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Early Reading and Phonics

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Presentation on theme: "Early Reading and Phonics"— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Reading and Phonics
This Power Point is a summary of the briefing that was delivered to subject leaders in November. We have put together the slides which provide an overview of the main changes and the expectations. In addition there are handouts which can be downloaded from the website and additional guidance on the subject leader DVD. It is important that the person delivering this presentation has a clear understanding of the messages and expectations and it will probably be useful to consider the specific questions that could be raised in each school’s circumstances. It would be beneficial to have read the guidance papers which can be found on the Primary Framework DVD and/or the Rose report on early reading which can be downloaded from the standards site. References – these could be printed as handouts if the presenter feels this is appropriate. https://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/primaryframeworks/foundation/cll/cllplanning/lm9 (Overview of Learning 9) Discrete teaching examples for each phase/phonics tracking sheet – Primary Framework DVD – Library/Literacy/Early reading Core learning in literacy Strand 5 – word recognition: decoding (reading) and encoding (spelling)

2 Objectives To share key messages from Rose Review
To identify implications for teaching of early reading To support knowledge and understanding about early literacy To provide support in implementing the recommendations of the Rose Review This will provide us with an opportunity to audit, reflect on and develop existing practice.

3 Key Messages Systematic and discrete phonics should be the first strategy taught to all children learning to read Fidelity to a programme Majority of children should start phonics “by the age of 5” Developing positive attitudes to literacy along with parents and carers Phonics needs to be taught explicitly on a daily basis , following incremental steps in learning Clear advice has been given not to mix and match programmes as this can be detrimental to progression in learning Research suggests that it is reasonable to expect the majority of children to have started acquisition of phonic knowledge by the age of five Another important point to emphasise is the importance of developing positive attitudes to reading right from the start.

4 Key messages (continued)
Phonics should be fun, multi-sensory and set within a broad and language rich curriculum Importance of quality first teaching with systematic approach to early intervention Commitment of school leaders essential High quality training Reconstruction of the searchlights model Children need to be actively engaged in their learning which has a clear purpose and based on the exploration and enjoyment of language and literature Context is important – phonics should not be taught in a vacuum. Links should be made to other learning and the language environment should be rich The elements of the searchlights model have been subsumed into the simple view of reading

5 Implications for teaching of early reading
Understanding how the ‘Simple view of reading’ supports the teaching of reading Statutory changes Teaching of high quality phonic work Broad rich language curriculum Role of leadership and management teams Involving parents and carers Assessment and early intervention Important to have a clear understanding of the Simple view of reading and how we can develop the teaching of reading in the light of this. This model underpins effective teaching of reading Statutory changes to Early Learning Goal to place more emphasis on phonic knowledge

6 or, why are we changing from this …
The searchlights model reinforces the misguided opinion that all the elements are equal in the teaching of reading Beginner readers need to be taught phonic knowledge and skills as the primary strategy for decoding They need to acquire this knowledge quickly in order that it becomes an automated response when tackling a text This will be supported by language comprehension as part of engaging children in the world of literature

7 Word recognition processes Language comprehension processes
Simple view of reading …to this + Good language comprehension, poor word recognition Good language comprehension, good word recognition - + Word recognition processes Poor language comprehension, poor word recognition Poor language comprehension, good word recognition ‘The Simple View of Reading’ is a technical descriptor, standard in the professional literature about early reading. The ‘simple view of reading’ is “overwhelmingly accepted by the reading research community”. Essentially it is based on a two dimensional model… Two dimensions- Word recognition processes – this dimension is time limited. There is an expectation that by the end of year two children will be able to accurately decode. This is reflected in strand five of the core strands of the Primary Framework (this could be given as a handout) Single word recognition Phonological awareness Children need to develop these decoding skills in order to access text. Acknowledge that we are talking about the majority of children and not all. Language comprehension processes- from birth and throughout our lives Comprehension develops through both listening and reading. It is important to emphasise that comprehension is about understanding, making sense of things rather than a series of formal questions. It is about understanding the way in which language works and meaning of words on the page. Neither dimension is sufficient on its own and to develop fluency children will move along each of the dimensions at different paces. Reading comprehension is a product of word recognition and language comprehension It may be useful to assess children’s skills using the quadrant. Identify in which quadrant particular groups of children are in your class. - Language comprehension processes

8 Evidence that supports the Simple view of reading
Different skills and abilities contribute to successful development of each dimension There are children with good word recognition skills who fail to understand what they can read There are children with poor word recognition skills who make better than expected sense of what they read Skills in both dimensions need to be explicitly taught Accuracy is predicted from Single word reading Phonological awareness Comprehension is predicted from Ability to draw inferences Understanding of story structure Comprehension monitoring ability

9 Implications for teaching
Teachers need to be aware that different kinds of teaching are needed for the two dimensions The weighting between the two dimensions change as children develop as readers Teachers need therefore to keep these two dimensions of reading separate in their minds when planning Different teaching approaches are needed to give children the skills and knowledge to decode, (word recognition) from skills needed to foster written and spoken comprehension. This can be thought of as the process of moving from learning to read to reading to learn. Careful assessment of children’s performance and progress in each dimension will help teachers to identify children’s learning needs and guide further teaching

10 So that: They focus clearly on developing word recognition skills through Phoneme awareness and phonics teaching Repetition and teaching of ‘tricky’ words And they focus clearly on developing language comprehension through Talking with children Reading to children Teaching comprehension strategies It is important that input on language comprehensions is embedded from the beginning. Questions to consider : How do we currently teach word recognition skills? How effective are we and how do we know? What do we need to change as result of Rose? How do we teach language comprehension skills? What changes do we need to make? How will we set about reviewing our teaching of reading in the lights of Rose? How will we know that the changes are having desired impact on children’s reading attainment?

11 Phonics Indicators of good practice Phonics session - structure
Phonics programme – criteria for selection Progression and expectations We are now going to take a look at these elements in turn Remember that phonics is a body of knowledge and skills that has to be taught. Think of it like learning multiplication tables – once you know them you can apply them. Indicators of good practice A useful reference is the CLLD Audit Tool which has indicators of good practice

12 Revisit and review Teach Practice Apply Structuring learning
Looking at the structure of a typical phonics Session -Structure Lessons set within a longer sequence Application is crucial in the daily session and this is often the element that is missing. Children need to see the links and purpose of their learning at this point. This is where learning is evident – good opportunities for assessment for learning The Frameworks are supported with guidance on developing a sequence of teaching and learning. This sequence builds upon identified objectives Look at exemplification of a series of lessons for a particular phases Apply

13 Key messages… The Rose report recognises that there are a number of
  ‘differing approaches to teaching reading in general, and phonic work in particular… the common elements in each programme - those that really make a difference to how well beginners are taught to learn to read and write - are few in number’.  Phonics Programme- criteria for selection Reflect on the programme you are using in school Is it consistent across each year group and key stages?

14 ‘Playing with Sounds’ is to re-purposed
Key messages… phonic programme should be audited against criteria and then implemented with fidelity ‘Playing with Sounds’ is to re-purposed Phonics Programme – criteria for selection Look at criteria from core papers

15 Key messages… The Rose Review recommended that whatever phonic programme is in use by the school, it should have a systematic progression with clear expectations by teachers and practitioners of the expected pace of teaching and learning Phonics Programme- criteria for selection It is as much about how you teach as well as what you teach. How you teach is crucial - phonics needs to be taught with secure subject knowledge, clear assessment for learning which is applied continuously and rigorously. Systematic means that the programme is progressive and incremental. It does not suggest a ‘formal’ approach to teaching which would be at odds with what we know is best practice in early years.

16 Phonics – development phases
Phase 1 – developing phonological awareness Phase 2 – introduce some phoneme/grapheme correspondences Phase 3 – one grapheme for each of 44 phonemes Phase 4 – adjacent consonants Phase 5 – alternative pronunciation and spellings Phase 6 – developing skill and automaticity in reading and spelling Progression and Expectations Primary Framework- word recognition strand core area of learning 5 and 6 Phases in Progression – take time to link these to age related expectations in core strands Important to remember that this is time limited

17 Broad and rich curriculum
Interdependent nature of speaking listening reading and writing Stimulating experiences to develop language Crucial place of speaking and listening Phonics can be taught systematically and with challenge without compromising an excellent, broad, rich language curriculum Speaking and Listening are central to acquisition of phonic knowledge.

18 Parents and carers Consider how your school encourages and supports the involvement of parents and carers in their children’s early literacy development What do you do already? What messages do you give to parents? Curriculum meetings Transition meetings Leaflets/ Information booklets

19 Assessment Majority of children should start phonics “by the age of 5”
Quality first teaching Early Intervention Challenge Tracking YRY1 transition Age-related expectations Importance of assessment for learning to enable teachers to : -plan for differentiation to meet the needs of the learner -track progress -give accurate transition information You may want to emphasise that this

20 Leadership and Management
Commitment of senior leaders – one member of staff responsible to lead on literacy, including phonic work Involving governors Priority given to phonic work which is reflected in professional development for staff Monitoring and evaluating the quality and consistency of phonic work Ensure high quality teaching of reading in key stage one and beyond Implications for leaders and managers. Ensure practitioners know what constitutes best practice in phonics, and support staff in receiving appropriate CPD CLL is of fundamental importance, someone should take the lead on it. Ensure that children’s experience of phonic sessions is of high quality through regular monitoring. Whole school commitment to early reading by setting high expectations for children’s progress through ambitious /realistic targets for English Intervention strategies, monitoring quality and consistency of teaching reading, improving the quality and consistency of teaching assessment and intervention through providing relevant training. Reflect on standards in your school -Foundation Stage Profile for CLL -KS1 teacher assessments

21 Monitoring of teaching of early reading
Shared, guided, independent reading Consistency and continuity Impact of intervention Tracking progress of children Provision Effective use of resources Reflect on the teaching of reading in your class Look at the CLL Audit Tool The audit tool can be found in the headteachers’ handbook and on the Primary Framework website/DVD Audit Tool

22 Action Planning Issues arising Further reading
Planning for effective phonic development Auditing current practice What next? Consider what needs to be developed in the light of the key messages from Rose and the changes to the teaching of reading across the whole school. Decide what the main actions will be and agree a date to follow up the meeting.


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