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Faculty Advisors: Dr. Tena McNamara & Dr. Angela Anthony

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1 Faculty Advisors: Dr. Tena McNamara & Dr. Angela Anthony
Effects of the Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program on Phonemic Awareness in Children who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing By: Brittany Wallace Faculty Advisors: Dr. Tena McNamara & Dr. Angela Anthony

2 Review of Literature Liberman, Shankweiler, Fischer, and Carter (1974) defined phonemic awareness as the ability to focus on and manipulate individual phonemes in spoken words Isolation, identification, blending, segmentation, deletion Recent studies have found a strong correlation between the presence of phonemic awareness skills and early literacy skills (Ball & Blachman, 1991; Chall, 1996; Ehri et al, 2001; Trezek, Wang, & Paul, 2010) Successful readers are able to make associations between graphemes printed on the page and their corresponding sounds. The reader is then able to blend those sounds together, understand the word as a whole, and attach meaning in order to comprehend the text (Adams, 1990). Phonemic awareness skills are prerequisite to comprehension of text and decoding (Trezek et al., 2010)

3 Review of Literature Understanding that letter symbols represent speech sounds, and the ability to understand the relationship between sound and letter sequences in words are the foundations for becoming an efficient, independent reader. Chall (1996) describes a six-stage model of reading development. Pre-Reading (6 months – 6 years) Initial Reading and Decoding (6 – 7 years) Confirmation and Theory (7 – 8 years) Reading for Learning (8 – 11 years) Multiple Viewpoints (high school) Construction and Reconstruction (post-high school)

4 Review of Literature “Hearing impairment is a generic term referring to all types, causes, and degrees of hearing loss,” (Trezek et al., 2010) Degree determined by Pure Tone Average Children with hearing impairment may not acquire literacy skills at the same age, or same rate, as a typically developing child. However, it can be said that they still possess the capabilities to progress through the stages of reading development (Trezek, Wang, & Paul, 2010). Wolk and Allen (1984) found that the average high school graduate who is deaf reads at the fourth to fifth grade level. This study also found the growth in reading achievement of hearing impaired students was only one-third that of average hearing students. Children who are DHH struggle with specific components of language, particularly morphology and syntax (Trezek, Wang, & Paul, 2010). Do not receive sufficient auditory models during crucial language learning periods Struggle to hear high frequency sounds which adversely affects language

5 Review of Literature Description of the LiPS-3 (Lindamood & Lindamood, 1998) Designed to target underlying sensory-cognitive functions of reading, spelling, and speech Targets skills and fosters understanding of phoneme characteristics in emergent-level readers Introduces sounds in pairs or “brothers” based upon phoneme characteristics such as place, manner, and voicing. Tip Tappers, Tongue Scrapers, Lip Coolers, Tongue Coolers, Skinny Air, Fat Air, Fat-Pushed Air, Nose Sounds, Wind Sounds, and Lifters. Vowels introduced in groupings based on lip shape during production Smile, Open, Round, Sliders Horizontal and vertical tracks of progression through program

6 Review of Literature Research supporting LiPS-3
Several studies have confirmed the direct correlation between teaching phonemic awareness and increased reading abilities (McBride, 2006, Wang, Trezek, Luckner, & Paul, 2008, Nielsen & Luetke-Stahlman, 2002) What Works Clearinghouse (2010) concluded that the LiPS-3 has potentially positive effects A study by McIntyre et al. (2008) found greatest gains in phonemic awareness and letter/sound correspondence for ‘at risk’ students whose teacher used the LiPS-3 Results of a study by Colon (2006) revealed positive average gains by all students on all subtests following the integration of the LiPS-3 into the classroom curriculum. Pokorni et al. (2004) evaluated the efficacy of three phonemic awareness- based programs (Fast ForWord, Earobics, and LiPS-3) and found the LiPS- 3 to be more effective in improving participants’ ability to blend phonemes and significant gains in phonemic awareness.

7 Research Questions Is the Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program – 3rd Edition (LiPS-3) an effective intervention program for improving phonemic awareness skills in children who are deaf or hard of hearing? Specifically, to what extent did phonemic awareness skills improve as a result of intervention using the LiPS-3?

8 Participants Participant A 9-year, 10-month old female
Congenital severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss Loss ranging from dB Speech Recognition Test scores of 60 dB Uses bilateral, behind-the-ear hearing aids Speech and language difficulties consistent with hearing loss. Grade 1 reading level (Rigby PM Benchmark Kit)

9 Participants Participant B 10-year, 2-month old male
Moderate bilateral hearing loss Uses bilateral, behind-the-ear hearing aids Speech and language difficulties consistent with hearing loss. Grade 1 reading level (Rigby PM Benchmark Kit)

10 Methodology Research Design Pre- and Posttest Measures
Multiple case study Pretest – posttest design Intervention and control phases Pre- and Posttest Measures Pretest, midtest, posttest Phonological Awareness Test -2 (PAT-2) Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization test (LAC)

11 Methodology Treatment Protocol
Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program – 3rd Edition (LiPS-3) Direct instruction twice weekly for 40 minutes each session for a total of 7 weeks Intervention and control phases Additional practice and review materials provided to classroom teacher 11 consonant pairs, 4 vowel formations

12 LiPS-3 Consonants Vowels Lip Poppers /p, b/ Tip Tappers /t, d/
Tongue Scrapers /k, g/ Lip Coolers /f, v/ Tongue Coolers /;, ‘/ Skinny Air /s, z/ Fat Air /c, x/ Fat-Pushed Air /., j/ Nose Sounds /m, n, a/ Wind Sounds /w, wh/ Lifters /r, l/ Vowels Round /u,7,o/ Smile /I,8,2,3,q,4/ Open /0,9/ Sliders /0],o[,9]/

13 Results – Participant A

14 Results – Participant A

15 Results – Participant A

16 Results – Participant B

17 Results – Participant B

18 Results – Participant B

19 Comparison Data

20 Discussion Data collected indicate the positive effects of phonemic awareness following 7 weeks of intervention using the LiPS-3. Participant A: intervention phase, followed by control phase Participant B: control phase, followed by intervention phase Both participants showed an increase in total raw scores on the PAT-2 following direct instruction. Participant A continued to show increases through the control phase as well, which may indicate generalization and carryover of skills after the intervention phase. Participant B’s decrease in scores following control phase and 25 point gain in scores after direct instruction indicates the positive effect of the LiPS-3 on phonemic awareness.

21 Discussion Both participants demonstrated largest gains on the Segmentation subtest, with gains of 7 and 8 and gains of 6 on the Deletion subtest of the PAT-2. These results indicate the LiPS-3 had the largest impact on the ability to section a word into its individual sounds and the ability to remove phonemes from a given word to achieve a novel word. Other largest gains were recorded for the Isolation subtest for participant A and Deletion and Substitution subtest for participant B. This trend indicated the program also had a positive impact on the ability to identify single phonemes within a word or syllable and the ability to alter a word by deleting or substituting phonemes to create a new word.

22 Discussion Participant B displayed a 13-point gain on the LAC immediately following direct instruction with the LiPS- 3. However, a 19-point gain was made over the control phase. Participant A failed to make any gains on the LAC immediately following the intervention phase, although gains were made following the control phase. Results from the LAC test are inconclusive and reveal that this assessment may not be an adequate measure of progress for the LiPS-3.

23 Clinical Implications
The LiPS-3 may be an effective intervention program for improving phonemic awareness skills in children who are deaf or hard of hearing Further research and empirical evidence will assist in solidifying role the LiPS-3 as in the improvement of phonemic awareness skills.

24 Strengths & Limitations
Intervention and test administration reliability Study design Limitations Irregular participant attendance Inconsistent use of amplification Small sample size & concise intervention period Formal assessment word selection

25 Future Research Larger sample Longer intervention phases
More assessment options Teacher observation Behavioral observation Decoding formal assessment Further into sequence Hearing aid vs. cochlear implant Supplemental visual phonics

26 References Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press Ball, E. W., & Blachman, B. A. (1991). Does phoneme awareness training in kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and developmental spelling? Reading Research Quarterly, 26, doi: Chall, J. S., (1996). Stages of reading development. (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Colon, E. (2006). Utility of the Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program (LiPS) for classroom-based reading instruction. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A, 67. Ehri, L. C., Nunes, S. R., Willows, D. M, Schuster, B. V., Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z., & Shanahan, T. (2001). Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 36, doi: Liberman, I., Shankweiler, D., Fischer, F., & Carter, B. (1974). Explicit syllable and phoneme segmentation in the young child. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 18, doi: / (74) Lindamood, C. H., & Lindamood, P. C. (1998). Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program. Austin, TX: PRO-ED

27 References McIntyre, L., Protz, S., & McQuarrie, L. (2008). Exploring the potential of LiPS instruction for beginning readers. Developmental Disabilities Bulletin, 36(1-2), McBride, N. (2006). The effectiveness of second shot and/or Lindamood-Bell on reading achievement of elementary students. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A, 67. Pokorni, J. L., Worthington, C. K., & Jamison, P. J. (2004). Phonological awareness intervention: Comparison of Fast ForWord, Earobics, and LiPS. The Journal of Educational Research, 97(3), doi: /JOER Trezek, B. J., Wang, Y., & Paul, P. V. (2010). Reading and deafness: Theory, research, and practice. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning. Wang, Y., Trezek, B. J., Luckner, J. L., & Paul, P. V. (2008). The role of phonology and phonologically related skills in reading instruction for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 153, What Works Clearinghouse. (2010). Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing (LiPS). What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. What Works Clearinghouse. Wolk, S., & Allen, T. E. (1984). A 5-year follow-up of reading comprehension achievement of hearing-impaired students in special education programs. The Journal of Special Education, 18,

28 Questions?

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