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How the Cold War Ended. Various Theories I. Triumphalism − hard-line policy (Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher) II. Religion over Ideology − John Paul.

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Presentation on theme: "How the Cold War Ended. Various Theories I. Triumphalism − hard-line policy (Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher) II. Religion over Ideology − John Paul."— Presentation transcript:

1 How the Cold War Ended

2 Various Theories I. Triumphalism − hard-line policy (Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher) II. Religion over Ideology − John Paul II III. Revisionism − Economic Considerations and Mikhail Gorbachev IV. Recent Challenges to Revisionism

3 I. Triumphalism − hard-line policy (Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher)

4 Proponents Robert Gates − served for 26 years in the Central Intelligence Agency and the National Security Council, and as Director of Central Intelligence under President George H. W. Bush − From the Shadows: The Ultimate Inside Story of Five Presidents and How They Won the Cold War (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1996).

5 Robert Gates (1943 − ) Deputy Director CIA (1986−1989) Deputy National Security Advisor (1989−1991) Director CIA (1991−1993) Secretary of Defense (2006−2011)

6 I. Triumphalism − hard-line policy (Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher) Proponents Caspar Weinberger − Secretary of Defense under Ronald Reagan from January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987 − Fighting for Peace: Seven Critical Years in the Pentagon (New York: Warner, 1990).

7 Caspar Weinberger (1917 − 2006) Secretary of Defense (January 21, 1981, until November 23, 1987)

8 I. Triumphalism − hard-line policy (Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher) Proponents Richard Pipes − an American academic who has specialized in Russian history, particularly the Soviet Union, and who, in 1981 and 1982, served in the National Security Council as Director of East European and Soviet Affairs under Reagan. − “Misinterpreting the Cold War: The Hard-Liners Had It Right” Foreign Affairs, no. 74 (January/February 1995): 154–161.

9 Richard Pipes (1923 − )

10 I. Triumphalism − hard-line policy (Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher) Proponents Peter Schweizer − a research fellow at Stanford University’s Hoover Institution − Victory: The Reagan Administration’s Secret Strategy That Hastened the Collapse of the Cold War (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1994).

11 II. Religion over Ideology − John Paul II Proponents Lech Wałęsa, the first leader of Solidarity − The Struggle and the Triumph: An Autobiography (New York: Arcade, 1994). Andrzej Paczkowski − historian of contemporary Polish history − The Spring Will Be Ours: Poland and the Poles from Occupation to Freedom (University Park: Pensylvania State University Press, 2003).

12 I + II. Combination of Triumphalism and Religion Proponents John Lewis Gaddis, The Cold War: A New History (London: Penguin Books, 2007).

13 III. Revisionism − Economic Considerations and Mikhail Gorbachev Proponents − Archie Brown, The Rise and Fall of Communism (London: Bodley Head, 2009). − Archie Brown, Seven Years that Changed the World: Perestroika in Perspective (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

14 III. Revisionism − Economic Considerations and Mikhail Gorbachev Proponents − Jacques Lévesque, The Enigma of 1989: The USSR and the Liberation of Eastern Europe (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997). − Jacques Lévesque, “The East European Revolutions of 1989,” vol. 3, The Cambridge History of the Cold War, ed. Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

15 III. Revisionism − Economic Considerations and Mikhail Gorbachev Proponents − Stephen Kotkin, Armageddon Averted : The Soviet Collapse, 1970 –2000 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).

16 IV. Recent Challenges to Revisionism Proponents Revisionism underestimates the Ukrainian case − Serhii Plokhy, The Last Empire: The Final Days of the Soviet Union. New York: Basic Books, Revisionism underestimates the Polish case − Ryszard Grzegórski, “The Fall of Communism in Poland: Legend and Reality,” Master of Liberal Arts, Harvard University 2014.


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