Presentation on theme: "Religion & Society 1630-1670. Puritans created representative political institutions that were locally based. Puritans eliminated bishops and devised."— Presentation transcript:
Puritans created representative political institutions that were locally based. Puritans eliminated bishops and devised a democratic church structure. This was influenced by John Calvin; they believed in predestination. Puritans also felt that they had to “purge” society of religious dissidents
Roger Williams Williams and his followers founded settlements in Rhode Island, where there was no legally established church. For more about Roger Williams, visit http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch1_p7.htm
Anne Hutchinson Considered a heretic because her beliefs diminished the role of Puritan ministers; Puritans believed that when it came to governance, women were inferior to men. Hutchinson was exiled and followed Roger Williams to Rhode Island (see text pgs.58-59)
Thomas Hooker Left Massachusetts and founded Hartford, Connecticut in 1639 Connecticut established a representative government including a representative assembly and governor; voting was not limited to church members.
In England Religious civil war between royalists and Parliamentary forces. After four years Parliamentary forces under Oliver Cromwell won a short lived victory over the monarchy When the monarchy was restored, Puritans looked to create a permanent society in America.
Oliver Cromwell was Lord Protector of England for much of the 1650s, ruling in place of the country's traditional monarchy. In the 1640s a civil war broke out between supporters of King Charles I (the Royalists) and of Parliament (the so-called Roundheads). Cromwell was a Roundhead military leader in a long series of civil war battles, which ended with Charles I imprisoned and finally beheaded in 1649. By 1653, Parliamentary squabbling led Cromwell to take control as head of state, in essence overseeing a military dictatorship. He eventually gained the king-like title of Lord Protector of the Realm, and presided over a troubled era of internal unrest and costly foreign wars.
Yeoman society Puritans instituted a fee simple land distribution policy that encouraged self governance. All land owners had a voice in town meetings; They had more political power than Europeans or Chesapeake colonists.
Puritans believed in social and economic hierarchy All male heads of families received some land and a society of yeomen farmers emerged. Yeomen- In medieval England, a farmer below the level Of gentry, but above the peasantry. Owning their own land released them from obligation To a landlord
Town meetings chose selectmen, levied taxes and created ordinances, promoting local control. As one generation gave away to the next, the communities of New England became more socially divided, yet nearly all new Englanders had an opportunity to own land.
Questions to Answer 1) What factors account for the success of the Puritans in establishing an ordered society in New England? 2) Given their distinct English subcultures, did Virginians and Puritans tend to treat Native Americans differently? If so, how?