Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 2 Financial Statements and Analysis. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 2-2 Learning Goals 1.Review the contents of.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Financial Statements and Analysis. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 2-2 Learning Goals 1.Review the contents of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Financial Statements and Analysis

2 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 2-2 Learning Goals 1.Review the contents of the stockholders’ report and the procedures for consolidating international financial statements. 2.Understand who uses financial ratios, and how. 3.Use ratios to analyze a firm’s liquidity and activity. 4.Discuss the relationship between debt and financial leverage and the ratios used to analyze a firm’s debt.

3 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 2-3 Learning Goals (cont.) 5.Use ratios to analyze a firm’s profitability and market value. 6.Use a summary of financial ratios and the DuPont system of analysis to perform a complete ratio analysis.

4 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 2-4 The Stockholders’ Report The guidelines used to prepare and maintain financial records and reports are known as generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). GAAP is authorized by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, passed to eliminate the many disclosure and conflict of interest problems of corporations, established the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB), which is a not- for-profit corporation that overseas auditors.

5 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 2-5 The Stockholders’ Report (cont.) The PCAOB is charged with protecting the interests of investors and furthering the public interest in the preparation of informative, fair, and independent audit reports. Public corporations with more than $5 million in assets and more than 500 stockholders are required by the SEC to provide their stockholders with an annual stockholders report.

6 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 2-6 The Four Key Financial Statements: The Income Statement The income statement provides a financial summary of a company’s operating results during a specified period. Although they are prepared annually for reporting purposes, they are generally computed monthly by management and quarterly for tax purposes.

7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 2-7 The Four Key Financial Statements

8 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 2-8 The Four Key Financial Statements: The Balance Sheet The balance sheet presents a summary of a firm’s financial position at a given point in time. Assets indicate what the firm owns, equity represents the owners’ investment, and liabilities indicate what the firm has borrowed.

9 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 2-9 The Four Key Financial Statements

10 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved The Four Key Financial Statements (cont.)

11 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved The Four Key Financial Statements: Statement of Retained Earnings The statement of retained earnings reconciles the net income earned and dividends paid during the year, with the change in retained earnings.

12 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved The Four Key Financial Statements

13 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved The Four Key Financial Statements: Statement of Cash Flows The statement of cash flows provides a summary of the cash flows over the period of concern, typically the year just ended. This statement not only provides insight into a company’s investment, financing and operating activities, but also ties together the income statement and previous and current balance sheets.

14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved The Four Key Financial Statements

15 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Consolidating International Financial Statements FASB 52 mandated that U.S. based companies translate their foreign-currency denominated assets and liabilities into dollars using the current rate (translation) method. Under the translation method, companies translate all foreign-currency-denominated assets and liabilities into dollars at the exchange rate prevailing at the fiscal year ending date (the current rate). Income statement items are usually treated similarly.

16 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Consolidating International Financial Statements (cont.) Equity accounts, on the other hand, are translated into dollars by using the exchange rate that prevailed when the parent’s equity investment was made (the historical rate). Retained earnings are adjusted to reflect each year’s operating profits (or losses).

17 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Using Financial Ratios: Interested Parties Ratio analysis involves methods of calculating and interpreting financial ratios to assess a firm’s financial condition and performance. It is of interest to shareholders, creditors, and the firm’s own management.

18 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Using Financial Ratios: Types of Ratio Comparisons Trend or time-series analysis – Used to evaluate a firm’s performance over time

19 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Using Financial Ratios: Types of Ratio Comparisons (cont.) Trend or time-series analysis Cross-sectional analysis – Used to compare different firms at the same point in time

20 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Using Financial Ratios: Types of Ratio Comparisons (cont.) Trend or time-series analysis Cross-sectional analysis – Industry comparative analysis One specific type of cross sectional analysis. Used to compare one firm’s financial performance to the industry’s average performance

21 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Using Financial Ratios: Types of Ratio Comparisons (cont.) Trend or time-series analysis Cross-sectional analysis – Benchmarking A type of cross sectional analysis in which the firm’s ratio values are compared to those of a key competitor or group of competitors that it wishes to emulate

22 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Using Financial Ratios: Types of Ratio Comparisons (cont.) Trend or time-series analysis Cross-sectional analysis Combined Analysis – Combined analysis simply uses a combination of both time series analysis and cross-sectional analysis

23 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Using Financial Ratios: Types of Ratio Comparisons (cont.)

24 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Using Financial Ratios: Types of Ratio Comparisons (cont.)

25 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Using Financial Ratios: Cautions for Doing Ratio Analysis Ratios must be considered together; a single ratio by itself means relatively little. Financial statements that are being compared should be dated at the same point in time. Use audited financial statements when possible. The financial data being compared should have been developed in the same way. Be wary of inflation distortions.

26 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Ratio Analysis Example We will illustrate the use of financial ratios for analyzing financial statements using the Bartlett Company Income Statements and Balance Sheets presented earlier in Tables 2.1 and 2.2.

27 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Current ratio = total current assets total current liabilities Current ratio = $1,233,000 = 1.97 $620,000 Ratio Analysis Liquidity Ratios – Current Ratio

28 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Quick ratio = Total Current Assets - Inventory total current liabilities Quick ratio = $1,233,000 - $289,000= 1.51 $620,000 Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios – Current Ratio – Quick Ratio

29 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold Inventory Inventory Turnover = $2,088,000 = 7.2 $289,000 Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios – Inventory Turnover

30 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Average Age of Inventory = 365 Inventory Turnover Inventory Turnover = 365 = 50.7 days 7.2 Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios – Average Age of Inventory

31 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved ACP = Accounts Receivable Net Sales/365 ACP = $503,000 = 59.7 days $3,074,000/365 Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios – Average Collection Period

32 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved APP = Accounts Payable Annual Purchases/365 APP = $382,000 = 95.4 days (.70 x $2,088,000)/365 Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios – Average Payment Period

33 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Total Asset Turnover= Net Sales Total Assets Total Asset Turnover= $3,074,000 =.85 $3,597,000 Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios – Total Asset Turnover

34 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Insert Table 2.6 here Ratio Analysis (cont.)

35 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Debt Ratio = Total Liabilities/Total Assets Debt Ratio = $1,643,000/$3,597,000 = 45.7% Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios Financial Leverage Ratios – Debt Ratio

36 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Times Interest Earned = EBIT/Interest Times Interest Earned = $418,000/$93,000 = 4.5 Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios Leverage Ratios – Times Interest Earned Ratio

37 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved FPCR = EBIT + Lease Payments Interest + Lease Pymts + {(Princ Pymts + PSD) x [1/(1-t)]} FPCR = $418,000 + $35,000= 1.9 $93,000 + $35,000 + {($71,000 + $10,000) x [1/(1-.29)]} Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios Leverage Ratios – Fixed-Payment coverage Ratio (FPCR)

38 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios Leverage Ratios Profitability Ratios – Common-Size Income Statements

39 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Ratio Analysis (cont.)

40 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved GPM = Gross Profit/Net Sales GPM = $986,000/$3,074,000 = 32.1% Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios Leverage Ratios Profitability Ratios – Gross Profit Margin

41 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved OPM = EBIT/Net Sales OPM = $418,000/$3,074,000 = 13.6% Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios Leverage Ratios Profitability Ratios – Operating Profit Margin (OPM)

42 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved NPM = Earnings Available to Common Stockholders Sales NPM = $221,000/$3,074,000 = 7.2% Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios Leverage Ratios Profitability Ratios – Net Profit Margin (NPM)

43 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved EPS= Earnings Available to Common Stockholders Number of Shares Outstanding EPS = $221,000/76,262 = $2.90 Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios Leverage Ratios Profitability Ratios – Earnings Per Share (EPS)

44 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved ROA= Earnings Available to Common Stockholders Total Assets ROA= $221,000/$3,597,000 = 6.1% Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios Leverage Ratios Profitability Ratios – Return on Total Assets (ROA)

45 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved ROE= $221,000/$1,754,000 = 12.6% ROE= Earnings Available to Common Stockholders Total Equity Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios Leverage Ratios Profitability Ratios – Return on Equity (ROE)

46 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved P/E= Market Price Per Share of Common Stock Earnings Per Share P/E = $32.25/$2.90 = 11.1 Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios Leverage Ratios Profitability Ratios Market Ratios – Price Earnings (P/E) Ratio

47 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved BV/Share = Common Stock Equity Number of Shares of Common Stock BV/Share = $1,754,000/72,262 = $23.00 Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios Leverage Ratios Profitability Ratios Market Ratios – Market/Book (M/B) Ratio

48 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved M/B Ratio = Market Price/Share of Common Stock Book Value/Share of Common Stock M/B Ratio = $32.25/$23.00 = 1.40 Ratio Analysis (cont.) Liquidity Ratios Activity Ratios Leverage Ratios Profitability Ratios Market Ratios – Market/Book (M/B) Ratio

49 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Summarizing All Ratios

50 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Summarizing All Ratios (cont.)

51 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Summarizing All Ratios (cont.)

52 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Summarizing All Ratios (cont.)

53 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved DuPont System of Analysis The DuPont system of analysis is used to dissect the firm’s financial statements and to assess its financial condition. It merges the income statement and balance sheet into two summary measures of profitability: ROA and ROE as shown in the equation below and in Figure 2.2 on the following slide.

54 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved DuPont System of Analysis (cont.)

55 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved Modified DuPont Formula The Modified DuPont Formula relates the firm’s ROA to its ROE using the financial leverage multiplier (FLM), which is the ratio of total assets to common stock equity:

56 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved ROE = 6.1% X 2.06 = 12.6% Modified DuPont Formula (cont.) Use of the FLM to convert ROA into ROE reflects the impact of financial leverage on the owner’s return. Substituting the values for Bartlett Company’s ROA of 6.1 percent calculated earlier, and Bartlett’s FLM of 2.06 ($3,597,000 total assets ÷ $1,754,000 common stock equity) into the Modified DuPont formula yields:


Download ppt "Chapter 2 Financial Statements and Analysis. Copyright © 2006 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 2-2 Learning Goals 1.Review the contents of."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google