Presentation on theme: "(also called false dichotomy, the either-or fallacy, fallacy of false choice, black-or-white thinking, or the fallacy of exhaustive hypotheses) This is."— Presentation transcript:
(also called false dichotomy, the either-or fallacy, fallacy of false choice, black-or-white thinking, or the fallacy of exhaustive hypotheses) This is a type of informal fallacy that involves a situation in which limited alternatives are considered, when in fact there is at least one additional option. The options may be a position that is between two extremes or may be completely different alternatives. "if you are not with us, you are against us"
A universal example would be found in politics. The President may say something like, “We have to spend less on hospitals, otherwise we won't be able to afford education improvements.” This is based on the assumption that the choices offered are the only choices. By focusing on the choice, the decision to be made, the other person is distracted from the fact that there may be other alternatives.
Examples from The Crucible False Dilemma Act III, pg. 213 Mr. Danforth: “But you must understand, sir, that a person is either with this court or he must be counted against it, there is no road between.” Mr. Danforth is saying that you must be with the court or you are automatically against it. He does not tell that you can agree with some parts of the court and disagree with others.
Examples from The Crucible False Dilemma Act III, pg. 216 Mr. Danforth: “I will tell you this- you are either lying now, or you were lying in the court, and in either case you have committed perjury and you will go to jail for it.” Mr. Danforth is accusing Mary Warren of lying. When she said she is not lying, then he automatically assumed that she lied while in court. According to Mr. Danforth, it is not a possibility that she was telling the truth both times, or that she was lying both times. The punishment was the same for if she had lied or if she had told the truth.
Sources “False Dilemma.” Changing Minds Web. 21 Feb Miller, Arthur. The Crucible. Act III. Page 213. Penguin Classics, New York: Print. Miller, Arthur. The Crucible. Act III. Page 216. Penguin Classics, New York: Print.