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Chapter 8 Financial Statements and Analysis Lawrence J. Gitman Jeff Madura Introduction to Finance.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Financial Statements and Analysis Lawrence J. Gitman Jeff Madura Introduction to Finance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Financial Statements and Analysis Lawrence J. Gitman Jeff Madura Introduction to Finance

2 8-1 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Review the contents of the stockholder’s report, and the procedures for consolidating financial statements. Understand who uses financial ratios and how. Use ratios to analyze a firm’s liquidity and activity. Discuss the relationship between debt and financial leverage and the ratios used to analyze a firm’s debt. Use ratios to analyze a firm’s profitability and its market value. Use the DuPont system of analysis to perform a complete ratio analysis. Learning Goals

3 8-2 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley The Stockholders’ Report The guidelines used to prepare and maintain financial records and reports are known as generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). GAAP is authorized by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). Public corporations with more than $5 million in assets and more than 500 stockholders are required by the SEC to provide their stockholders with an annual stockholders’ report.

4 8-3 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Financial Statements The Income Statement  The income statement provides a financial summary of a company’s operating results during a specified period.  Although they are prepared annually for reporting purposes, they are generally computed monthly by management and quarterly for tax purposes.

5 8-4 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Financial Statements Table 8.1 (Panel 1)

6 8-5 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Financial Statements Table 8.1 (Panel 2)

7 8-6 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Financial Statements The Balance Sheet  The balance sheet presents a summary of a firm’s financial position at a given point in time.  Assets indicate what the firm owns, equity represents the owners’ investment, and liabilities indicate what the firm has borrowed.

8 8-7 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Financial Statements Table 8.2 (Panel 1)

9 8-8 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Financial Statements Table 8.2 (Panel 2)

10 8-9 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Financial Statements Statement of Retained Earnings  The statement of retained earnings reconciles the net income earned and dividends paid during the year with the change in retained earnings.

11 8-10 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Financial Statements Table 8.3

12 8-11 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Financial Statements Statement of Cash Flows  The statement of cash flows provides a summary of the cash flows over the period of concern, typically the year just ended.  This statement not only provides insight into a company’s investment and financing and operating activities, but also ties together the income statement and previous and current balance sheets.

13 8-12 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Financial Statements Table 8.4

14 8-13 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Consolidating International Financial Statements FASB 52 mandated that companies based in the United States translate their foreign-currency denominated assets and liabilities into dollars using the current rate (translation) method. Under the translation method, companies translate foreign-currency-denominated assets and liabilities into dollars for consolidation with the parent company’s financial statements. Income statement items are usually treated similarly, although they can also be translated at the average exchange rate during the period (year).

15 8-14 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Consolidating International Financial Statements Equity accounts, on the other hand, are translated into dollars by using the exchange rate that prevailed when the parent’s equity investment was made (the historical rate). Retained earnings are adjusted to reflect each year’s operating profits (or losses), but do not consider any profits or losses resulting from currency changes. Instead, translation gains and losses are accumulated in an equity reserve account called the cumulative translation adjustment.

16 8-15 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Consolidating International Financial Statements Translation gains (losses) increase (decrease) this account balance. However, the gains and losses are not “realized” until the parent company sells or shuts down the subsidiary.

17 8-16 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Using Financial Ratios Interested Parties  Ratio analysis involves methods of calculating and interpreting financial ratios to assess a firm’s financial condition and performance.  It is of interest to shareholders, creditors, and the firm’s own management.

18 8-17 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Types of Ratio Comparisons Trend or Time-Series Analysis  Used to evaluate a firm’s performance over time. Cross-Sectional Analysis  Used to compare different firms at the same point in time.  Industry comparative analysis One specific type of cross sectional analysis. Used to compare one firm’s financial performance to the industry’s average performance. Combined Analysis  Combined analysis simply uses a combination of both time-series analysis and cross-sectional analysis.

19 8-18 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Types of Ratio Comparisons Figure 8.1

20 8-19 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Cautions for Doing Ratio Analysis Ratios must be considered together; a single ratio by itself means relatively little. Financial statements that are being compared should be dated at the same point in time. Use audited financial statements when possible. The financial data being compared should have been developed in the same way. Be wary of inflation distortions.

21 8-20 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Ratio Analysis Example Using Daton Company Financial Statements  Liquidity ratios  Activity ratios  Financial leverage ratio  Leverage ratios  Profitability ratios

22 8-21 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Ratio Analysis Liquidity Ratios  Current Ratio Current ratio = Total current assets Total current liabilities Current ratio = $1,233,000 $620,000 = 1.97

23 8-22 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Liquidity Ratios  Quick ratio Ratio Analysis Quick ratio = Total current assets - Inventory Total current liabilities Quick ratio = $1,233,000 - $289,000 $620,000 = 1.51

24 8-23 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Ratio Analysis Activity Ratios  Inventory Turnover Inventory turnover = Cost of goods sold Inventory Inventory turnover = $2,088,000 $289,000 = 7.2

25 8-24 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Ratio Analysis Activity Ratios  Average collection period ACP = Accounts receivable Net sales/360 ACP = $503,000 $3,074,000/360 = 58.9 days

26 8-25 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Ratio Analysis Activity Ratios  Average payment period APP = Accounts payable Annual purchases/360 ACP = $382,000 (.70 x $2,088,000)/360 = 94.1 days

27 8-26 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Activity Ratios  Total asset turnover Ratio Analysis Total asset turnover = Net sales Total assets Total asset turnover = $3,074,000 $3,579,000 =.85

28 8-27 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Financial Leverage Ratio  Debt ratio Ratio Analysis Debt ratio = Total liabilities Total assets Debt ratio = $1,643,000 $3,579,000 = 45.7%

29 8-28 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Leverage Ratios  Times interest earned ratio Ratio Analysis Times interest earned = EBIT Interest Times interest earned = $418,000 $93,000 = 4.5

30 8-29 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Leverage Ratios  Fixed-payment coverage ratio (FPCR) Ratio Analysis FPCR = EBIT + Lease pymts Interest + Lease pymts + {(Princ pymts + PSD) x [1/(1 - t)]} FPCR = $418,000 + $35,000 $93,000 + $35,000 + {($71,000 + $10,000) x [1/(1 -.29)]} = 1.9

31 8-30 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Profitability Ratios  Common-size income statements Ratio Analysis Table 8.6

32 8-31 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Profitability Ratios  Gross profit margin Ratio Analysis GPM = Gross profit Net sales GPM = $986,000 $3,074,000 = 32.1%

33 8-32 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Profitability Ratios  Operating profit margin Ratio Analysis OPM = EBIT Net sales OPM = $418,000 $3,074,000 = 13.6%

34 8-33 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Profitability Ratios  Net profit margin Ratio Analysis NPM = Net profits after taxes Net sales NPM = $231,000 $3,074,000 = 7.5%

35 8-34 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Profitability Ratios  Return on total assets (ROA) Ratio Analysis ROA = Net profits after taxes Total assets ROA = $231,000 $3,597,000 = 6.4%

36 8-35 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Profitability Ratios  Return on equity (ROE) Ratio Analysis ROE = Net profits after taxes Stockholders’ equity ROE = $231,000 $1,954,000 = 11.8%

37 8-36 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Profitability Ratios  Earnings per share (EPS) Ratio Analysis EPS = Earnings available to common stockholder Number of shares outstanding EPS = $221,000 76,262 = $2.90

38 8-37 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Profitability Ratios  Price earnings (P/E) ratio Ratio Analysis P/E = Market price per share of common stock Earnings per share P/E = $32.25 $2.90 = 11.1

39 8-38 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Profitability Ratios  Market/book (M/B) ratio Ratio Analysis M/B = Market price per share of common stock Book value per share of common stock M/B = $32.25 $23.00 = 1.40

40 8-39 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Summarizing All Ratios Table 8.7 (Panel 1)

41 8-40 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley Summarizing All Ratios Table 8.7 (Panel 2)

42 8-41 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley DuPont System of Analysis The DuPont system is used to dissect the firm’s financial statements and to assess its financial condition. It merges the income statement and balance sheet into two summary measures of profitability: ROA and ROE as shown in Figure 8.2 on the following slide. The top portion focuses on the income statement, and the bottom focuses on the balance sheet. The advantage of the DuPont system is that it allows you to break ROE into a profit-on-sales component, an efficiency-of-asset-use component, and a use-of- leverage component.

43 8-42 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley DuPont System of Analysis Figure 8.2

44 8-43 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley DuPont System of Analysis Figure 8.2 (Panel 1)

45 8-44 Copyright © 2001 Addison-Wesley DuPont System of Analysis Figure 8.2 (Panel 2)

46 Chapter 8 End of Chapter Lawrence J. Gitman Jeff Madura Introduction to Finance


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