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Physical Examination of the Shoulder

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Presentation on theme: "Physical Examination of the Shoulder"— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Examination of the Shoulder
Lisa Chiou, MD, MPH Primary Care Conference

2 Goals Review some of that anatomy from medical school
Discuss common shoulder problems Practice focused physical exam

3 Shoulder pain Common in all age groups
Intrinsic disorder (85%) vs referred pain C-spine nerve impingement (disc herniation or spinal stenosis) Peripheral nerve entrapment distal to spinal column (long thoracic, suprascapular) Diaphragm irritation, intrathoracic tumors, and distension of Gleason’s capsule/gall bladder Myocardial ischemia Pancoast tumor Normal shoulder movement. Also, character of the pain does not change with movement of the shoulder.

4 Review of shoulder anatomy
Bones Scapula Clavicle Humeral head Posterior rib cage Joints Sternoclavicular Acromioclavicular Glenohumeral Scapulothoracic Sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, glenohumeral, and scapulothoracic joints. Thin capsule. Subacromial bursa. Rotator cuff tendons attach to humeral tuberosities.

5 Glenohumeral joint 25% humeral head surface in contact with glenoid
Joint space thinning seen with OA Humeral head coverage increased to 75% with glenoid labrum

6 More shoulder anatomy Ligaments Subacromial bursa Subdeltoid bursa
Coracoclavicular Acromioclavicular Glenohumeral Superior GH Middle GH Inferior GH Coracohumeral Subacromial bursa Subdeltoid bursa

7 Rotator cuff muscles Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis Form cuff around humeral head Keep humeral head within joint (counteract deltoid) Abduction, external rotation, internal rotation Supraspinatus – abduction (also with deltoid). Infraspinatus and teres – external rotation. Subscapularis – internal rotation.

8 Shoulder exam #1 Visualize from front and back Asymmetry Atrophy
Pts with rotator cuff tears hold shoulder higher Atrophy Sign of chronic glenohumeral joint pathology Effusions Shoulder joint can hide a lot of fluid Can see atrophy with chronic RA. Shoulder joint can hide a lot of fluid because of capsule redundancy.

9 Shoulder exam #2 Palpation Along clavicle SC and AC joints
Acromion, subacromial region Coracoid process (short head of biceps) Bicipital groove (long head of biceps) Trigger points in neck, trapezius, scapular region

10 Active range of motion Forward flexion Abduction/adduction
Painful arc of abduction – sensitive, not specific External rotation Internal rotation Flexion – arms outstretched, up in front. Abduction – to the side. External rotation – either the penguin, or putting hands behind back (like relaxing). Internal rotation – have pt use thumb to touch the highest point on the spine. Apley scratch test does both abduction and external rotation – reach behind head and touch the superior angle of the opposite scapula. Can touch the inferior angle of the opposite scapula for testing of internal rotation and adduction.

11 Passive range of motion
Immobilize the scapula to prevent rotation Use one arm to push down on shoulder Use other arm to do the PROM exercises Abduction Internal and external rotation Have arm at patient’s side and abducted to 90 degrees Preventing scapula from moving isolates the GH joint. When abducted – internal rotation is pointing down, external rotation is pointing up.

12 Rotator cuff strength testing
Supraspinatus “Pour out a Coke” Infraspinatus and teres minor “Act like a penguin” Subscapularis “Scratch your back”

13 Impingement maneuvers
Impingement sign At 90 degrees of abduction with elbow flexed to 90 degrees, do internal (downward) and external (upward) rotation Hawkins’ test At 90 degrees of elbow flexion, do internal rotation by pushing down on pt’s forearm Neer’s test At full elbow extension, internally rotate and flex the arm

14 Biceps strength testing
Arms outstretched with palms up at level of shoulder Forced supination of hand with elbow flexed at 90 degrees Bicipital tendonitis – pain at long head of the biceps.s

15 Will talk about common shoulder problems now.

16 Impingement syndrome Compression of rotator cuff tendons and subacromial bursa between greater tuberosity and acromion Repetitive overhead motions Main cause of rotator cuff tendonitis Can lead to bursitis, partial or full rotator cuff tears

17 Sx of impingement syndrome
Usually gradual onset Outer deltoid pain, especially with reaching or overhead movements Night pain Difficulty sleeping on affected side Nearly identical symptoms as tendonitis Sx = pain over outer deltoid, particularly with overhead activities or reaching. 10% pts have pain over anterior deltoid.

18 Exam for impingement Pain with painful arc maneuver
Crepitus above 60 degrees Subacromial tenderness (lateral) No pain with external/internal rotation, abduction, elbow flexion Distinguishes impingement from tendonitis Normal glenohumeral ROM Normal strength Painful arc maneuver = Neer impingement test. Prevent scapular movement by placing hand down on shoulder. Then with the patient’s elbow flexed at 90 degrees, raise the arm and look for pain/guarding. With impingement, see pain variably from degrees.

19 Radiology for impingement
X-rays usually not needed Reasonable to get if chronic symptoms MRI can rule out other pathology Wait at least 24 hours after an injection Osseous abnormalities Need to clinically correlate MRI findings XR – loss of space between acromion and humeral head can indicate degenerative thinning or a large rotator cuff tear. Can see erosive changes at greater tubercle. More frequently, can see calcification in the rotator cuff tendone but not specific. MRI – can look for compression of the supraspinatus tendon or the subacromial bursa by spurs, low-lying acromion, osteophytes.

20 Tx of impingement Rest Ice Stretching, then strengthening
Pendulum for 5-10 minutes QD Can increase space under acromion by ½” Don’t use arm sling Subacromial injection Surgical referral if no improvement after 3-6 months Pendulum, then weighted pendulum. Injection = pure impingement is mechanical and won’t respond to steroids. Could do a lidocaine injection first. If this works, then could consider steroids. Surgery – acromioplasty (either open or arthroscopic).

21 Rotator cuff tendonitis
Some argue this is same as impingement Acute or chronic Acute – more likely to have calcific deposits Pain along lateral arm (outer deltoid) Pain with numerous activities, lying on the affected side, overhead movements RF – relative overuse, age, osteophytes, trauma, inflammatory processes (RA)

22 Exam for impingement Painful arc of abduction (active)
degrees Impingement signs Impingement test Subacromial lidocaine injection Can then test again for weakness

23 Radiology for tendonitis
Nothing is diagnostic Plain films not necessary Get if chronic or recurrent Might see calcifications If significant loss of strength or ROM, get MRI Rule out tear Hard to see tendon calcifications

24 Tx of tendonitis Rest Heat or ice Ultrasound (physical therapy) NSAIDs
Subacromial steroid injection

25 Rotator cuff tear 50% pts do not have preceding trauma
Usually in supraspinatus Wide size range, plus partial vs full Shoulder weakness, pain, loss of motion Common mechanisms of injury: Falling onto outstretched arm, onto outer shoulder directly, heavy pushing/pulling

26 Sx of rotator cuff tear Shoulder weakness
Localized pain over upper back Popping/catching sensation when shoulder is moved Night pain is characteristic Sx vary depending on direction of the torn tendon fibers Parallel: pain Transverse: weakness, loss of function If the tear is parallel to the tendon fibers, pt will have shoulder pain, pain with direct pressure, pain aggravated by activities (reaching, lifting, pulling, pushing). If tear is large and transverse in direction, then pt will have weakness, dramatic loss of function.

27 Exam for rotator cuff tear
Range of motion Strength Drop arm test Arm abducted with elbow straight See if pt can smoothly lower arm If arm drops, then test is positive for tear Highly specific but only 21% sensitive

28 Radiology for rotator cuff tears
Interpret carefully 34% asymptomatic pts (all ages) and 54% pts >60 yo have partial rotator cuff tears Abnormal rotator cuff signal after trauma may represent strain rather than tear X-rays Look for high riding humeral head Ultrasound Highly operator dependent MRI U/S limitations include with fat patients or small tears.

29 Rotator cuff tears

30 Tx of rotator cuff tears
Ice, NSAIDs, restrict aggravating motions Weighted pendulum No arm slings Steroid injection if persistent sx Surgery – refer if young pts, full/large tears, dominant arm Best if done within 6 weeks Acromioplasty and debridement No overhead positioning, reaching, lifting. Steroid injection could possibly weaken tendon, but Up to Date says there is no influence on tendon healing. Rotator cuff is NOT necessary for most normal activities of a sedentary life.

31 Acromioclavicular injury
Arthritic changes AC joint separation Anterior shoulder pain or deformity Preceding trauma Often pts hold arm close to chest and resist rotation and elevation With OA, may have grinding or popping sensation with reaching overhead/across chest

32 Exam for AC joint injuries
Joint enlargement or deformity Joint tenderness Pain with crossed body adduction Joint widening with downward arm traction in pts with 2nd or 3rd degree joint separation Show how to do the exam: place your arm on their shoulder and rest their affected side on your arm. Then passively push the AC joint together by pushing on the arm. 2nd degree – partial dislocation. 3rd degree – full dislocation.

33 Tx of AC joint injury Reduce pressure and traction to allow ligaments to re-attach Acute: ice, NSAIDs, shoulder immobilizer for 3-4 weeks Persistent: steroid injection Refer to surgery if no improvement after 2 injections

34 Adhesive capsulitis Loss of motion +/- pain due to stiff GH joint
Is usually reversible May have preceding trauma Most common cause (10%) is rotator cuff tendonitis Risk factors: Diabetes Disuse (i.e. pts with arm in sling) Low pain thresholds Poor compliance with exercise therapy Lose abduction and rotation. Loss of GH joint capsule distensibility. Contrast with rotator cuff tendonitis – main sx is pain, not loss of movement.

35 Rare associations Hyper- or hypothyroidism Parkinson’s disease
Antiretrovirals (PPIs) Recent neurosurgery

36 Exam for adhesive capsulitis
Clinical diagnosis Range of motion is smooth and pain-free, then stops suddenly No further passive ROM possible Normal strength in the pain-free range Can test strength again after lidocaine injection After lidocaine, pts with frozen shoulder still have limited range of movement, unlike tendonitis.

37 Radiology for adhesive capsulitis
X-rays have limited use Might see calcifications or degenerative changes that would lead to frozen shoulder MRI Enhancement of joint capsule and synovial membrane 4 mm thickening is 70% sensitive and 95% specific X-rays: could see evidence of calcific tendonitis or degenerative changes that would suggest problems that could eventually lead to frozen shoulder.

38 Arthrogram for adhesive capsulitis
Normal capsule volume Frozen shoulder (contracted GH capsule)

39 Tx of adhesive capsulitis
Watchful waiting Up to 2 years for resolution Incomplete recovery more likely in pts with DM, or pts with >50% loss of external rotation/abduction Steroid injection Manipulation under anesthesia Gentle exercise Pain medications Alternative therapies – i.e. acupuncture Exercise – (1) weighted pendulum exercises, (2) passive stretching. Up to 50% will respond to exercise therapy.

40 Biceps tendonitis Inflammation of long head of biceps
Passes through bicipital groove of anterior humerus Usually due to repetitive lifting or reaching Inflammation, microtearing, degenerative changes Up to 10% pts will have spontaneous rupture Biceps – elbow flexion and supination.

41 Sx of biceps tendonitis
Anterior shoulder pain Worse with lifting or overhead reaching Often pts point to bicipital groove Usually no weakness in elbow flexion Bicipital groove is about 1” below the anterolateral tip of the acromion. Pts can seem weak because of pain.

42 Exam for biceps tendonitis
Bicipital groove tenderness Look for subacromial impingement Tendon rupture Test biceps strength Yergason test Elbows flexed with forearms in front Pt actively resisting external rotation Tendon may pop out of bicipital groove when downward pressure applied to forearm

43 Ruptured biceps tendon
Usually rotator cuff tear also present Get the “popeye” sign Rarely get significant weakness Brachioradialis and short head of biceps provide 80-85% elbow flexor strength Tx is supportive Usually proximal end of the long head ruptures.

44 Radiology for biceps tendonitis
Usually plain films unnecessary If tendon rupture present, then get plain films, U/S, or MRI Look for rotator cuff tendonitis or tear

45 Tx of biceps tendonitis
Reduce inflammation Strengthen biceps muscle and tendon Prevent rupture Ice, NSAIDs, avoid aggravating motions 5-10% risk of rupture with noncompliance Weighted pendulum Elbow flexion toning exercises Steroid injection Surgical referral if sx persist >3 months Surgery rarely necessary since flexion strength only minimally decreased and it usually ends up being a cosmetic issue. Can get slight improvement in elbow flexion and supination.

46 Glenohumeral osteoarthritis
Same risk factors as with OA in other areas Trauma, obesity, age Less common than OA in weight bearing joints or spine Pain, stiffness over months to years Anterior shoulder is most painful area Worse with activity Distinguish from RA, adhesive capsulitis RA – morning stiffness, better with activity. Shoulder sx in RA is common, especially in late stages of dse.

47 Unusual causes Hemochromatosis Hemophilia
Think of this if patients develop OA in unusual places at unusually early ages Hemophilia Blood very erosive to joint

48 Exam for glenohumeral OA
GH joint line tenderness and swelling Just below coracoid process Use outward and upward pressure Effusion may be very hard to see Decreased ROM External rotation, abduction Endpoint stiffness Crepitus

49 Imaging for glenohumeral OA
Joint space narrowing (loss of articular cartilage) Osteophytes Humeral head sclerosis and flattening Club-like deformity

50 Tx of glenohumeral OA Low impact activities, and heat + stretching
Let pain be the guide NSAIDs, acetaminophen, glucosamine, chondroitin Intra-articular steroids Intra-articular hyaluronate Arthroplasty or total shoulder replacement

51 Polymyalgia rheumatica
Think of this with patients >60, especially if they have bilateral shoulder symptoms Females>males Europeans Rare – per 100,000 per year

52 Symptoms of PMR Acute to sub-acute onset Morning stiffness Night pain
Patients can’t get out of bed Night pain Proximal muscle involvement 20% have joint swelling

53 PMR and giant cell arteritis
Between 1-16% pts with PMR develop GCA Nearly half of pts with GCA have co-existing PMR Watch for jaw claudication, visual changes, scalp tenderness

54 Shoulder weakness after viral illness

55 Parsonage-Turner syndrome
Brachial neuritis Thought to be post-viral Sudden onset shoulder pain that resolves Weakness then develops Suprascapular/long thoracic nerve involvement is common Can get atrophy of supra/infraspinatus Can have scapular winging Months to years to regain strength

56 Pain patterns #1 Lateral – most common Anterior Impingement syndrome
Rotator cuff tendonitis with tear if also weak Frozen shoulder if also stiff, loss of movement Anterior AC joint GH joint Biceps tendon

57 Pain patterns #2 Posterior – least common Poorly localized
Usually referred pain from C- spine Can also be referred pain from rotator cuff tendonitis Poorly localized Neck Nerves Malingering

58 Thanks! And HUGE thanks to Dr. Greg Gardner!!

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