2,3,q,4/Open /0,9/Sliders /0],o[,9]/
20DiscussionData collected indicate the positive effects of phonemic awareness following 7 weeks of intervention using the LiPS-3.Participant A: intervention phase, followed by control phaseParticipant B: control phase, followed by intervention phaseBoth participants showed an increase in total raw scores on the PAT-2 following direct instruction.Participant A continued to show increases through the control phase as well, which may indicate generalization and carryover of skills after the intervention phase.Participant B’s decrease in scores following control phase and 25 point gain in scores after direct instruction indicates the positive effect of the LiPS-3 on phonemic awareness.
21DiscussionBoth participants demonstrated largest gains on the Segmentation subtest, with gains of 7 and 8 and gains of 6 on the Deletion subtest of the PAT-2.These results indicate the LiPS-3 had the largest impact on the ability to section a word into its individual sounds and the ability to remove phonemes from a given word to achieve a novel word.Other largest gains were recorded for the Isolation subtest for participant A and Deletion and Substitution subtest for participant B.This trend indicated the program also had a positive impact on the ability to identify single phonemes within a word or syllable and the ability to alter a word by deleting or substituting phonemes to create a new word.
22DiscussionParticipant B displayed a 13-point gain on the LAC immediately following direct instruction with the LiPS- 3. However, a 19-point gain was made over the control phase.Participant A failed to make any gains on the LAC immediately following the intervention phase, although gains were made following the control phase.Results from the LAC test are inconclusive and reveal that this assessment may not be an adequate measure of progress for the LiPS-3.
23Clinical Implications The LiPS-3 may be an effective intervention program for improving phonemic awareness skills in children who are deaf or hard of hearingFurther research and empirical evidence will assist in solidifying role the LiPS-3 as in the improvement of phonemic awareness skills.
24Strengths & Limitations Intervention and test administration reliabilityStudy designLimitationsIrregular participant attendanceInconsistent use of amplificationSmall sample size & concise intervention periodFormal assessment word selection
25Future Research Larger sample Longer intervention phases More assessment optionsTeacher observationBehavioral observationDecoding formal assessmentFurther into sequenceHearing aid vs. cochlear implantSupplemental visual phonics
26ReferencesAdams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press Ball, E. W., & Blachman, B. A. (1991). Does phoneme awareness training in kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and developmental spelling? Reading Research Quarterly, 26, doi: Chall, J. S., (1996). Stages of reading development. (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Colon, E. (2006). Utility of the Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program (LiPS) for classroom-based reading instruction. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A, 67. Ehri, L. C., Nunes, S. R., Willows, D. M, Schuster, B. V., Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z., & Shanahan, T. (2001). Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 36, doi: Liberman, I., Shankweiler, D., Fischer, F., & Carter, B. (1974). Explicit syllable and phoneme segmentation in the young child. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, doi: / (74) Lindamood, C. H., & Lindamood, P. C. (1998). Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program. Austin, TX: PRO-ED
27ReferencesMcIntyre, L., Protz, S., & McQuarrie, L. (2008). Exploring the potential of LiPS instruction for beginning readers. Developmental Disabilities Bulletin, 36(1-2),McBride, N. (2006). The effectiveness of second shot and/or Lindamood-Bell on reading achievement of elementary students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A, 67.Pokorni, J. L., Worthington, C. K., & Jamison, P. J. (2004). Phonological awareness intervention: Comparison of Fast ForWord, Earobics, and LiPS. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(3), doi: /JOERTrezek, B. J., Wang, Y., & Paul, P. V. (2010). Reading and deafness: Theory, research, and practice. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning.Wang, Y., Trezek, B. J., Luckner, J. L., & Paul, P. V. (2008). The role of phonology and phonologically related skills in reading instruction for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 153,What Works Clearinghouse. (2010). Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing (LiPS).What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. What Works Clearinghouse.Wolk, S., & Allen, T. E. (1984). A 5-year follow-up of reading comprehension achievement of hearing-impaired students in special education programs. The Journal of Special Education, 18,